Studies of Occidental Constellations and Star Names to the Classical Period: An Annotated Bibliography

Compiled by Gary D. Thompson

Copyright © 2001-2014 by Gary D. Thompson


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Star Maps
References With Extensive Bibliographies
Non-Western Constellations And Star Names

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Star Maps

Books/Pamphlets:

Blume, Dieter., Haffner, Mechthild., and Metzger, Wolfgang. (2012). Sternbilder des Mittelalters. Band 1: 800-1200. [Note: Title in English: Constellations of the Middle Ages. An excellent study. Dieter Blume ist Professor für Kunstgeschichte an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena. Mechthild Haffner war wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin an der Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena und lebt heute in Dresden. Wolfgang Metzger ist wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek in Stuttgart.]

Boll, Franz. (1894). "Studien über Claudius Ptolemäus: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der griechischen Philosophie und Astrologie." In: Hertz, Martin. (Editor). Jahrbücher für classische Philologie. (Supplement, Band 21, Heft 1, Pages 53-244).

Brown, Basil. (1932; Reprinted 1968). Astronomical-Atlases, Maps & Charts. [Note: At times quite uncritical and unreliable regarding facts and references.]

Débarbat, Suzanne. et. al. (Editors). (1988). Mapping the Sky: Past Heritage and Future Directions. [Note: Proceedings of the 133rd Symposium of the International Astronomical Union. An excellent collection of essays. See the (German-language) book review by the astronomer Elana Schilbach in Astronomische Nachrichten, Volume 312, Number 4, May, 1991, Page 277.]

Dekker, Elly. (2013). Illustrating the Phaenomena: Celestial Cartography in Antiquity and the Middle Ages. [Note: The author is an independent scholar. A fabulous book; wonderfully written and packed with information. All extant Western celestial maps and globes made before 1500 are described and analysed in detail. Includes quantitative geometric analysis of numerous maps.]

Grasshoff, Gerd. (1990). The History of Ptolemy's Star Catalogue. [Note: Based on the author's doctoral thesis. See the (English-language) book review by James Evans in Journal for History of Exact Sciences, Volume 43, Pages 133-144.]

Kanas, Nick. (2007, 2nd revised and expanded edition 2012). Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography. [Note: An excellent history of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times (but containing some errors). Nearly 400 pages in length and contains numerous illustrations. Nick Kanas, M.D., is Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. He has been a member of the San Francisco Amateur Astronomers since 1978 and has collected and researched antiquarian celestial books, atlases, and prints for nearly 25 years. He is a member of several map collector societies and has lectured on the history of celestial cartography at scientific and non-scientific meetings of organizations such as the Sydney (Australia) Observatory, the 20th International Conference on the History of Cartography, and the California Map Society.]

Manitius, Karl. (1912-1913). (Editor). Des Claudius Ptolemäus Handbuch der astronomie. (2 Volumes).

Peters, Christian. and Knobel, Eduard. (1915). Ptolemy's Catalogue of Stars. [Note: Still remains an important study. Christian Peters was Director of Hamilton College Observatory and previously Litchfield Professor of Astronomy at Hamilton College. Eduard Knobel was Treasurer and Past President of the Royal Astronomical Society. Life dates for Christian Peters: 1813-1890. Life dates for Eduard Knobel: 1841-?]

Stott, Carole. (1991). Celestial Charts: Antique Maps of the Heavens. [Note: Well illustrated but poorly organised. See the (English-language) book review by Elly Dekker in Annals of Science, Volume 49, Number 6, 1992, Pages 598-599.]

Toomer, Gerald. (1984; Reprinted 1998). Ptolemy's Almagest. [Note: Standard translation of Ptolemy's Almagest.]

Tucker, Hugo., Risi, Andres. and Bandiera, Roberto. (2011). "Identification of astronomical objects in ancient engravings: Malargüe, Mendoza, Argentina. Methodological contributions in archaeoastronomy." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 118-127). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy).]

Warner, Deborah. (1979). The Sky Explored: Celestial Cartography 1500-1800. [Note: Excellent.]

Whitfield, Peter. (1995). The Mapping of the Heavens. [Note: At times uncritical and unreliable. See the (English-language) book review by Robert Hannah in Imago Mundi, Volume 49, 1997, Pages 161-162.]

Articles/Entries:

Berggren, J[?]. [Len]. (1991/1992). "Ptolemy's Maps of Earth and the Heavens: A New Interpretation." (Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Volume 43, Pages 133-144).

Dambis, A[?]. and Efremov, Yu. (2000). "Dating Ptolemy's Star Catalogue Through Proper Motions: the Hipparchan Epoch." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 31, Part 2, May, Pages 115-134).

Dobler, Hermann. (2002). "The Dating of Ptolemy's Star Catalogue." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 33, Pages 265-277).

Dreyer, John. (1917). "On the Origin of Ptolemy's Catalogue of Stars." (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume LXXVII, Pages 528-539).

Dreyer, John. (1918). "On the Origin of Ptolemy's Catalogue of Stars. Second Paper" (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume LXXVIII, Pages 343-349).

Duke, Dennis. (2002). "Dating the Almagest Star Catalogue Using Proper Motions: A Reconsideration." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 33, Pages 45-55). [Note: Dennis Duke is Professor of Physics at the Florida State University.]

Duke, Dennis. (2002). "Associations Between the Ancient Star Catalogues." (Archive for the History of Exact Sciences, Volume 56, Pages 435-450).

Duke, Dennis. (2003). "The Depth of Association Between the Ancient Star Catalogues." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 34, Part 2, May, Number 115, Pages 227-230).

Duke, Dennis. (2002). "Hipparchus' Coordinate System." (Archive for the History of Exact Sciences, Volume 56, Pages 427-433).

Evans, James. (1987). "On the Origin of the Ptolemaic Star Catalogue: Part 1." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 18, Pages 155-172).

Evans, James. (1987). "On the Origin of the Ptolemaic Star Catalogue: Part 2." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 18, Pages 233-278).

Fujiwara, Tomoko. and Yamaoka, Hitoshi. (2005). "Magnitude systems in old star catalogues." (Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 8, Pages 39-47).

George, Abraham. (1997). "Ancient and Medieval Star Catalogues." (Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 32, Number 1, Pages 47-51).

Gingerich, Owen. and Welther, Barbara. (1984). "Some puzzles of Ptolemy's star catalogue." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 67, Pages 421-423).

Grasshoff, Gerd. (1993). "The Babylonian Tradition of Celestial Phenomena and Ptolemy's Fixed Star Calendar." In: Galter, Hannes. and Scholz, Bernhard. (Editors). Die Rolle der Astronomie in den Kulturen Mesopotamiens. (Pages 95-134).

Kanas, Nick. (2008). "Celestial Mapping of the Southern Heavens." (Journal of the International Map Collectors Society, Number 114, Autumn, Pages 7-13).

Knobel, Eduard. (1877). "The Chronology of Star Catalogues." (Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 43, Pages 1-74). [Note: Comprehensive.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "The Astronomer Abu 'I-Husayn al-Sufi and his Book on the Constellations.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (XI, Essay pages 56-81.) [Note: Originally appeared in Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, Band 3, 1986, Pages 56-81.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "Star Catalogues and Star Tables in Medieval Oriental and European Astronomy.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (I, Essay pages113-122.) [Note: Originally appeared in Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 21, 1986, Pages 113-122.]

Kuperjanov, Andres. (circa 2005). "Pseudomythological Constellation Maps." (Electronic Journal of Folklore, Volume 32, Pages 37-62).

MacFarlane, Roger. and Mills, Paul. (2005). "Bright and conspicuous stars in Ptolemy and Hipparchus: On the mistranslation of εκφανης." (Centaurus, Volume 47, Number 2, May, Pages 178-180).

Maeyama, Y[?] (1984). "Ancient Stellar Observations Timocharis, Aristyllus, Hipparchus, Ptolemy - the Dates and Accuracies." (Centaurus, Volume 27, Pages 280-310).

Nadal, Robert. and Brunet, Jean-Paul. (1983/1984). "Le "Commentaire" d'Hipparque I. La sphčre mobile." (Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Volume 29, Pages 201-236). [Note: This article and Part II of such, published 1988/1989, comprise a study of the Commentary on the Phainomena of Aratus and Eudoxus by Hipparchus of Rhodes. David Valls-Gabaud has kindly pointed out that Nadal's first given name is not Rafael (as I previously indicated) but Robert.]

Nadal, Robert. and Brunet, Jean-Paul. (1988/1989). "Le "Commentaire" d'Hipparque II. Position de 78 čtoiles." (Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Volume 39, Pages 305-354).

Rawlins, Dennis. (1982). "An Investigation of the Ancient Star Catalog." (Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volume 94, April, Pages 359-373).

Samso, J[?]. and Castello, F[?]. (1988). "An hypothesis on the epoch of Ptolemy's star catalogue according to the authors of the Alfonsine tables." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 19, Number 2, Pages 115-120).

Schaefer, Bradley. (2001). "The Latitude of the Observer of the Almagest Star Catalogue." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 21, Number 2, Pages 187-201).

Schaefer, Bradley. (2013). "The Thousand Star Magnitudes in the Catalogues of Ptolemy, Al Sufi, and Tycho are All Corrected for Atmospheric Extinction." (Note: Available from ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.1833). 

Shevchenko, M[?]. (1990). "An analysis of errors in the star catalogues of Ptolemy and Ulugh Beg." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 32, Pages 1-42).

Sheynin, Oscar. (1993/1994). "The Treatment of Observations in Early Astronomy." (Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Volume 46, Pages 153-192).

Swerdlow, Noel. (1992). "The Enigma of Ptolemy's Catalogue of Stars." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 23, Number 3, Pages 173-183).

Vogt, Heinrich. (1925). "Versuch einer Wiederherstellung von Hipparchs Fixsternverzeichnis." (Astronomische Nachrichten, Band 224, Number 5354-55, 2-3, Columns 17-54).

Wlodarczyk, Jaroslaw. (1990). "Notes on the Compilation of Ptolemy's Catalogue of Stars." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 21, Number 3, Pages 283-295).


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Bibliographies

Books/Pamphlets:

Böker, Robert. "III Nachtrag von Robert Böker." In: Schott, Albert. and Böker, Robert. (1958). Aratos: Sternbilder und Wetterzeichen, Pages 70-119). [Note: Contains an excellent bibliography and reference list. The outstanding private library of the Leipzig historian of astronomy, Robert Böker, was purchased by the library of the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt. This book collection assembled by Robert Böker now forms the essential core of historical astronomy books held by the library. This great and valuable private collection put together by Robert Böker is historically oriented (although a significant proportion of the astronomy books belonging to other subject groups). Robert Böker was, through his extensive knowledge and independent financial situation, in a fortunate position to acquire valuable books for his collection. Apart from centuries old rare books it contains the more modern pioneering works of Ideler, Unger, Boll, Kugler, and Hommel.]

Borger, Rykle. (1967-1975). Handbuch der Keilschriftliteratur. (3 Volumes). [Note: Exhaustive bibliography of all publications (books and articles) on Assyriology up to circa the mid-1970s. Worth working through for the astronomical references.]

Brown, David. (2000). Mesopotamian Planetary Astronomy-Astrology. (Pages 287-303). [Note: An excellent reference list.]

Gundel. Wilhelm. (1934). Astronomie, Astralreligion, Astralmythologie und Astrologie. Darstellung und Literaturbericht 1907-1933. [Note: Issued as (part of) Conrad Bursian's "Jahresbericht über die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft. Band 243." (Also referred to as Bursian's Jahresbericht.) See the (French-language) book review by Adolphe Rome in L'Antiquité Classique, Tome IV, 1935, Pages 289-290.]

Hunger, Hermann. and Pingree, David. (1999). "Bibliography." In: Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia. (Pages 278-292). [Note: A very comprehensive reference list.]

Kelley, David. and Milone, Gene. (2005). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. [Note: An immense world-wide survey of ancient astronomy. Reliant on secondary sources. Extensive bibliography.  A problem with the book in general is its reliance on secondary sources. At times the sources used are unreliable and as a result numerous topics covered lack reliability.]

Krupp, Ed. (1991). "Bibliography." In: Beyond the Blue Horizon: Myths and Legends of the Sun, Moon, Stars, and Planets. (Pages 343-375). [Note: A very comprehensive reference list relating to astral beliefs.]

Krupp, Ed. (1997). Skywatchers, Shamans and Kings: Astronomy and the Archaeology of Power. [Note: Contains another very comprehensive reference list relating to astral beliefs.]

Neugebauer, Otto. (1975). "Bibliographical Abbreviations." In: A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy. Part Three. (Pages 1165-1203). [Note: A very comprehensive reference list.]

Ness. Lester, (1999). Written in the Stars: Ancient Zodiac Mosaics. (Pages 178-226). [Note: A very comprehensive reference list.]

Selin, Helaine. (Editor). (2000). Astronomy Across Cultures. [Note: A very "uneven and unbalanced" book in its selection and treatment of topics. Usually each contributor lists an extensive bibliography at the end of the chapter. See the (English-language) book review by David Pankenier in Isis, Volume 93, Number 2, June, 2002, Pages 285-286.]

Walker, Christopher. (Additions by Galter, Hannes. and Scholz, Bernhard.). "Bibliography of Babylonian Astronomy and Astrology." In: Galter, Hannes. and Scholz, Bernhard. (1993). Die Rolle der Astronomie in den Kulturen Mesopotamiens. (Pages 407-449). [Note: A very comprehensive reference list. The Dutch astronomer Robert van Gent is developing an even more comprehensive bibliography at his web site.]

Articles/Entries:

Baity, Elizabeth. (1973). "Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy So Far." and "Reply." (Current Anthropology, Volume 14, Number 4, Article references cited pages 423-431, & reply references cited pages 446-449).


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Chinese

Books/Pamphlets:

Academia Sinica. (1978). An Album of Ancient Relics and Documents Connected with Astronomy. [Note: Edited by Institute of Archaeology, Published by Wenwu Chubanshe.]

Ackerman, Phyllis. (1945). Ritual Bonzes of Ancient China. [Note: Unreliable. Numerous excellent photographs. The book is an example of the authors astral interpretation of artifacts. See the restrained (English-language) book review by Wolfram Eberhard in Artibus Asiae, Volume 10, Number 1, 1947, Pages 74-80. The reviewer was an expert Sinologist and concluded that the book was full of erroneous speculation.]

Allan, Sarah. (1991). The Shape of the Turtle: Myth, Art, and Cosmos in Early China. [Note: The author was Lecturer in Chinese at the School of Oriental Studies, London University. See the (English-language) essay book review, "The Shang Cosmos." by Whalen Lai in Taoist Resources, Volume 3, Number 1, July, 1991, Pages 73-81; the (English-language) book reviews by Sinologist David Pankenier in Journal of Chinese Religions, Volume 21, 1993, Pages 131-137; and by William Nienhauser Junior in The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 58, Issue 3, 1 August, 1997, Pages 776-779; and the (French-language) book review by Marc Kalinowski in Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extręme-Orient, Volume 80, Number 1, 1993, Pages 322-326. Note: From late 1997 the journal Taoist Resources was absorbed into the Journal of Chinese Religions.]

Birrell, Anne. (1993). Chinese Mythology: An Introduction.

Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc. and Praderie, Françoise. (2004). "Star Charts on the Silk Road: Astronomical Maps in Ancient China. In: Whitfield, Susan. (Editor). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith.

Carus, Paul. (1907). Chinese Thought. [Note: An abridged edition was published in 1974 (reprinted 1989) with the title Chinese Astrology. See particularly the Chapter: Zodiacs of Different Nations (Pages 84-112 of the abridged edition). Life dates: 1852-1919.]

Chan, Ki-hung. (2002; Enhanced edition 2007). Chinese Ancient Star Map. [Note: Published by - and obtainable from - the Hong Kong Space Museum. Very good.]

Cheng,-Yih, Chen. and Zezong, Xi. (1993). "The Yáo Dian and the Origins of Astronomy in China." In: Ruggles, Clive. and Saunders, Nicholas. (Editors). Astronomies and Cultures. (Chapter 2, Pages 32-66). [Note: Chinese convention places the surname (family name) first and the given name (personal name) next. In listing Chinese names here I have attempted to keep to the Western convention and reversed the "surname-given name" order. Hopefully a Chinese personal name does not mistakenly appear first as a surname.]

Cullen, Christopher. (1996). Astronomy and mathematics in ancient China: the Zhou bi suan jing. [Note: See the (English-language) book reviews by David Pankenier in Journal of Asian Studies, Volume 56, Number 3, August, 1997, Pages 762-763; and in Early China, Volume 25, 2000, Pages 185-203 (specifically pages 189-192).]

Didier, John. (2009). Inside and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 BC - AD 200. (3 Volumes). [Note: Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 192, September, 2009. Lengthy and engrossing doctoral thesis. Volume 1: The Ancient Eurasian World and the Celestial Pivot; Volume 2: Representations and Identities of High Powers in Neolithic and Bronze China; and Volume 3: Terrestrial and Celestial Transformations in Zhou and Early-Imperial China.]

Ecsedy, Ildikó. et. al. (1989). "Antares year in ancient China." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 183-185). [Note: See: "In memoriam Ildikó (Hilda) Ecsedy (1938-2004." by Gergely Salát (Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Volume 57, Number 3, 12 October 2004, Pages 363-365).]

Ecsedy, Ildikó. and Barlai, Katalin. (1993). "Astronomy in the ancient written sources of the Far East." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in the 1990s." (Pages 123-127). [Note: A paper presented at Oxford III, 1990.]

Feuchtwang, Stephan. (1974). An Anthropological Analysis of Chinese Geomancy. [Note: An unrevised reprint of the author's 1965 M.A. Thesis, University of London. See: "Hsiu, stars and constellations," Pages 80-89.]

Harley, John. (Editor). (1992- ). The History of Cartography. [Note: In Volume 2  (Volume 2, Book 2) F. Richard Stephenson and Kazuhiko Miyajima provide excellent chapters on celestial mapping in East Asia.]

Ho, Peng Yoke. (1977). Modern scholarship on the history of Chinese astronomy. [Note: Bibliographical booklet containing numerous references on Chinese star and constellation names.]

Jobes, Gertrude. and Jobes, James. (1964). "The Skies of China." In: Jobes, Gertrude. and Jobes, James. Outer Space: Myths, Name Meanings, Calendars from the Emergence of History to the Present Day. (Chapter X, Pages 391-407).

Kelley, David. and Milone, Gene. (2005). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. [Note: See the section "Chinese Constellations and Asterisms," Pages 322-326.  A problem with the book in general is its reliance on secondary sources. At times the sources used are unreliable and as a result numerous topics covered lack reliability.]

Kistemaker, J[?]. and Zhengzong, Y[?]. (1988). "A New Approach to Traditional Chinese Astronomy." In: Debarbat, Suzanne. et. al. (Editors). Mapping the Sky: Past Heritage and Future Directions. (Pages 23-28). [Note: 1987 Symposium Proceedings.]

Krupp, Ed. (1989). "The cosmic temples of Old Beijing." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 65-75).

Krupp, Edwin. (2005). "The Color of Cosmic Order." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 9-20). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers. See the (English-language) book review by Michael Hoskin in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 37, Part 1, February, 2006, Number 126, Page 115.]

Lan-ying Tseng, Lillian. (2003). "Visual Replication and Political Persuasion: The Celestial Image in Yuan Yi's Tomb" In: Hung, Wu. (Editor). Between Han and Tang: Visual and Material Culture in a Transformative Period. (Pages 377-424). [Note: Excellent article on early Chinese cosmology.]

Loewe, Michael. (1994; Reprinted 2008). Divination, Mythology and Monarchy in Han China.

Lübke, Anton. (1931). Der Himmel der Chinesen. [Note: Encompasses astronomy, astral beliefs, and constellations and star names.]

Maeder, Stefan. (2011). "The Big Dipper, Sword, Snake and Turtle: Four Constellations as Indicators of the Ecliptic Pole in Ancient China." In: Nakamura, T. et al. (Editors). Mapping the Sky. (Pages 57-63). [Note: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Oriental Astronomy. Tokyo, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The author is with the Kokugakuin University Research Center for Traditional Culture, Tokyo, Japan  Abstract: "The findings outlined in this paper occurred in the course of an international archaeological survey focusing on early representations and accounts of the Big Dipper asterism in Ursa Major. They encompass the tentative identification of three ancient Chinese constellations, namely the sword, the snake and the turtle, which—together with the Big Dipper—surround the pole of the ecliptic at even distances from each other and from the pole itself. In fact they form a cross shape with the ecliptic pole at its center. The sword-constellation consists of the central stars of Cygnus (without the outer 'wing'-stars). The snake-constellation contains Corona Borealis as the distinct central coil, the four northern stars of Hercules as its head and the three northern stars of Bootes as its tail. The head, shell and tail of the turtle-constellation are accurately matched by the six major stars of Cassiopeia, the feet by two stars immediately south of the celestial W-shape. These representations are found on charm-amulet coins whose obverse script is based on currency coins first issued by the later Han-period (206 B.C.–220 A.D.) without the symbols on the back. Whether the symbols on the reverse side of the coins were added already contemporary with their use as currency or later is as yet an unsettled matter. The representations are all rendered mirror inverted including the angle towards each other and towards the center of the coin. They point towards an independent undercurrent in Chinese astronomy/astrology during the first centuries A.D. which may provide a new impulse for research into the history of art and religion not only in China itself, but also in the countries influenced by its cultural achievements."]

Maeyama, Yasukatsu. (1977). "The oldest catalogue of China, Shih Shen's Hsing Ching." In: Maeyama, Yasukatsu. and Saltzer, Walter. (Editors). Prismata: Naturwissenschaftsgeschichtliche Studien. [Note: Festschrift für Willy Hartner. See pages 211-245.]

Maeyama, Yasukatsu. (2003). "The Two Supreme Stars, Thien-i and Thai-i, and the Foundation of the Purple Palace." In: Ansari, S[hahabuddin?]. (Editor). History of Oriental Astronomy. (Pages 3-18).

Major, John. (1993). Heaven and Earth in Early Han Thought. [Note: A translation and commentary on Chapters Three, Four, and Five of the Huainanzi. Basically a discussion of early Chinese astral beliefs. The book is based on the authors doctoral dissertation.]

Morrison, Robert (1815-1822/1816-1823, Reprinted 1865) A Dictionary of the Chinese Language. [Note: A Dictionary of the Chinese Language by Robert Morrison (comprising 3 parts and originally published in 6 volumes - some sources confuse 3 parts with 3 volumes) includes as an annex a list of Chinese star names and constellations (arranged alphabetically) made by John Reeves in 1819. (Volume 1, Part 1 was published in 1816, not 1815 as appears in the book. Part 1, follows the Imperial Chinese Dictionary made in 1714 (Kang-he's/Kangxi's dictionary), and contains 40,000 words.) Morrison was sent to China in 1807 by the London Missionary Society. His work on a Chinese dictionary was 1 of 3 tasks set for him by the London Missionary Society. Due to lack of time the dictionary is incomplete and was unrevised before being printed. Reeve's list (made at the request of Morrison) was the first listing of Chinese star names in the English language. It is widely referred by later works, most notably William's work on Chinese comets sightings, and Schlegel's work on Chinese uranography. According to Pierre Dessemontet (Hastro-L, May 4, 2011) most of the Chinese star names which have made it into our contemporary star name lists ultimately came from Reeve's list in Morrison's dictionary, as they very often take the form which is mentioned in Morrison's dictionary. Reeve's material for compiling his list of stars and constellations were: the 31st volume of the Book of the "Leŭh; Lëїh, Yuen, Yuen," a somewhat lengthy compilation in one hundred volumes, published in the reign of Kang He/Kang Hi with Jesuit assistance; Bardin family (London) 18-inch celestial globes; Johann Bode's celestial atlas, Uranographia (1801); and 2 Planispheres constructed by the Flemish Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688) who was part of the Jesuit Society China mission. Life dates: 1782-1834.]

Needham, Joseph. and Ling, Wang. (1959, Reprinted 1970, and 1972). "The Sciences of the Heavens." In: Science and Civilization in China, Volume III. (Pages 171-494). [Note: Forms Chapter 20 of the set of volumes. See especially pages 229-283. See also the (German-language) book review by W[?]. Eichhorn in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Sechsundfünfzigster Jahrgang, 19161, Number 5/6, Columns 306-310.]

Needham, Joseph. (1974). "Astronomy in ancient and medieval China." In: Hodgson, Frank. (Editor). The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World. (Pages 67-82).

Xiaochun, Sun,. Shuren, Bo., and Kistemaker, Jacob. (1993). "The Tian Wen Hui Chao Star Catalogue of the Early Ming." In: Nha, I.-S., and Stephenson, F[?]. (Editors). Oriental Astronomy from Guo Shoujing to King Sejong. [Note: Proceedings of an International Conference Seoul, Korea, 6-11 October 1993.]

Nivison, David. (1989). "The origin of the Chinese lunar lodge system." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 276-288).

Pankenier, David. (2005). "Astronomy and Astrology in Ancient China." In: Mair, Victor., Goldin, Paul., and Steinhardt, Nancy. (Editors). Hawaii Reader in Traditional Chinese Culture. (Pages 18-27). [Note: See the (English-language) review by Endymion Wilkinson in China Review International, Volume 12, Number 2, Fall, 2005, Pages 515-520. An earlier edition of the book, edited by Victor Mair, appeared in 2003. (Any publication associated with Victor Mair is always worth reading.) Pankenier's article contains excellent examples of Chinese astronomical mythology. The sinologist David Pankenier is currently (2010) Professor of Modern Languages & Literatures at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and is a leading expert on ancient Chinese astronomy, astrology, and astral lore. He has been at Lehigh University since 1986. From his Personal History page posted at Lehigh University website (2010): " I'm perhaps best known for my research focusing on the connection between astronomical phenomena and epoch-making political and military events in ancient China. The awe-inspiring presence of the sky has left its imprint on human culture at all times and in all places. It is only comparatively recently that we have managed to construct an artificial environment around ourselves. While insulating us from the elements and enabling our modern lifestyle, artificial surroundings also isolate us from the sky to an unprecedented degree. The result has been an impoverished understanding of the rhythms of nature, as well a lack of appreciation for how profoundly astronomical phenomena have influenced domains as disparate as art, myth, cosmology, calendars, literature, politics, and the built environment. My current research interests range from the history of ideas in ancient China, to cultural astronomy, to contemporary Chinese affairs. I have published (with Xu Zhentao and Jiang Yaotiao) two volumes of translations of many hundreds of ancient Chinese astronomical observations, a collection of my own research articles in Chinese, as well as numerous articles on ancient Chinese chronology, cosmology, classical literature, and intellectual history." Regarding the editors. Victor Mair is professor of Asian and Middle Eastern studies at the University of Pennsylvania. Nancy Steinhardt is professor of East Asian art at the University of Pennsylvania and curator of Chinese art at the University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Paul Goldin is associate professor of Chinese thought at the University of Pennsylvania.]

Pankenier, David., Liu, Ciyuan., and de Meis, Salvo. "Locating true north in ancient China." In: Proceedings of the Oxford VIII (SEAC 15) international conference on archaeoastronomy” (July, 2007).

Pankenier, David. (2010). "‘Getting ‘Right’ with Heaven and the Origins of Writing in China." In: Li, F. and Branner, D. (Editors). Writing and Literacy in Early China. (Pages 13-48).

Pankenier, David. (2011). "The cosmic center in Early China and its archaic resonances." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 298-307). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy).]

Pankenier, David. (2013) Astrology and Cosmology in Early China: Conforming Earth to Heaven. [Note: Professor (with tenure), Department of Modern Languages & Literatures, Lehigh University, College of Arts and Sciences. Education: Stanford University, M.A. Chinese 1979, PhD Asian Languages 1983, 1974-75 Private study with Aisin Gioro Yü-yün, Taipei, Taiwan, 1975-77 University of Stockholm, fil. kand. Chinese, 1972 University of Stockholm, Sweden. Interests: The role of the "celestial" in ancient China, in archaeology, astrology, cosmology, ideology, and myth. Research focus on his belief in the connection between astronomical phenomena and epoch-making political and military events in ancient China, and how profoundly astronomical phenomena have influenced domains as disparate as art, myth, cosmology, calendars, literature, politics, and the built environment. However, it has been pointed out that many of Pankenier's arguments can be speculative, based on a limited range of clues and even concepts from later eras. Pankenier describes (page 3) de Santillana and von Dechend's Hamlet's Mill as "controversial but inspired." The book has been controversial but its weaknesses are readily evident; it offers no original inspiration but merely a repetition of Panbabylonism. Pankenier's key belief (the 'linchpin' of the book (see page 12) is there a link between multiple planetary groupings (especially five planets in close proximity) with dynastic transitions and the notion of the ruler's 'mandate of heaven'. In Chapter 6, 'The Cosmo-Political Mandate,' Pankenier widens and deepens the scope of his theory. See the (English-language) book review by Daniel Patrick Morgan (CNRS – Université Paris Diderot) in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Volume 77, Issue 2, June, 2014, Pages 404-406.]

Porter, Deborah. (1996). From Deluge to Discourse: Myth, History, and the Generation of Chinese Tradition. [Note: A fascinating astronomical interpretation of aspects of early Chinese mythology based on a 'Hamlet's Mill approach.' According to Deborah Porter the Mu Tianzi zhuan/Mu T'ien-tzu chuan account of king Mu's journey and associated flood mythology is not a contemporary account but a fictional account that is dated to the 4th-century BCE (Warring States period 481-221 BCE). The flood mythology originates from precession making the seasonal function of a particular constellation obsolete. The flood mythology is an anxious response to the shifting of the equinoxes to the then inexplicable effects of precession. (The Chinese flood myth tales mostly centre on the earlier sage-king Yu. They are origin tales.) Marl Lewis, in his book, The Flood Myths of China (2006), also examines the Mu Tianzi zhuan/Mu T'ien-tzu chuan account of king Mu's journey and associated flood mythology and interprets the story in terms of political mythology. Deborah Porter is greatly influenced by the ideas of the sinologist David Pankenier who also believes in a 'Hamlet's Mill approach' to Chinese and other mythology. Deborah Porter is one of a number of sinologists and others who believe the Chinese were well aware of the effects of precession prior to its actual discovery in China. This conclusion is evident from some surviving records from the Han period and also the content of some particular mythology from this period. The earliest tentative awareness of precession in China took hold in the Hou Han (= later Han) period. (The later Han period is also now referred to as the Eastern Han Dynasty and spanned from 25 CE to 220 CE.) During this period it was quite widely recognised that the calendar altered (i.e., became unreliable) every 300 years. That is, every 300 years there was a requirement to use a new calendar. Multiple mentions of the fact that the calendar was only good for 300 years appears in the multiple volumes of the Hou Hanshu (= Book of the Later Han) by the historian Fan Ye (flourished 398-445 CE). The discovery of the precession of the equinoxes in China can be attributed to the scholar Yü Hsi (flourished circa 307-338 CE) circa 320 CE who discussed it in his book, the An Thien Lun written 336 CE. (The book discussed whether the motions of the heavens were stable.) Yü Hsi obtained a value of about 1 degree in 50 tropic years for the precessional movement. The brilliant scholar Zu Chongzi (420-500 CE) created the Daming Calendar (some sources say promoted his father's calendar ) which took precession into account for the first time. The most thorough and comprehensive calendar in the history of China was the Dayan Calendar compiled in the Tang Dynasty (616-907 CE) by the monk Yi Xing. Deborah Porter has a PhD (Princeton University, 1989); her doctoral dissertation was titled: The Style of Shui-hu chuan. She was Assistant Professor, Department of Foreign Languages and Literature, University of Utah, 1989-1996; Associate Professor, 1996-2002. See the favourable (English-language) book reviews by William Nienhauser, Junior (University of Wisconsin) in The Journal of Asian Studies , Volume 56, Number 3, August, 1997, Pages 776-779; and by Stephen Field (Trinity University) in Philosophy East and West, Volume 48, Number 2, April, 1998, Pages 363-366. See also the (English-language) book reviews by Kazuo Matsumura (Tenri University) in Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 57, Number 1, Summer, 1997, Pages 161-163 (sometimes given as Pages 102-104); and by Patricia Sieber in China Review International, Volume 6, Number 2, Fall, 1999, Pages 518-520.]

Reeves, John. (1819). Chinese Names of Stars and Constellations, Collected at the Request of Dr Morrison for his Chinese Dictionary. [Note: Published in Canton, China. Reeve's list (made at the request of Robert Morrison) was the first listing of Chinese star names in the English language. It is widely referred by later works, most notably William's work on Chinese comets sightings, and Schlegel's work on Chinese uranography. According to Pierre Dessemontet (Hastro-L, May 4, 2011) most of the Chinese star names which have made it into our contemporary star name lists ultimately came from Reeve's list in Morrison's dictionary, as they very often take the form which is mentioned in Morrison's dictionary. Reeve's material for compiling his list of stars and constellations were: the 31st volume of the Book of the "Leŭh; Lëїh, Yuen, Yuen," a somewhat lengthy compilation in one hundred volumes, published in the reign of Kang He/Kang Hi with Jesuit assistance; Bardin family (London) 18-inch celestial globes; Johann Bode's celestial atlas, Uranographia (1801); and 2 Planispheres constructed by the Flemish Jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest (1623-1688) who was part of the Jesuit Society China mission.]

Ronan, Colin. (1996). "Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan." In: Walker, Christopher. (Editor). Astronomy before the Telescope. (Pages 245-268). [Note: See the (English-language) book review by John Perdrix in Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 1, 1998, Page 92.]

Rufus, Will. and Tien, Hsing-chih. (1945). The Soochow astronomical chart. [Note: A booklet of some 30 pages. Will Rufus (W. Carl Rufus) taught mathematics and astronomy for several years in Korea. He twice joined the University of Michigan Detroit Observatory as Acting Director and remained the second time until his retirement in 1945. Life dates for Will Rufus: 1876-1946. See the (English-language) book reviews by ? in Popular Astronomy Volume 54, December, 1946, Pages ?-?; by Obed Johnson in The Far Eastern Quarterly Review, Volume 6, Number 3, 1946 [published May, 1947], Pages 306-307; and by the astronomer Alexander Pogo in Science, Volume 106, Issue 2749, September, 1947, Pages 227-228.]

de Saussure, Léopold. (1909; Reprinted 1930, and 1967). Les Origines de l'Astronomie Chinoise. [Note: A selection of the authors essays which originally appeared in the periodical T'oung-pao. Includes frequent discussions of Chinese constellations and star names. There are several reprint versions of the original 1909 book which comprised 594 pages. The 1930 reprint reproduces the 594 pages of the 1909 edition. The (standard) 1967 reprint of over 600 pages includes a 1932 book review by the astronomer Alexander Pogo in the journal Isis (and a list of Saussure's writings by Paul Pelliott which appeared in T'oung-pao in 1926). However, there was also a 1967 reprint published as 438 pages, two lengthy essays in the 1909 edition being removed ("Le Texte astronomique du Yao-Tien" and "Le zodiaque lunaire"), and without the inclusion of the book review by Alexander Pogo, and the Saussure bibliography by Pelliott. Léopold de Saussure believed that Mesopotamian astronomy reached China at a date preceding 2000 BCE. The author, a member of an illustrious Swiss family of scholars, was a linguist, French naval officer (Naval Lieutenant) and expert navigator (and astronomer) who visited China and stayed after becoming fascinated with aspects of Chinese civilization. He was considered to be an expert Sinologist (and expert historian of Chinese astronomy). Unfortunately his studies of Chinese astronomy were still incomplete at the time of his early death. In matters of dating Saussure's essays can be grossly misleading. See the (French-language) biography by Raymond de Saussure in Isis, Volume XXVII, Number 1, 1937, Pages 286-293. A list of Saussure's writings by Paul Pelliott which appeared in T'oung-pao in 1926 appears on pages 294-297. Life dates: 1866-1925.]

Schaefer, Bradley. (2000). "Date and Place of the Asian Lunar Lodge System." In: Esteban, César. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors). Astronomy and Cultural Diversity: Proceedings of the International conference "Oxford VI & SEAC 99." (Pages 283-288).

Schafer, Edward. (1977). Pacing the Void: T'ang Approaches to the Stars. [Note: An excellent book that encompasses astronomy, astral beliefs, and constellations and star names. The author was Agassiz Professor of Oriental Languages at the University of California, Berkeley. See the (English-language) book reviews by Nathan Sivan in Archaeoastronomy: The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 2, Number 3, Summer, 1979, Pages 20-21; and by Charles Benn in Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, and Reviews (CLEAR), Volume 2, Number 2, July, 1980, Pages 281-284. See the (English-language) obituary, "In Memoriam" in Taoist Resources, Volume 3, Number 1, July, 1991, Pages 97-99.]

Schlegel, Gustaaf. [Gustave.] (1875, Reprinted 1967). Uranographie Chinoise. (2 Volumes). [Note: A pioneering study. Still good for its description of each Chinese constellation. The book is still the most extensive commentary on Chinese constellations. The book includes identification of individual stars, and analysis of beliefs and stories connected with those stars. The author correlated 760 Chinese star names with those used in Western astronomy. The aim of the book was to prove the high antiquity of the Chinese people. Schlegel was also the Interpreter for the Chinese language to the Government of Netherlands-India (Dutch East Indies). The author believed the origin of the Chinese constellations could be dated back to circa 15,600 BCE and that the Chinese constellation system was the origin of all other constellation systems. (Schlegel tried to demonstrate correspondences between Greek and Chinese constellation names. He also made comparisons between the Chinese Hsiu system and Egyptian decan system. One comparison made was the Chinese Hsing Ching, or 'Celestial Prison' in the stars forming the constellation Aries, is shown on Egyptian planispheres as occupied by a man in chains.) The idea was a huge flood and inundation had wiped out a (Chinese) culture belonging to the era of circa 15,000 BCE (but remnants of their astronomical knowledge survived). This dating by Schlegel is completely contradicted by the archaeological evidence. (According to Julius Staal the German Sinologist Günter Kunert supported Schlegel's ideas.) The studies of Chinese astronomy by Léopold de Saussure do not support Schlegel's ideas. Life dates: 1840-1903. Julius Staal, a planetarium director (died 1986), supported the ideas of Schlegel on the early origins of the Chinese constellations but this position is not tenable. In the 1970s(?) and 1980s(?) Julius Staal translated both volumes into English but his translation was never published. A summary did appear as Stars of Jade: Astronomy and Star Lore of Very Ancient Imperial China (1984). Notice of the book extracted from The Babylonian & Oriental Record, Volume 5, 1891, Page 84: "Some twenty years ago at Batavia, the learned author supposed that the unexplained peculiarity of the Chinese Zodiac, (where the winter constellations are figured in summer, those of spring in autumn and vice-versa) was a survival of a remote time when, by the precession of the equinoxes, such may have been the case astronomically, viz. eighteen thousand years ago. The result of his efforts was a monumental work : Uranographie Chinoise, … (Leide, 1875, … 929 pp. and atlas) full of astronomical knowledge, and of Chinese folk-lore and history. With a good deal of far-fetching and over stretching evidence, an apparent correspondence is shown therein between a symbolism inferred from the dangerous store of Chinese ideographs and folk-lore of all periods and provinces, and the requirements of the theory for the periods of 17000 and 14700 years B.C., but not for subsequent times. The work is a marvel of ingenuity. But though it was variously appreciated by critics and praised for its display of Chinese erudition, the feeling of scholars about this theory remained that something was wrong somewhere. We cannot enter here into lengthy details but the facts which are fatal to the theory are the following : (1) It requires some hours of astronomical observation contrary to Chinese tradition ; (2) there is a complete silence of historical traditions on the matter, and there is in the work an unexplained gap of 12000 years ; (3) it would require the unaltered survival of early symbolism during some 11000 years, in so fleeting a thing as folklore, without the art of writing, and against the ocular evidence of its unfitness in the subsequent centuries ; (4) The symbolism advocated rests on unclassified and uncriticised authorities ; and finally (5) It does not explain the Chinese arrangement spring, winter, autumn and summer. There are several other reasons, such as the disparition of the ancient desert theory, and the greater knowledge of Chaldean astronomy and civilisation, which, since 1876, have contributed to make the theory untenable."]

Sivin, Nathan. (2009). Granting the Seasons: The Chinese Astronomical Reform of 1280, With a Study of its Many Dimensions and an Annotated Translation of its Records. [Note: A more wide-ranging study of the history of Chinese astronomy than its title suggests. Expert information on the system of 28 lunar lodges.]

Soothill, William. (1951). The Hall of Light: a Study of Early Chinese Kingship. [Note: Includes an excellent discussion of some Chinese astral beliefs. The author was a missionary and educator in China for many years. He was Professor of Chinese Language and Literature at at the University of Oxford from 1920-1935. Life dates: 1861-1935.]

Staal, Julius. (1984, Reprinted 2000 (by another company)). Stars of Jade: Astronomy and Star Lore of Very Ancient Imperial China. [Note: Basically an English-language summary of Gustaaf Schlegel's Uranographie Chinoise. Also included was additional information from unspecified sources. Because Staal chose to follow the impossible interpretations/conclusions of Schlegel (and ignore the work of Saussure and Needham) the book is unscholarly. British astronomer (naturalised citizen) and planetarium director. Considered an authority on star-lore. Mitzi Adams (who worked at Fernbank Science Centre for nearly 2 decades) has kindly advised/corrected me that prior to his death Julius Staal had retired from his position at the Fernbank Planetarium (Atlanta, USA) and at the time of his death had been working at the Delafield Planetarium of Agnes Scott College (Decatur, Georgia). Staal used a Zeiss planetarium projector to explore Gustaaf Schelegel's ideas that some Chinese constellations date to 15,600 BCE. The results are contained in his book The Stars of Jade. The book contains a fold-out map of the sky precessed back to circa 15,000 BCE. To write the book he translated the 2-volumes of Uranographie Chinoise by Gustaaf Schlegel into English. He then researched/reproduced its contents in the Fernbank Science Center Planetarium (Atlanta, Georgia), with a Zeiss planetarium. Kris McCall, when Assistant Director (now - 2010 - Director) at Sudekum Planetarium, Nashville, in 1987-1990, produced the slide-based planetarium show the 'Stars of Jade." It was sold to several other planetariums. The "Stars of Jade" planetarium show was still being run at the Moody Planetarium in Museum of Texas Tech, Lubbock, as late as 1999. Since Staal's death several persons have taken up his ideas . See: GLPA [Great Lakes Planetarium Association] Conference Proceedings: 1996; "Revisiting Julius Staal's Work On Ancient Chinese Constellations." Bishop, Jeanne[Jean?] (1996). Abstract: "Some Chinese constellations probably were created as early as 15,000 BC. Using the Starlab Detailed Constellation Cylinder and the Four Beasts Cylinder, I will discuss the evolution of Chinese constellations and how they were used. This work is based on the books of the late planetarian/sinologist Julius Staal." (Note: Staal was not a sinologist.) In 1997 the planetarium director Jean Bishop contributed a paper to the 109th Annual Meeting of The Astronomical Society of the Pacific on the hypothesis of the great age of the four large Chinese seasonal figures: the blue dragon of spring, the red bird of summer, the white tiger of autumn, and the black tortoise of winter. At the time of his death Staal had almost completed his manuscript of T'ien-Chung-Sing: Celestial Chinese Constellations (a pictorial star atlas which still remains unfinished and unpublished) which was to be an addendum to his Stars of Jade. Staal was born in Batavia, Netherlands East Indies (Jakarta, Indonesia). He began his career in planetariums prior to World War II working at the Sijthoff Planetarium (the original planetarium dome, housing a Zeiss-Planetarium) in The Hague, Netherlands. It was built in 1934 with financing by the Sijthoff family and the ownership passed down through the family. It had a cupola 36 feet (= 11 metres) in diameter and seating for 175 people. It was destroyed by fire in 1976 (a number of sources state 1975). Immediately after the fire a new modern planetarium, part of what was called the Omniversum, was built. (I am grateful to Robert van Gent for bringing a number of these details to my attention.) Following World War II he immigrated from Holland to England, became a British citizen, also secured a position at the London Planetarium, and was accepted as a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, London. In 1960, he joined the staff of the Planetarium of Witswatersrand (Johannesburg) and the faculty of the University of Rhodesia. By 1963 at least he was Assistant-Director. Subsequent travels took him back to England, then to the United States, where he opened planetariums in New Orleans, Louisiana; Atlanta, Georgia; and Decatur, Georgia. Circa mid 1960's (at least by 1968) he was a planetarium instructor at the Fernbank Science Centre (along with John Burgess). (Staal was closely connected with the Fernbank Science Center from 1967 to 1978.) His book Patterns in the Stars was a popular planetarium reference book on the constellations. He died aged 68 after a long illness. See the (English-language) "In Memorium" by Jane Hastings in The Planetarium, Volumes 15-16, 1986, Page 42; and the brief (English-language) obituary by Ed. Krupp in The Griffith Observer, Volume 51-52, 1987. Used copies can vary widely in price. My first copy cost US$220; my second copy (2 years later) US$20. Life dates: 1917-1986.]

Stephenson, F[?]. (1988). "Oriental Star Maps." In: Debarbat, Suzanne. et. al. (Editors). Mapping the Sky: Past Heritage and Future Directions. (Pages 11-22). [Note: 1987 Symposium Proceedings.]

Stephenson, F[?]. (1994). "Chinese and Korean Star Maps and Catalogs." In: Harley, John. and Woodward, David. (Editors). The History of Cartography. Volume 2, Book 2: Cartography in the traditional East and Southeast Asian societies. [Note: See pages 511-578].

Wang, Aihe. (2000). Cosmology and Political Culture in Early China. [Note: An excellent discussion of early Chinese astral beliefs connected to the formative stages of Chinese culture and political history. The author is an assistant professor in the department of history at Purdue University. See the (English-language) book review by Nathan Sivin in China Review International, Volume 8, Number 2, Fall, 2001, Pages 566-572.]

Wheatley, Paul. (1971). The Pivot of the Four Quarters: A Preliminary Enquiry into the Origins and Character of the Ancient Chinese City. [Note: The author was an urban geographer. The author examines the cosmological-magical symbolism of the Chinese city as an axis mundi. Recently this idea has been the subject of considerable criticism. See the (English-language) book reviews by Wolfram Eberhard in The Journal of Asian Studies, Volume XXXI, Number 1, November 1971, Pages 641-643; by L[ouise?] Young in Anthropos, Volume 68, 1973, Pages 645-647; by Michael Loewe in Modern Asian Studies, Volume 7, 1973, Pages 288-291; by Clifton Pannell in The Geographical Review, Volume LXIII, 1973, Pages 427-428; and by Paul Gustafson in Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Volume 15, 1976, Pages 209-212. See also: "Paul Wheatley, an Appreciation." by Clifton Pannell in Urban Geography, Volume 21, Number 3, 2000, Pages 271-275; and "In Memoriam: Paul Wheatley, 1921-1999." by Brian Berry and Donald Dahmann in Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 91, Number 4, December, 2001, Pages 734-747. Life dates: 1921-1999.]

Whitfield, Susan. (2004). The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. [Note: Contains excellent material on the Chinese constellations/asterisms.]

Williams, Charles. (3rd revised edition 1941, 1st edition 1931, 2nd revised edition 1932 and 1933, reprinted 1960, 1961, 1974, 1976, and 1988). "Stars." In: Outlines of Chinese Symbolism and Art Motives. [Note: See pages 365-374. The author spent a life-time in China and was an expert Sinologist. Life dates: 1884-?]

Williams, John. (1871; Reprinted 1987 and 2000). Observations of Comets, from B.C. 611 to A.D. 1640. Extracted from the Chinese Annals. [Note: Contains a large amount of information on Chinese star names and constellations. The author was a missionary to China and an amateur Sinologist who was best known for his studies of the records of astronomical events in Chinese historical sources. Life dates: 1797-1874.]

Xiaochun, Sun. and Jing, Tian. (1993). "On the observation time of Shi Shen's star catalogue." (Proceedings Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Volume 96, Number 4, Pages 503-511). [Note: Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen = Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.]

Xiaochun, Sun. and Shuren, Bo. (1993). "The Tian Wen Hui Chao Star Catalogue of the Early Ming." In: Nha, Il-Seong. and Stephenson, Francis. (Editors). Oriental Astronomy form Guo Shoujing to King Sejong. (Pages 275-282). [Note: A short note on one of the editors. The astronomer (and historian of astronomy) Il-Seong [= Song] Nha is, since his retirement from Yonsei University, now honoured as Professor Emeritius at Yonsei University, Korea. He was Director of the Yonsei University Observatory. Life dates: 1932- .]

Xiaochun, Sun. and Kistemaker, Jacob. (1995). "The Ecliptic in Han times and in Ptolemaic Astronomy." In: Hashimoto, Keizo., Jami, Catherine. and Skar, Lowell. (Editors). East Asian Science: Tradition and Beyond. (Pahes 65-72). [Note: Papers from the Seventh International Conference the History of Science in East Asia, Kyoto, 2-7 August, 1993.]

Xiaochun, Sun. and Kistemaker, Jacob. (1997). The Chinese Sky during the Han: Constellating Stars and Society. [Note: An excellent study which reconstructs the Chinese sky circa 100 BCE. Sun Xiaochun and Jacob Kistemaker (page 96) make an enormous error with the claim that we know the names of some 70 Sumerian constellations dating from about 2300 BCE. See the (English-language) book reviews by David Pankenier in Early China, Volume 25, 2000, Pages 185-203 (specifically pages 192-203); and by Cheng-Yih Chen in Isis, Volume 91, Number 1, March, 2000, Pages 145-147; and the (French-language) book review by Marc Kalinowski in Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extręme-Orient, Tome 84, 1997, Pages 497-502.]

Xiaochun, Sun. (1997). "Stars in Chinese Science." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. (Pages 908-910).

Xiaochun, Sun. (2000). "Crossing the Boundaries between Heaven and Man: Astronomy in Ancient China." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Culture: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. (Pages 423-454).

Xiaochun, Sun. (2001). "On the Star Catalogue and Atlas of Chongzhen Lishu." In: Jami, Catherine., Engelfriet, Peter., and Blue, Gregory. (Editors). Statecraft and Intellectual Renewal in Late Ming China. (Pages 311-320).

Yampolsky, Philip. (1950). "The Origin of the Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions." (Osiris, Volumen Nonum [Volume 9], Pages 62-83). [Note: Presentation of opinions for the origin of the system of lunar mansions found in China, India, and Arabia.]

Yoke, Ho Peng. (1966). The Astronomical Chapters of The Chin Shu. [Note: The book is a revision of the authors doctoral dissertation.]

Articles/Entries:

Ahn, S-H. (2012). "Identification of stars in a J1744.0 star catalogue Yixiangkaocheng." (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 422, Issue 2, May, Pages 913-925).

Anon. (1889). "Star Names Amongst the Ancient Chinese." (Nature, Volume XXXIX, November 1888 to April 1889, January 24, Pages 309-310). [Note: A discussion of the two articles on ancient Chinese star names by Joseph Edkins in The China Review in 1888.]

Anon. (1930). "The Oldest Known Star Catalogue." (Nature, Volume CXXV [125], January 1930 to June 1930, Number 3162, June 7, Page 870).

Bennett, Steven. (1978). "Patterns of the Sky and Earth: A Chinese Science of Applied Cosmology." (Chinese Science, Number 3, Pages ?-?).

Bezold, Carl. (1919-1920). "Sze-Ma Ts'ien und die babylonische Astrologie." (Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, Band 8 (Achter Jahrgang), Pages 42-49). [Note: The author discusses the possibility of the influence of Babylonian astronomy on China.]

Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc., Praderie, Françoise. and Whitfield, Susan. (2009). "The Dunhuang Chinese Sky: a comprehensive study of the oldest known star atlas." (Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 12, Number 1, March, Pages 39-59). [Note: The 19 page paper also has 5 Tables and 8 Figures. Françoise Praderie died in early 2009. Abstract: "This paper presents an analysis of the star atlas included in the medieval Chinese manuscript Or.8210/S.3326 discovered in 1907 by the archaeologist Aurel Stein at the Silk Road town of Dunhuang and now housed in the British Library. Although partially studied by a few Chinese scholars, it has never been fully displayed and discussed in the Western world. This set of sky maps (12 hour-angle maps in quasi-cylindrical projection and a circumpolar map in azimuthal projection), displaying the full sky visible from the Northern Hemisphere, is up to now the oldest complete preserved star atlas known from any civilisation. It is also the earliest known pictorial representation of the quasi-totality of Chinese constellations. This paper describes the history of the physical object—a roll of thin paper drawn with ink. We analyse the stellar content of each map (1,339 stars, 257 asterisms) and the texts associated with the maps. We establish the precision with which the maps were drawn (1.5-4° for the brightest stars) and examine the type of projections used. We conclude that precise mathematical methods were used to produce the Atlas. We also discuss the dating of the manuscript and its possible author, and we confirm the date +649-684 (early Tang Dynasty) as most probable based on the available evidence. This is at variance with a prior estimate of around +940. Finally, we present a brief comparison with later sky maps, both from China and Europe."]

Chatley, Herbert. (1938). "The Heavenly Cover A Study in Ancient Chinese Astronomy." (The Observatory, Volume 61, Pages 10-21).

Chatley, Herbert. (1940). "Sirius and the Constellation of the Bow." (Nature, Volume 145, 27 April, Page 670). [Note: A short study of Sirius and the constellation of the bow in Babylonia, China, and Egypt.]

Chu, Coching. (1947). "The Origin of the Twenty-Eight Mansions in Astronomy." (Popular Astronomy, Volume 55, February, Pages 62-77). [Note: Excellent summary article. Coching Chu (= Chu Kho-Chen / Zhu Kezhen) was a Chinese meteorologist, geologist, and educator. Circa 1945 he was at the National University of Chekiang, China. Life dates: 1890-1974.]

Ecsedy, Ildiko. (1981). "Far Eastern sources on the history of the steppes region." (Bulletin de l'Ecole française d'Extręme-Orient, Tome 69, Pages 263-276). [Note: Excellent brief discussion of aspects of Chinese constellation and star names.]

Ci-yuan [Ciyuan], Liu. (1986). "The Chinese names of fifty zodiacal stars in the 4th-6th century." (Acta Astronomica Sinica, Volume 27, Pages 276-278.)

Edkins, Joseph. (1877). "On the Twenty-eight Constellations." (The China Review, Volume 5, Number 5, Pages 319-325). [Note: Protestant missionary to China. Died 1905]

Edkins, Joseph. (1885). "Babylonian Origin of Chinese Astronomy and Astrology." (The China Review, Volume 14, Number 2, Pages 90-95).

Edkins, Joseph. (1885). "Babylonian Astronomy." (The China Review, Volume 14, July 1885 to June 1886, Pages 104-105).

Edkins, Joseph. (1886). "The Introduction of Astrology into China." (The China Review, Volume 15, Number 2, Pages 126-128).

Edkins, Joseph. (1888). "Star Names Among the Ancient Chinese." (The China Review, Volume 16, Number 5, March, Pages 257-267).

Edkins, Joseph. (1888). "On Star Naming Among the Ancient Chinese, Second Part." (The China Review, Volume 16, Number 6, May, Pages 337-340).

Haddad, Leїla. (2002?). "L'Empereur du ciel." (Ciel et Espace, 02, October,  Number 389).

Harper, Donald. (1978-1979). "The Han Cosmic Board ('Shih')." (Early China, Volume 4, Pages 1-10). [Note: An important paper. See also: 'The Han cosmic model: a response to Donald Harper' by Christopher Cullen in: Early China, 1982, Volume 7, Pages 130-133.]

Kalinowski, Marc. (1996). "The Use of the Twenty-eight Xiu as a Day Count in Early China." (Chinese Science, Number 13, Pages ?-?).

Kaurov, E[?]. (1996). "The Draco Constellation as a Key element of the Ancient Chinese Astronomical Picture of the Sky." (Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 249-250). [Note: The author identifies Draco, Serpens, Hydra, and Eridanus as "ribbon constellations" sharing a "kinematic relationship" and also a relationship with the traditional Taoist S-pattern symbol. The very short paper was originally presented at an international science conference in 1994. The author is a member of The Eurasian Astronomical Society, Moscow, Russia.]

Kaurov, E[?]. (1998). "The Draco Constellation: The Ancient Chinese Astronomical Practice of Observations." (Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, Volume 15, Pages 325-341). [Note: The author holds that Draco is one of the oldest constellations and estimates that it was established approximately 110,000 years ago.]

Ken-ichi, Takishima. (1988-1989). "An Evaluation of the Theories Concerning the Shang Oracle-Bone Inscriptions." (The Journal of Intercultural Studies (Kansai University), Volume 15-16, Pages 11-54).

Kingsmill, Thomas. (1879). "On Some of the Constellations in the Shi-king." (The China Review, Volume 7, Number 5, Pages 347-349).

Kingsmill, Thomas. (1907). "Two Zodiacs." (Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume ?, Pages ?-?).

Knobel, Eduard. (1909). "On a Chinese planisphere." (Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 69, Pages 435-445. [Note: Includes 4 plates.]

de Lacouperie, Terrien. (1890). "The Zodiac and Cycles of Babylonia and their Chinese Derivatives." (The Academy, October 11, Number 962, Pages 321-322).

Lan-ying Tseng, Lillian. (2012). "Funeral spatiality: Wang Hui's sarcophagus in Han China" (RES, 61/62, Spring/Autumn, Pages 116-131). [Note: Excellent article on early Chinese cosmology.]

Maeyama, Yasukatsu. (1999). "On the Earliest Stage of Chinese Astronomy: 3 Hypotheses." In: Andersen, Johannes. (Editor). Highights of Astronomy. Volume IIB. (Pages 695-696).

Maspero, Henri. (1929). "L'astronomie chinoise avant les Han." (T'oung Pao, Volume 26, Issue 1, Pages 267-356). [Note: Described as a masterly article.]

Mauger, Georges. (1915). “Quelques considérations sur les jeux en Chine et leur développement synchronique avec celui de l'Empire chinois.” (Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d’anthropologie de Paris, Tome 6 Issue 6-5, Pages 238-281).

Michel, Henri. (1950). "Chinese Astronomical Jades." (Popular Astronomy, Volume 58, May, Pages 222-230). [Note: Discusses early Chinese celestial maps.]

Nai, Pan. and De-chang, Wang. (1981). "The Huang-you star of the Song dynasty - a Chinese star list of the early Medieval period." (Chinese Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 5, Issue 4, December, Pages 441-448).

Obscurus. (1880). "Duodenary Cycles." (The China Review, Volume 8, Number 5, March, Pages 320-321).

Pankenier, David. (1982). "Early Chinese Positional Astronomy: The Guoyu Astronomical Record." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 5, Number 3, July-September, Pages 10-19).

Pankenier, David (1995). "The Cosmo-Political Background to Heaven's Mandate." (Early China, Volume 20, Pages 121–176). [Note: Considered to be a groundbreaking paper. Pankenier pinpoint the exact dates of the dynastic changes from the Hsia, Shang and Zhou, linking them to a particular five planet alignment and verifying the data against literary sources such as the Bamboo Annals. His work provides evidence of a complex body of astronomic knowledge in usage since at least 2000 BC. Pankenier published a shortened version of this paper in Archaeology magazine titled "The Mandate of Heaven."]

Pankenier, David. (1998). "The Mandate of Heaven." (Archaeology, Volume 51, Number 2, March / April, Pages 26-31 + 34).

Pankenier, David. (2000). "Seeing Stars in the Han Sky." (Early China, Volume 25, Pages185-203). [Note: Essay review of the books Astronomy and Mathematics in Ancient China by Christopher Cullen (1996); and The Chinese Sky During the Han by Sun Xiaochun and Jacob Kistemaker (1997). Fails to identify the enormous error made by Sun Xiaochun and Jacob Kistemaker (page 96) with the claim that we know the names of some 70 Sumerian constellations dating from about 2300 BCE.]

Pankenier, David. (2010). "Cosmic Capitals and Numinous Precincts in Early China." (Journal of Cosmology, Volume 9, April 14, Pages 2030-2040). [Note: "Abstract: Study of the role of astronomical alignment in shaping the built environment suggests that centuries before the ascendancy of mathematical astronomy in the Han dynasty, the Chinese had already developed practical, geometrical applications of astronomical knowledge useful in orienting high value structures. The archaeological record clearly shows this fundamental disposition was firmly established already by the formative period of Chinese civilization in the early 2nd millennium BCE. The imperative to conform precisely to celestial norms led to the cosmological design of ritual precincts like the Hall of Numinous Brightness described here. Moreover, the identity between the Celestial Pole and the imperial capital and an intense focus on the circumpolar "skyscape" are manifested in the highly symbolic orientation of early imperial capitals." Journal of Cosmology is a freely accessible online (electronic) journal at JounalofCosmology.com.]

Pankenier, David. (2014). "Did Babylonian Astrology Influence Early Chinese Astral Prognostication?" (Early China, July, Pages 1-13).

Pingree, David. and Morrisey, Patrick. (1989). "On the Identification of the Yogatārās of the Indian Nakşatras." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 20, Pages 99-119).

Qiu, Jane. (2009). "Charting the heavens from China." (Nature, Volume 459, 11 June, Pages 778-779). [Note: Short article on the Dunhuang star map.]

de Saussure, Léopold. (1919). "La Symétrie du Zodiaque Lunaire Asiatique." (Journal Asiatique, Volume 195, Pages 141-?).

de Saussure, Léopold. (1921). The Lunar Zodiac." (New China Review, Volume 3, Pages 453-?).

de Saussure, Léopold. (1923). "Origine babylonienne de l'Astronomie Chinoise." (Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles, Volume 128, Pages 5-?).

de Saussure, Léopold. (1925). "Note sur l'Origine Iranienne des Mansions Lunaires Arabes." (Journal Asiatique, Volume 207, Pages 166-?).

de Saussure, Léopold. (1932). "Astronomie et mythologie dans le Chou King." T'oung Pao, Volume 29, Pages 359-?).

Schafer, Edward. (1974). "The Sky River." (Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 94, Number 4, Pages 401-407).

Schafer, Edward. (1977). "An ancient Chinese star map." (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 87, Pages 162-???). [Note: The author was an expert on Medieval China and specialised in the Tang Period.]

Staal, Julius. (1974). "Stars of Primeval China." (The Planetarian, Volume 3, Numbers 1/2, Spring/Summer, Pages 20-29). [Note: The Planetarian is published quarterly by the International Planetarium Society.]

Staal, Julius. (1975). "The Prehistoric Stars of Imperial China." (Griffith Observer, February, Pages ?-?).

Teboul, Michel. (1985). "Sur Quelques Particularités de l"Uranographie Polare Chinoise." (T'oung Pao, Volume LXXI, Pages 1-39).

Thibaut, George. (1894). "On the Hypothesis of the Babylonian Origin of So-called Lunar Zodiac." (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 63, Pages 144-?). [Note: Life dates: 1848-1914]

Thorpe, W[?]. (1930). "Creatures of the Chinese Zodiac." (Apollo, Volume 11, Pages ?-?).

Wang, Jianmin. (1979). "On a vessel inscribed with the 28 lunar lodges, the Green Dragon and the White Tiger, found in the tomb of Zeng Houyi." (Wenwu [= Cultural Relics], Number 7, Pages 40-45.) [Note: Wenwu (also Wen Wu, or Wen-wu) is a monthly publication. The tomb of Zeng Houyi is dated to 433 BCE.]

Weinstock, S[?]. (1949). "Lunar mansions and early calendars." (Journal of Hellenic Studies, Volume 69, Pages 48-?).

Xiaochun, Sun. and Jing, Tian. (1991). "On the observation time of Shi Shen's star catalogue." (Proceedings, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Volume 96, Number 4, Pages 503-511).

Yampolsky, Philip. (1950). "The Origin of the Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions." (Osiris, Volumen Nonum [Volume 9], Pages 62-83). [Note: Presentation of various expert opinions for the origin of the system of lunar mansions found in China, India, and Arabia.]

Zezong, Xi. (1981). "Chinese Studies in the History of Astronomy. 1949-1979." (Isis, Volume 72, Number 3, September, Pages 456-470.)

Zhao, Y[?]. (1917). "Study of Star Maps and Star Names." (Science Magazine, Volume 111, Number 3, Pages ?-?)

Korean

Books/Pamphlets:

Needham, Joseph. et. al. (1986, Reprinted 2004). The Hall of Heavenly Records: Korean Astronomical Instrument and Clocks 1380-1780. [Note: Contains succinct discussions of the ancient Chinese and Korean sky systems. See the (English-language) book review by Orun Kihyup Kim in Korea Journal, Volume 30, Number 7, July, 1990, Pages 44-45.]

Park, Changbom. [Pak, Ch'ang-bŏm.] (2008). Astronomy: Traditional Korean Science. [Note: Outstanding study of early Korean astronomy and constellations. Lengthy discussions of cup marks as constellations and constellation figures painted in tombs. Published by Ewha Womens University Press, Korea.]

Ronan, Colin. (1996). "Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan." In: Walker, Christopher. (Editor). Astronomy before the Telescope. (Pages 245-268).

Stephenson, F[?]. (1994). "Chinese and Korean Star Maps and Catalogs." In: Harley, John. and Woodward, David. (Editors). The History of Cartography. Volume 2, Book 2: Cartography in the traditional East and Southeast Asian societies. [Note: See pages 511-578].

Articles/Entries:

Il-gwon, Kim. (2008). "Analysis of the Astronomical System of Constellations in Korguryo Tomb Murals." (The Review of Korean Studies, Volume 11, Number 2, June, Pages 5-32). [Note: Kim Il-gwon is an assistant professor at the Graduate School of Korean Studies, the Academy of Korean Studies. He has published 5 or 6 (Korean-language) articles on early Korean constellations.]

Rufus, Will. (1913). "The Celestial Planisphere of King Yi Tai-Jo." (Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 4, Number 3, Pages 23-72). [Note: This reference also variously appears as: Volume 12, 1913; and Volume 26, 1936. The reference also appears as: Transactions of the Korea Branch, Royal Asiatic Society. The title also appears as: "The Celestial Planisphere of Yi Tai-jo."]

Rufus, Will. (1915). "Korea's Cherished Astronomical Chart." (Popular Astronomy, Volume 23, Number 4, Pages 193-198).

Rufus, Will. (1936). "Astronomy in Korea." (Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume XXVI, [No issue number], Pages 1-48, + Tables I-IV, Plates 1-17). [Note: An excellent summary article. Includes discussion of constellations and star names.]

Rufus, Will. and Chao, Celia. (1944). "A Korean Star Map." (Isis, Volume 35, Number 4, Autumn, Pages 316-326). [Note: The second detailed study by Will Rufus of the Celestial Planisphere of King Yi Tai-Jo. The first study was published in 1913.]

Japanese

Books/Pamphlets:

Goto, Akira. (2011). "Archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy in the Ryukyu Islands: a preliminary report." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 315-324). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy). The author discusses star lore and stones for observing the Pleiades.]

Hara, Megumi. (1989). Seiza no Bunkashi. [Note: The English title is: Cultural History of the Constellations.]

Kitao, Kouichi. ((Reprinted ?) 2002). Star lore of Japan: The starscape of a people. [Note: Translated into English by Hideo Fujii. A small book comprising approximately 60 pages. Organised by the months of the year. See the (French-language) book review in l'Astronomie [Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of France] Volume 117, Janvier, 2003.]

Ronan, Colin. (1996). "Astronomy in China, Korea and Japan." In: Walker, Christopher. (Editor). Astronomy before the Telescope. (Pages 245-268).

Articles/Entries:

Renshaw, Steve. and Ihara, Saori. (1999) "Yowatashi Boshi; Stars that Pass in the Night. Japan's cultural heritage reflected in the star lore of Orion." (The Griffith Observer, Volume 63, Number 10, October, Pages 2-17). [Note: Another form of the article also appeared in The Kyoto Journal, Issue 48, July, 2000.]

North American

Books/Pamphlets:

Bastion, Dawn. and Mitchell, Judy. (2004). Handbook of Native American Mythology. [Note: See the entry: Stars and Constellations (Pages 182-186).]

Brewer, Sallie. (1950). "Notes on Navaho Astronomy." In: Reed, Erik. and King, Dale. (Editors). For the Dean: Essays in Anthropology in Honor of Byron Cummings. (Pages 133-136).

Britt, Junior., Claude. (1975). "Early Navajo Astronomical Pictographs in Canyon de Chelly, Northeastern Arizona, U. S. A." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America. [Note: See Chapter 5: Stellar Observations., Pages 89-107.]

Chamberlain, Von del. and Schaafsma, Polly. (1993). "The origin and meaning of Navajo star ceilings." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in the 1990s. (Chapter 20, Pages 227-241). [Note: Von Del Chamberlain is an astronomer and a retired director of the Hansen Planetarium, Salt Lake City, Utah. Polly Schaafsma is a leading authority on the rock art of New Mexico and the Southwest of the USA. She is a research associate of the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture/Laboratory of Anthropology of the Museum of New Mexico.]

Chamberlain, Von del. (1982). When Stars Came Down to Earth. [Note: See the critical (English-language) book review by Douglas Parks in Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 7, Numbers 1-4, January-December, Pages 110-115.]

Chamberlain, Von del. (2000). "Starborn: Analysis of Astronomical Symbolism in a Native American Legend." In: Esteban, César. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors). Oxford VI and SEAC 99 "Astronomy and Cultural Diversity." (Pages 233-236). [Note: This publication is the proceedings of the 6th "Oxford" international symposium on archaeoastronomy, jointly with the SEAC99 (European archaeoastronomy) meeting, held in La Laguna, Tenerife, in 1999. Copies of the book are exceedingly rare due to water damage to stock during a devastating Madrid flood. A PDF file has now (February, 2010) been kindly made available by Michael Rappenglück and is freely downloadable from the publications page of the SEAC web site.]

Chamberlain, Von del. (2000). "Native American Astronomy." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Culture: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. (Pages 269-301).

Chamberlain, Von del. (2005). "Tracking Stars in Dinétah: Astronomical Symbolism in Gobernador Phase Rock Art." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space. (Pages 221-242). [Note: Selected papers from the 5th Oxford international conference on archaeoastronomy held at Santa Fe in 1996. Discusses believed depictions of Navajo constellations in the Dinétah area of the Gobernador Canyon. See the (English-language) book review by Ronald Hicks of Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space in American Anthropologist, Volume 108, Number 3, September, 2006, Pages 586-587.]

Chamberlain, Von Del. and Schaafsma, Polly. (2005). "Origin and Meaning of Navajo Star Ceilings." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 80-98). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Chamberlain, Von Del. (2006). "American Ideals Patterned in the Stars: Native American Emblems in the Sky." In: Bostwick, Todd. and Bates, Bryan. (Editors). Viewing the Sky Through Past and Present Cultures. (Pages 169-179). [Note: The volume contains selected papers from the Oxford VII International Conference on Archaeoastronomy.]

Coller, Beth. (1978) A Selected Bibliography on Native American Astronomy.

Dorsey, George. (1904; Reprinted 1995). The Mythology of the Wichita. [Note: Includes discussion of the "star cults" of the Wichita Indians.]

Dorsey, George. (1904). Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. [Note: Published as Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society, Volume VIII. Includes discussion of the celestial plan of the Skidi Pawnee in which the location of their altars identify the comparative positions of the constellations they are dedicated to. See the (English-language) book review by the British folklorist Northcote Thomas (1868-?) in Folklore, Volume 16, Number 1, March 25, 1905, Pages 116-118.]

Dorsey, George. (1906; Reprinted 1997). The Pawnee Mythology. [Note: Originally published as: The Pawnee, Part 1: Mythology.]

Erdoes, Richard. and Ortiz, Alfonso. (1984). American Indian Myths and Legends. [Note: An encyclopaedic collection of Native American stories that includes a section of 19 takes of the Sun, Moon and Stars, representing many native cultures and regions.]

Farrer, Claire. (1989). "Star walking - the preliminary report." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 483-489).

Farrer, Claire. (1991). Living Life’s Circle: Mescalero Apache Cosmovision. [Note: From one review: "The product of more than fifteen years contact and life with the Mescalero people in southern New Mexico, Living Life's Circleis one of the first works devoted to the emergent new interdiscipline of ethnoastronomy, the study of how the sky and its movements form "templates" for life in particular cultures. Urged by her friend and mentor, the remarkable singer and medicine man Bernard Second, to "Pay attention," Farrer began to recognize a powerful primary metaphor based on acute astronomical observation and its direct relevance to all aspects of Mescalero life. "Should be read by every student of culture."--M. Jane Young." See the book review by Richard Perry in Anthropology and Humanism, Volume 19, Issue 1, 1994, Pages 108-109. See also the 2006 critique by Sharon Cornet: http://www.sunstar-solutions.com/CriticalAnalysisEthno_Apache.htm]

Goodman, Ronald. (1990). Lakota Star Knowledge: Studies in Lakota Stellar Theology. [Note: The result of a 10-year ethnoastronomy project conducted by the author with Lakota elders. Ronald Goodman was an academic with Sinte Gleiska University. The author was at time of publication, Acting Dean of Lakota Studies, History and Culture Program Director, Sinte Gleiska University. Life dates: 1932-2001.]

Goodman, Ronald. (2005). "Lakota Star Knowledge." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (See: Pages 140-146). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1906). "Cherokee Star Lore." In: Laufer, Berthold. (Editor). Boas Anniversary Volume: Anthropological papers written in honor of Franz Boas. (Pages 354-366).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1933). The Portsmouth Works. [Note: 21-page pamphlet reprinted from article in Popular Astronomy, Volume XLI, Number 1, January, Pages ?-?. An astronomical interpretation, including constellation correlations, of the earthworks of the Mound Builders of the Ohio Valley.]

Haile, Berard. (1947; Reprinted 1977). Starlore Among the Navajo. [Note: Among the more reliable studies. See the (English-language) book review by Evon Vogt in The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 63, Number 248, April-June, 1950, Pages 254-255.]

Harrington, John. (1916). Ethnography of the Tewa Indians. [Note: The Tewa are part of the Pueblo Indian group. The publication needs to be used with some caution (and this includes the astronomical information on star names and constellations). Harrington was an ethnographer with the Bureau of American Ethnology. However, it appears he was willing to pay for information and as a result was misled by some informants. The topic of celestial geography is also covered.]

Hewitt, John (1903-1928; 2 Parts). Iroquoian Cosmology. [Note: Part 1, 1903 [sometimes incorrectly given as 1904], is extract from Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Volume 21 (1899-1900)); Part 2, 1928 is extract from the 40th annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology)). (For Part 1, see archive.org: https://archive.org/details/iroquoiancosmolo00hewi; Part 2 available as a reprint.) John Hewitt (1857-1937) was a linguist/ethnologist and Tuscarora tribal member who worked at the Smithsonian Institution's Bureau of American Ethnology. (See also: Kathryn Merriam, "The preservation of Iroquois thought: J. N. B. Hewitt's legacy of scholarship for his people." (2010). Electronic Doctoral Dissertations for UMass Amherst. Paper AAI3409630. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations/AAI3409630 [no public download]). See also: "John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt: Tuscarora Linguist." by Blair Rudes (Anthropological Linguistics, Volume 36, Number 4, Winter, 1994, Pages 466-481).]

Hudson, Travis. and Underhay, Ernest. (1978). Crystals in the Sky: An Intellectual Odyssey Involving Chumash Astronomy, Cosmology, and Rock Art. [Note: Contains considerable speculation; especially on the stars, constellations, and zodiac. See the (English-language) book review by Albert Elsasser (Lowie Museum of Anthropology University of California, Berkeley) in The Journal of California Anthropology, Volume 5, Number 2, 1978, Pages 298-299.]

Hungry-Wolf, Adolf. (2006). The Blackfoot Papers: Volume 3. [Note: Contains a brief discussion of Blackfoot constellations and skylore.]

Jiles, Paulette. (1996). North Spirit: Travels among the Cree and Ojibway Nation’s and their Star Maps. [Note: A book on Cree Ojibway star maps and life in the North. Jiles spent 7 years in the North working for the CBC. The central figure of the Cree Ojibway cosmography is the Stern Paddler (Orion). The Bow Paddler is Polaris, and the entire sky is a canoe. Cree language is not gender-based; rather, it recognizes living and non-living things. Living things include stars, canoes and stones.

Kehoe, Alice. (2005). "Ethnoastronomy of the North American Plains." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 127-139). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Lankford, George. (2007). Reachable Stars: Patterns in the Ethnoastronomy of Eastern North America. [Note: Wide ranging. However, an uncritical use of sources. The author is (2007) Professor Emeritus at Lyon College where he served as endowed professor and chair of Social Sciences. Life dates: 1938- .]

Maryboy, Nancy. and Begay, David. (2006). "Finding the Thunderbird in Navajo Astronomy." In: Bostwick, Todd. and Bates, Bryan. (Editors). Viewing the Sky Through Past and Present Cultures. (Pages 149-154). [Note: The volume contains selected papers from the Oxford VII International Conference on Archaeoastronomy.]

Maryboy, Nancy. and Begay, David. (2010). Sharing the Skies: Navajo Astronomy. [Note: Identifies the Navajo Thunderbird constellation as comprising the stars of the Greek constellation Sagittarius.]

Mayer, Dorothy. (1975). "Star-Patterns in Great Basin Petroglyphs." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America. [Note: See Chapter 6: Stellar Observations., Pages 109-130.]

Mayo, Gretchen. (1990). North American Indian Stories: More Star Tales. [Note: Not a critical compilation but a 50-page booklet aimed at young children. The author is an elementary school teacher.]

McCleary, Timothy. (1997). The Stars We Know: Indian Astronomy and Lifeways. [Note: A study of Crow Indian astronomy based on the Crow Indian Project. The study was conducted from late 1993 through 1996. The study was carried out by the tribally-controlled Little Big Horn College. The author is an anthropologist and fluent in the Crow language. The Foreword by Claire Farrer is a survey of the major works on native peoples and their astronomical systems.]

Miller, Dorcas. (1997). Stars of the First People: Native American Star Myths and Constellations. [Note: A massive and comprehensive, but uncritical, compilation from miscellaneous sources. A very extensive bibliography is included. The author is a naturalist (and past Outward Bound Instructor). Life dates: 1949- .]

Miller, Jay. (1992). "North Pacific Ethnoastronomy: Tsimshian and Others." In: Williamson, Ray. and Farrer, Claire. (Editors). Earth & Sky: Visions of the Cosmos in Native American Folklore. (Pages 193-206). [Note: Discusses constellations and star names. Life dates for Ray Williamson 1938- .]

Monroe, Jean. and Williamson, Ray (1987). The Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths. [Note: Very simply written and seems to be aimed at young adults. Includes a summary list of the relevant native American constellations at the end of each chapter. Has a valuable bibliography.]

Mooney, James. (1900, Reprinted 1902; and Reprinted 1992). Myths of the Cherokee. [Note: The author was an ethnologist. This is a very lengthy major study and incorporates star-lore.]

Rand, Silas. (1894). Legends of the Micmacs. (2 Volumes). [Note: Silas Rand, a missionary to the Micmacs, wrote a short paragraph on Micmac star-names which is quoted by his editor in the Introduction, Page xli. Also, Volume 1, Pages 56-57: "They have some knowledge of astronomy. They have watched the stars during their night excursions, or while laying wait for game. They know that the North Star does not move, and call it okwotunuguwa kulokuwech (the North Star). They have observed that the circumpolar stars never set. The call the Great Bear, (Muen (the Bear), and they have names for several other constellations. The morning star is ut'adabum and the seven stars ejulkuch. And "What do you call that?" asked a venerable old lady a short time ago, who, with her husband, the head chief of Cape Breton, was giving me a lecture on astronomy, on Nature's celestial globe, through the apertures of the wigwam. She was pointing to the Milky Way. "Oh, we call it the Milky Way, the milky road," said I. To my surprise she gave it the same name in Micmac."]

Schaafsma, Polly. (2002). Warrior, Shield, and Star: Imagery and Ideology of Pueblo Warfare, AD 1250-1600. [Note: The author holds that by circa 1300 CE ideas related to Pueblo life and warfare were connected with efforts to maintain a cosmic balance and seasonal agricultural rhythms.]

Schaafsma, Polly. (2003). "Feathered Stars and Scalps in Pueblo IV." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space. (Pages 191-204). [Note: Selected papers from the 5th Oxford international conference on archaeoastronomy held at Santa Fe in 1996.]

Williamson, Ray. (1984). Living the Sky: The Cosmos of the American Indian. [Note: Excellent. The author holds a Ph.D. in astronomy. See the (English-language) book reviews by Paul Zolbrod in Studies in American Indian Literatures, New Series, Volume 10, Number 1, Winter, 1986, Pages 59-62; and by the archaeologist Robert Hall in Archaeoastronomy: The Journal for the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 10, 1987-1988, Pages 176-182.]

Williamson, Ray. and Monroe, J[?]. (2007). They Dance in the Sky: Native American Star Myths.

Wissler, Clark. (1936; reprinted 2007, 2011). Star Legends Among the American Indians. [Note: Original edition (New York: The American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet No. 91, 1936) was 29 pages (and 1 photograph). Expanded reprint is a 48-page pamphlet that includes contributions by Alice Kehoe (anthropologist) and Darrell Kipp (Blackfoot). The author focuses on a series of star myths known to the Blackfoot Indians of Montana. One of Wissler’s informants/consultants was Wolf Head (born circa 1840, died 1905) who told tales to Wissler in 1903. Clark Wissler (1870-1947) was curator at the American Museum of Natural History and chairman of the Department of Anthropology at Columbia University. He authored the books "North American Indians of the Plains" and "Man and Culture."]

Young, Mary. and Williamson, Ray. (1981). "Ethnoastronomy: The Zuni Case." In: Williamson, Ray. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in the Americas. (Pages 183-191). [Note: A critical discussion of Zuni constellations and star names. Mary Young (M. Jane Young) is a folklorist (and rock-art scholar) and is Professor of American Studies at the University of New Mexico. Life dates for Mary Young: 1950- .]

Young, Mary. (2005). "Astronomy in Pueblo and Navajo World Views." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 49-64). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Articles/Entries:

Berezkin, Yuri. (2005). "Cosmic Hunt: Variants of Siberian - North American Myth." (Folklore [= Electronic Journal of Folklore], Volume 31, December.). [Note: Excellent lengthy article with extensive bibliography. Supportive of William Gibbon.]

Buckstaff, Ralph. (1927). "Stars and Constellations of a Pawnee Sky Map." (American Anthropologist, Volume 29, Pages 279-285).

Carr, E[?]. and Carr, C[?]. (1977). "Iroquois Star Myths." (The Planetarian, Volume 6, Number 1).

Ceci, Lynn. (1978). "Watchers of the Pleiades: Ethnoastronomy among Native Cultivators in North Eastern North America." (Ethnohistory, Volume 25, Number 4, Fall, Pages 301-317). [Note: Abstract: Iroquois and Algonquian cultivators of northeastern North America are among the world's varied cultures to observe the bright cluster of stars known as the Pleiades. According to documentary, ethnographic, and archaeological evidence these northeast natives appear to have related the coincidence of the Pleiades' celestial positions in spring and fall with the seasonal limits of the frost-free season. This significant discovery, it is proposed, provided a scientific basis for achieving maize productivity in a near-marginal region; it was therefore a critical part of their cultivation technology and as such is reflected in myths and ceremonies.]

Chamberlain, Von del. (1983). "Navajo constellations in literature, art, artifact and a New Mexico rock art site." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 6, Numbers 1-4, January-December, Pages 45-58).

Dempsey, Frank. (2008). "Aboriginal Sky Lore of the Big Dipper in North America." (Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Volume 102, Pages 59-61). [Note: Frank Dempsey, an Ojibway and member of Dokis First Nation, is an atmospheric scientist and amateur astronomer who collects Sky Lore "on cloudy nights.']

Dempsey, Frank. (2009). "Aboriginal Sky Lore of the Constellation Orion in North America." (Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Volume 103, Pages 65-67).

Dempsey, Frank. (2009). "Aboriginal Sky Lore of the Pleiades Star Group in North America." (Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Volume 103, Pages 233-235).

Dubé, Claire. (1996). << Le thčme de L'Ours céleste chez les Micmacs. >> (Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Volume 26, Number 1, Pages 55-64). [Note: The English-language title is: The Heavenly Bear Theme in Micmac Narrative. The author appraises the ethnographic work of Stansbury Hagar carried out circa the turn of the 19th-century. The article abstract states: "In 1900, the ethnologist Stansbury Hagar published a Micmac story in which the plot follows the rhythm of seasonal events. Based on the Heavenly Bear theme, this story features seven "hunting-birds" associated with heavenly cyclical constellation movements: Ursa Majoris, Bootes,  and Corona Borealis. In Northeast America, few scholars have payed attention to native knowledge about astronomy. This article provides an occasion for the contextualisation of Hagar's work by comparing Micmac narratives with narratives from neighbouring peoples. It shows that the Heavenly Bear theme was relatively widespread among Iroquoian and Algonquian peoples south of the Saint Lawrence River."]

Fletcher, Alice. (1902). "Star Cult Among the Pawnee." (American Anthropologist, Volume 4, Number 4, Pages 730-736).

Fletcher, Alice. (1916). "Pawnee Star Lore." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 16, Pages 10-15).

Fowler, Catherine. (1995). "Mountain sheep in the Sky: Orion's Belt in Great Basin Mythology." (Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 17, Number 2, Pages 146-152). [Note: Mountain Sheep in the Sky is a referent phrase used by older Numic people to refer to the stars of the constellation Orion. At the time of the article the author was with the University of Nevada, Reno.]

Gibbon, William. (1964). "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Ursa Major." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 77, Number 305, July-September, Pages 236-250). [Note: His name almost invariably appears as William B. Gibbon. He was born in Harvard, Nebraska in 1925 (one source states 1927). Gibbon was interested in folklore but was not a folklorist - he was a linguist. At the time of writing both of his articles on Asiatic parallels William Gibbon PhD was, circa 1960-1964 (at least), with the University of Nebraska (and was likely not connected with the Department of History there). Folklore studies there are (or were) under the umbrella of the Department of History. Gibbon's focus was languages. However, in 1962, at a meeting of  the Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association (held at Utah State University), Modern Languages I (Linguistics) Section, he gave a talk on "Foreign Influences on Slavic Star Mythology." (See: The Bulletin of the Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association, Volume XVI, Numbers 1 and 2, May, 1963.) In 1964, at the 2nd annual meeting of the Nebraska Folklore Society (held at the Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha) he gave a talk on "Popular Beliefs and Superstitions." He was likely instrumental in the formation of the Nebraska Folklore Society circa 1962 (See: Western Folklore, Volume 23, 1964, Page 58.) At some time Gibbon appears to have taught the Russian language. (See: Russian Language Journal, Issues 102-104, 1975, Pages 172.) Circa 1967 he was Associate Professor (of Russian?) (in the Department of Germanic and Slavic Languages?). His promotion to Associate Professor occurred circa 1962 (more likely 1967). (In 1964/5 he was described as being in the Department of Germanic Languages.) From 1974 until his retirement he was Professor of Russian. By 1983 at least he was Professor, Department of Modern Languages and Literatures. Circa 1961 he appears to have been a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. Circa 1974-1975 he was Professor of Modern Languages. In the 1970s Gibbon served on the Editorial Board (with others forming a group from University of Nebraska - Lincoln) for the journal Studies in Twentieth Century Literature. Gibbon was born in Harvard, a small city in Nebraska. It appears he served in the United States Navy from 1944 to 1946. (He may also have served again during the period of the Korean war, from 1951 to 1953.) His BS was obtained in 1949 from Georgetown University, a private Jesuit university whose main campus is located in Washington, D.C. In 1950 Gibbon was one of 5 or 6 students in a (post-graduate) class (at the University of Pennsylvania) studying Slavic languages (initially Old Prussian) under the Bulgarian-born Antanas Salys. Likely his Master's degree (MA), which was obtained in 1954 (one source gives 1953). Another member of that class was William R. Schmalstieg (who had an outstanding career as a Balticist, Slavicist and Indo-Europeanist). (Both students were part of the surge in American studies in Slavic and East European languages and literatures.) Gibbon's PhD (Slavic languages) was gained in 1960 from the University of Pennsylvania. His unpublished doctoral dissertation was "Popular Star Names among the Slavic Speaking Peoples." In 1959 he was appointed to the faculty of the University of Nebraska (more exactly, University of Nebraska-Lincoln?), as an Instructor in Russian and German (and remained in this position until 1967). He was Associate Professor of Russian from 1967-1974. During 1960 Gibbon was at the University of Graz, in Austria. It appears he was an exchange professor in Budapest, Hungary for 1972-1973. At some time (summer, 1997?) he was a participant in the teacher exchange program between the USA and the USSR. He spent his short time at the University of Moscow. When he became a retiree and Professor Emeritus (circa 2000?) he was in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, within the College of Arts & Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. (On March 28, 2011, at UNL (University of Nebraska-Lincoln) William Gibbon, Emeritus Professor of Modern Languages and literatures, gave a lecture ("90 Years of Russian at UNL: Russian and U.S. Relations during the Cold War") to mark 90 years of Russian language education at UNL.) Gibbon was a member of the Midwest Modern Language Association (at least in the 1950s and 1960s) and secretary of the Slavic Section. He was also a member of the Nebraska Folklore Society. Also, he contributed a book review to The Slavic and East European Journal, Volume IX, Number 4, Winter, 1965. Gibbon was one of approximately 50 academics throughout the USA who pledged, apparently in the late 1950s or early 1960s, to establish and publish a standard collection of state-based folklore beliefs (in Gibbon's case, Nebraska) as part of the projected multi-volume Dictionary of American Popular Beliefs and Superstitions. See the discussion in Frank C. Brown Collection of North Carolina Folklore: Popular Beliefs and Superstitions from North Carolina (7 volumes, but see 1964, Introduction, Part 2). The project never achieved completion. Over the course of his academic career at the University of Minnesota and UCLA the American folklorist Wayland Hand (1907-1986) collected an Archive of American Popular Beliefs and Superstitions containing over 2 million items. Gibbon is a member of the American Folklore Society, and American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. The archive forms the basis for UCLA's ongoing project to produce an Encyclopedia of Popular Beliefs and Superstitions. See the short biographical entry for William Gibbon in Directory of American Scholars: A Biographical Directory (Volume 3, 1969/1982, edited by Jaques Cattell), issued by the American Council of Learned Societies. He presently lives in Malcolm?/Lincoln?, Nebraska. It is indicated he is married to Arlene W. Gibbon and they own and live at the rural address, 8301 NW 70th Street, Lincoln, NE 68402. For biographical details see also Box 95, Archives & Special Collections, University of Nebraska - Lincoln Libraries. Life dates: 1925?/1927?- .]

Gibbon, William. (1972). "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 85, Number 335, January-March, Pages 236-247).

Grinnell, George. (1894). "A Pawnee Star Myth." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 7, Number 26, July-September, Pages 197-200).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1900). "The Celestial Bear." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 13, Number 49, April-June, Pages 92-103). [Note: This article continues to attract considerable attention. See also the short note "The Celestial Bear." by Stansbury Hagar, in the Journal of American Folklore, Volume XIV, Number 50, Page 225 (Notes and Queries); and the corrective "Map Exhibiting the Stars of the Celestial Bear." by the Editor, in the same, Pages 225-226 (Notes and Queries). I have never seen these pointed out previously by anyone. Hagar's article was essentially reproduced in "The celestial bear, a Micmac legend. (Cape Breton's Magazine, Number 3, March, 1973, Pages 10-11, and 18). This magazine was founded, edited, and published by Roger Caplan, an American (USA), who moved to Cape Breton. The content of Hagar's article was also included in the book Red earth: tales of the Micmacs, with an introduction to the customs and beliefs of the Micmacs by Marion Robertson (1969). The book was published by the Nova Scotia Museum.]

Hale, Horatio. (1894). "The Fall of Hochelaga." (Journal of American Folk-Lore, Volume VII, Number XXIV, January-march, Pages 1-14). [Note: The author, M.A. (Harvard), F.R.S. Canada, was at one time President of the American Folk-Lore Society. The paper was prepared for the World's Congress of Anthropology held at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, August and September 1893. Life dates: 1817-1896.]

Harris, Prune. et al. (2010). "Mi'kmaq Night Sky: Patterns of Interconnectiveness, Vitality and Nourishment." (CAPjournal, Number 9, October, Pages 14-17). [Note: Discussion of the celestial bear tale preserved by Stansbury Hagar.]

Hatcher, Annamarie. et al. (2009). "Two-Eyed Seeing: A Cross-cultural Science Journey." (Green Teacher, Issue 86, Fall, Pages 14-17). [Note: Similar discussion to that by Prune Harris et al., 2010, of the celestial bear tale preserved by Stansbury Hagar.]

Hudson, Travis. (1982). "Costanoan Astronomy from the Notes of John P. Harrington." (Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology, Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 109-112).

Leonard, Junior., Kenneth. (1987-1988). "Calendric Keystone (?). The Skidi Pawnee Chart of the Heavens: A New Interpretation." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 10, Pages 77-87).

McClusky, Stephen. (1977). "The Astronomy of the Hopi Indians." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 8, Number 3, Pages 174-195).

Newton, Norman. (1975). "Wilderness No Wilderness." (Canadian Literature, Number 63, Winter, Pages 18-34). [Note: Republished in Canadian Literature, 8 December, 2011. Very interesting article that is influenced by Hamlet's Mill by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend (1969). The title of the article is sometimes incorrectly given as "Wilderness to Wilderness." Life dates for Canadian-born Norman Newton (an actor, radio playwright, radio producer, and writer/literary figure) are: 1929-2011.]

Newton, Norman. (1975). "On the Survival of Astronomical Ideas Among the Peoples of the Northwest Coast." (British Columbia Studies, Number 26, Summer, Pages 16-38).

Parker, Arthur. (1923). "Seneca Myths and Folktales." (Buffalo Historical Society Publications, Volume 27, Pages 81-82). [Note: Suggests how Native Americans may have independently identified the seven stars of the big dipper with a bear.]

Rall, Gloria. (1990). "Native American Bear in the Sky." (The Planetarian, Volume 27, Number 3).

van der Sluijs, Marinus. (2009). "Multiple Morning Stars in Oral Cosmological Traditions." (Numen, Volume 56, Pages 459-476).

Stock, John. et. al. (1978). "Investigating Navajo Starlore using a Planetarium." (The Planetarian, Volume 7, Number 4).

Tozzer, Alfred. (1908). "A Note on Star-lore among the Navajo." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 21, Number 80, Pages 28-?). [Note: The author was Professor of Anthropology at Harvard University]

Wirt, Will., Sherman, Mark., and Mitchell, Mike. (2000). "String Games of the Navaho." (Bulletin of the International String Figure Association, Volume 7, Pages 119-214). [Note: Also issued later as a booklet. An excellent source of information on Navaho constellation figures. See: Appendix. The Cultural Significance of Navaho String Games by Mark Sherman, specifically pages 197-214.]

Mesoamerican/South American

Books/Pamphlets:

Alexander, Hartley. (1920). Latin-American Mythology. [Note: Contains some discussion of Aztec and Mayan star names and constellations. The book is Volume IV of the XI Volume series The Mythology of all Races.]

Brotherston, Gordon. (1989). "Zodiac signs, number sets, and astronomical cycles in Mesoamerica." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 276-288).

Coe, Michael. (1975). "Native Astronomy in Mesoamerica." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in Pre-Columbian America. (Chapter 1, Pages 3-31).

Ehrenreich, Paul. (1905). Die Mythen und Legenden der Südamerikanischen Urvölker. [Note: Issues as Supplement (37. Jahrgang., 1905) to Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. Paul Ehrenreich was an ethnologist and anthropologist who studied medicine and the natural sciences in Berlin, Heidelberg and Würzburg. During 1884-1885 he undertook research trips to study the indigenous tribes of central and eastern Brazil, and during 1887-1888 he accompanied Karl von den Steinen on the second Xingu expedition. These activities were followed by expeditions to the Río Araguaia region during 1888 and the Río Purus region during 1889. During 1892-1893 he traveled to India and Eastern Asia, and during 1898 and 1906 he journeyed to both North America and Mexico. Ehrenreich's research was focused on comparative mythology and linguistic studies. His papers are held at the library at the Ibero-American Institute, Berlin. They consist of five folders, four photo albums and 127 boxes containing manuscripts, travelogues, official documents, correspondence, photographs, drawings, sketch books, offprints, notes, etc. The materials contain a wealth of information on subjects as diverse as ethnology, mythology, religion, sociology, handicrafts, folklore and graphic art as well as on regions as wide apart as Argentina, Brazil, Arabia, Europe, Persia, America, North America, Mexico, South America and Asia. Life dates: 1855-1914.]

Faulhaber, Priscila. (2011). "Ticuna knowledge, Worecü stars and sky movements." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 58-64). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy). The Ticuna are an indigenous people of Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. They presently number around 40,000 persons. Ticuna is the native language of the Tďcuna people.]

Gómez, Cecilia. (2011). "The youth and old age of Dapi'chi (the Pleiades): frosts, air carnations, and warriors." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 50-57). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy).]

Hugh-Jones, Stephen. (1982). "The Pleiades and Scorpius in Barasana Cosmology." In: Aveni, Anthony. and Urton, Gary.  (Editors). Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics. (Pages 183-201).

Jara, Fabiola. (2005). "Arawak Constellations: A Bibliographic Survey." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 265-280). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Kelley, David. (1980). Astronomical Identities of Mesoamerican Gods. [Note: 54 pages.]

Lamb, Weldon. (1981). "Star Lore in the Yucatec Maya Dictionaries." In: Williamson, Ray. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in the Americas. (Pages 233-248).

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1923). Mitologa sudamericana. La astronoma de los Matacos. [Note: Robert Lehmann-Nitsche was born in Radomitz, Poznań, in November, 1872. He studied in Freiburg, Munich and Berlin, taking doctoral degrees in the natural sciences (1894), anthropology (1894) and medicine (1897). He immigrated to Argentina at 25 and in 1907 began working at the research institute of the Museo de La Plata in the city of La Plata, where he was appointed director of the Anthropology Department. Lehmann-Nitsche taught at the museum itself and at the Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires. In Argentina Lehmann-Nitsche extended his research to include material culture, folklore, linguistics, ethnology and mythology. Between 1900 and 1926, he undertook numerous research trips in Argentina, visiting such places as the Gran Chaco and Tierra del Fuego, where he carried out linguistic studies, conducted interviews, recorded narratives and legends, assembled collections for museums, and made sound recordings on phonograph cylinders. His most important writings deal with Argentine folklore, ethnology and ethnolinguistics. Upon retiring, Lehmann-Nitsche returned to Germany (1930), dying in Berlin in April, 1938.]

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1923; Revised 2nd Edition 1924-1925). Mitologa sudamericana. La Astronoma de los Tobas. [Note: The publication title also appears as La Astronomia de los Tobas.]

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1924). Mitologa sudamericana. La astronoma de los Chiriguanos.

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1924, Revised Edition 1927). Mitologa sudamericana. La Astronoma de los Mocov. [Note: The publication title also appears as La Astronomia de los Mocoví.]

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1924-1925). Mitologa sudamericana. La Astronoma de los Vilelas. [Note: The publication title also appears as La Astronomia de los Vilelas.]

Magańa, Edmundo. (1988). Orión y la mujer Pléyades: Simbolismo astronómico de los indios kalinā de Suranim. [Note: Edmundo Magańa's Ph.D. thesis. Astronomy is amongst the subjects covered. Suriname is located in northern South America. The country originally was spelled Surinam by English settlers who founded the first colony at Marshall's Creek, along the Suriname River. See the (English-language) book reviews by Peter Riviere in American Ethnologist, Volume 17,  Number 2, May, 1990, Pages 400-401; and by Anthony Aveni in The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 105, Number 415, Winter, 1992, Pages 111-112. Life dates: 1951- .]

Magańa, Edmundo. (2005). "Tropical Tribal Astronomy: Ethnohistorical and Ethnographic Notes." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 244-264). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Nuttall, Zelia. (1901; Reprinted 1970). The Fundamental Principles of Old and New world Civilizations. [Note: Originally published as Volume II of the "Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University. Zelia Nuttall (1857-1933) was an archaeologist and diffusionist, and became an honorary Professor of Anthropology at the National Museum of Mexico. In her book the author believes that astronomical parallels exist between ancient Near Eastern and American civilizations. The author is uncritical with her use of secondary sources and the book needs to be used with caution. See the (English-language) book reviews by Thomas Wilson in American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 3, 1901, Pages 360-365; and by Stansbury Hagar in The Journal of American Folk-lore, Volume XIV, January-March, 1901, Number LII, Pages 216-220. See the biographical obituary "Zelia Nuttall" by Alfred Tozzer in American Anthropologist, Volume 35, 1933, Pages 475-482; and also the biographical entry in "International Dictionary of Anthropologists," edited by Christopher Winters, (1991), Pages 513-514; and by Beverley Chińas in "American National Biography," General editors, John Garraty and Mark Carnes, Volume 16, (1999), Pages 559-560. Life dates: 1857-1933.]

Sequera, Guillermo. and Gangui, Alejandro. (2011). "The Tomárâho conception of the sky." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 65-73). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy). "Abstract: The small community of the Tomárâho, an ethnic group culturally derived from the Zamucos, have become known in the South American and world anthropological scenario in recent times. This group, far from the banks of the Paraguay river, remained concealed from organized modern societies for many years. Like any other groups of people in close contact with nature, the Tomárâho developed a profound and rich world-view which parallels other more widely researched aboriginal cultures as well as showing distinctive features of their own. This is also apparent in their imagery of the sky and of the characters that are closely connected with the celestial sphere. This paper is based on the lengthy anthropological studies of G. Sequera. We have recently undertaken a project to carry out a detailed analysis of the different astronomical elements present in the imagined sky of the Tomárâho and other Chamacoco ethnic groups. We will briefly review some aspects of this aboriginal culture: places where they live, regions of influence in the past, their linguistic family, their living habits and how the advancement of civilization affected their culture and survival. We will later mention the fieldwork carried out for decades and some of the existing studies and publications. We will also make a brief description of the methodology of this work and special anthropological practices. Last but not least, we will focus on the Tomárâho conception of the sky and describe the research work we have been doing in recent times."]

Sullivan, William. (1979). Quechua Star Names. [Note: Thesis for a Master's degree at the Center for Latin American Linguistic Studies at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. His PhD was The Astronomy of Andean Myth: The History of Cosmology.]

Articles/Entries:

Feldman, Lawrence. (1978). "A Note on Sixteenth Century Nahua and Yucatec Terms for Stars." (Archaeoastronomy Bulletin, Volume 1, Number 4, August, Pages 17-18).

Fewkes, J[?]. et. al. (1912). "Origin of the American Aborigines." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 14, Pages 1-59). [Note: See the astronomical contribution by Stansbury Hagar on pages 43-48.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1912). "The Mexican Maize Season in the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer." (American Anthropologist, Volume 14, Issue 3, July-September, Pages 525-529). [Note: The author attempts to identify a correspondence between the agricultural cycle of the maize crop and his identification of zodiacal signs.]

Imbent, Maura. (2010). "The Possible Influence of Astronomy on the Culture of Ceramic-Age, Pre-Columbian Inhabitants of Greencastle Hill in Antigua" (History in Action, Volume 1, Number 1, April, Pages 1-7).

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1925). "Aus ethnologischen Sternbilderstudien." (Philologus, Band, LXXXI, Heft 2. (N. F. Bd. XXXV, Heft 2.), Pages 202-207).

Spinden, Herbert. (1916). "The Question of the Zodiac in America." (American Anthropologist, Volume 18, Pages 53-80).

Šprajc, I[?]. (2005), "More on Mesoamerican cosmology and city plans." (Latin American Antiquity, Volume 16, Number 2, Pages 209-16).

Starr, Eileen. (1992). "South American Astronomical Mythology." (The Planetarian, Volume 21, Number 2).

Teames, Sallie. (2003). "Signs of ?Carinae Outburst in Artifacts of ancient Bolivia." (Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Volume 31, Pages 54-69). [Note: Archaeoastronomy. Journal date for Volume 31 identified as 2002 by author.]

Wicke, Charles. (1984). "The Mesoamerican Rabbit in the Moon: An Influence from Han China?" (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 7, Numbers 1-4, January-December, Pages 46-55).

Zerries, Otto. (1951). "Sternbilder als Ausdruck jägerischer Geisteshaltung in Südamerika." (Paideuma, Volume 5, Pages 220-235).

Aztec

Books/Pamphlets:

Aveni, Anthony. (1980; revised and updated version 2001). Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. [Note: See especially Chapter II, Sub-section: Aztec Constellations., Pages 30-40. See the (English-language) book review by Michael Coe in Archaeoastronomy: The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 4, Number 1, January-March, 1981, Pages 32-38. See the (English-language) book review by Gordon Brotherston, of the 2001 revised and updated version, in Isis, Volume 93, Number 4, December, 2002, Pages 679-680.]

Carrasco, David. (1989). "The king, the capital and the stars: the symbolism of authority in Aztec religion." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). World Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 45-54).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1912). The celestial plan of Teotihuacan. [Note: 15-page pamphlet.  Originally presented as a paper at the 1910 International Congress of Americanists in Mexico City. Life dates: 1869-1942. Hagar's speculation on Teotihuacŕn presented at the 1910 Congress in Mexico City were considered by Manuel Gamio to be based on a somewhat farfetched premise. (Manuel Gamio (1883–1960) was a leading Mexican anthropologist, archaeologist, sociologist and head of the Mexican Department of Anthropology.) See: Teotihuacŕn, The City of the Gods by Eduardo Moctezuma (1990). In recent times Hugh Harleston Junior, an American chemical engineer and fringe theorist, circa the 1970s pursued many of Stansbury Hagar's ideas on the city of Teotihuacan and the Mayans. As well as publishing a number of articles he even presented a paper at the 1974 International congress of Americanists. As example of one discussion by Hartley Alexander of Hagar's ideas: "Stansbury Hagar, resolving what he regards as the Mexican Scorpio into Scorpio and Libra, would see in Sahagun's figures half of the zodiacal twelve; and in both Mexico and Peru he believes that he has identified a series of signs closely equivalent to that of the Old World zodiac. Another view (presented by Zelia Nuttall) conceives the Aztec constellations as forming a series of twenty, corresponding to the twenty day-signs employed in the calendar. A third interpretation, on the whole, accordant with the evidence, is that of Seler, who maintains that the five constellations named by Sahagun and Tezozomoc represent, instead of a zodiac, the four quarters and the zenith of the sky-world, and are, therefore, spatial rather than temporal guides. Seler identifies Mamalhuaztli, "the Fire-Sticks," with stars of the east, in or near Taurus. The Pleiades, rising in the same neighbourhood, he believes to have been the sign of the zenith; and at the beginning of a new cycle of fifty-two years the new fire was kindled when the Pleiades were in the zenith at midnight the very hour, according to Tezozomoc, when the king rises to his vigil. Citlalachtli, "the Star Ball-Ground," is called "the North and its Wheel" by Tezozomoc, and must refer to the stars which revolve about the northern pole. Colotlixayac, "Scorpion-Face," marks the west; while Citlalxonecuilli so named, Sahagun tells us, from its resemblance to S-shaped loaves of bread which were called xonecuilli is clearly identified by Tezozomoc with the Southern Cross and adjacent stars. Thus it appears (granting Seler's interpretation) that the constellations served but to mark the pillars of this four-square world. (Latin American Mythology by Hartley Alexander (1920), Volume XI, The Mythology of all Races.)"]

Preuss, Konrad. (1930). Mexikanische Religion. [Note: Life dates: 1869-1938. See the (English-language) book review by J[?]. Hoskins in American Journal of Archaeology, Volume 35, Number 4, Oct.-Dec., 1931, Pages 480-482.]

Articles/Entries:

Barthel, Thomas. (1964). "Einige Ordungsprinzipein im Aztekischen Pantheon: Zur Analyse der Sahagunschen Götterlisten." (Paideuma, Volume 10, Pages 77-101). [Note: Includes a discussion of the presence of decans in Mexican astronomy.]

Carrasco, David. (1987). "Star Gatherers and Wobbling Suns: Astral Symbolism in the Aztec Tradition." (History of Religions, Volume 26, Number 3, February, Pages 279-294).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1910). "The Celestial Plan of Teotihuacan." In: Actes del Congreso Internacional de Americanistes, Mexico City. [Note: Paper presented at the 1910 International Congress of Americanists in Mexico City. Hagar's speculation on Teotihuacŕn presented at the 1910 Congress in Mexico City were considered by Manuel Gamio to be based on a somewhat farfetched premise.]

Maya

Books/Pamphlets:

Bricker, Harvey. and Bricker, Victoria. (1992). "Zodiacal References in the Maya Codices." In: Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). The Sky in Mayan Literature. [Note: Chapter 6, Pages 148-183.]

Förstemann, Ernst. (1904). "The Pleiades Among the Maya." In: Seler, Eduard. et. al. (1904). Mexican and Central American Antiquities, Calendar Systems, and History. (Pages 521-524). [Note: Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 28. English-language translation (of original German-language congress papers) supervised by Charles Bowditch. The paper by Ernst Förstemann is actually only 2-pages long.]

Freidel, David., Schele, Linda. and Parker, Joy. (1993). Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman's Path. [Note: A central feature of the book is the recognition of the importance of celestial movements in the development of myth and 'discourse' of the classical Maya. The late Maya expert Linda Schele argues that most of the classical symbols, figures, tales and myths recognised in drawings and glyphs on tombs, stone monuments, vessels, pots, codices and similar can be identified and explained as being connected with the movement of stars and planets. The Milky Way, the Big Dipper, Orion and the ecliptic can be brought together in a creation myth similar to the one in the Popol Vuh of colonial Guatemala and contemporary myths from the Maya world. See especially Chapter 2.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1900?/1902?). "The Peruvian Star-Chart of Salcamayhua." In: Proceedings of the XII International Congress of Americanists, Paris, 1900?/1902? (Pages 271-284). [Note: Also issued as a pamphlet. See the (English-language) review by Anon in The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, Volume XXVI, January-November, Page 388. The reviewer is as muddled and unreliable as Stansbury Hagar is.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1909). "Elements of the Maya and Mexican Zodiacs." In: Des XVI. Internationalen Amerikanisten-Kongresses. (Pages 277-300).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1914). "The Maya Zodiac at Ancanceh." (American Anthropologist, (N.S.), Volume 16, Number 1, January-March, Pages 88-95).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1915). "The Maya Zodiac at Santa Rita, British Honduras." In: Proceedings of the XIX International Congress of Americanists, Washington, D.C., 1915. (Pages 211-219). [Note: The Congress Proceedings were published in 1917. The article is another speculative attempt by the author to show the existence of a European type zodiac in pre-Columbian America. See the short critique in: Khristaand, Villela. and Schele, Linda. (1996). "Astronomy and the Iconography of Creation Among the Classic and Colonial Period Maya." In: Macri, Martha. and McHargue, Jan. (Editors). Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993. Hagar conceded that knowledge of the zodiac could not have come with early waves of immigration into the Americas from Asia. He also denied the possibility of of communication from western Europe. He instead argued for accidental communication involving a Chinese junk or Phoenician galley having been shipwrecked on the American coastline. This completely ignored the lack of influence on native culture by the Viking settlers at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1917). "The American Zodiac." (American Anthropologist, (N.S.), Volume 19, Number 4, October-December, Pages 518-532). [Note: An inept reply to the views of the Maya expert Herbert Spinden.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1928). "The Symbolic Plan of Palenque." In: Proceedings of the XXIII International Congress of Americanists, New York, 1928. (Pages 200-210). [Note: The Congress Proceedings were published in 1930. The article was also published in L'Ethnographie, Issues 24-27, 1931, Pages 200-210 [with 1 plan, 4 figures].]

Khristaand, Villela. and Schele, Linda. (1996). "Astronomy and the Iconography of Creation Among the Classic and Colonial Period Maya." In: Macri, Martha. and McHargue, Jan. (Editors). Eighth Palenque Round Table - 1993, Volume X. (Pages ?-?). [Note: Contains papers originally presented at the Eighth Palenque Round Table, June 6-12, 1993. The particular discusses the history of arguments for the existence of a Maya zodiac. The authors question the existence of a Maya zodiac.]

King, Timothy. (2006). The constellation system of the ancient Maya. [Note: Unpublished PhD dissertation (189 pages), Stanford University. The date also appears as 2005. Abstract: "This work provides a detailed analysis of archaeoastronomical imagery in Classic and Post-Classic Maya codical, mural, and ceramic art. By use of comparative iconographic methods, with the incorporation of modern and Colonial ethnographic materials, this dissertation proposes that some religious and mythological imagery of Classic Maya ceramics offers realistic depictions of ancient Maya constellations and recordings of astronomical observations. In this work, seven Maya constellations are identified and a proposal is advanced for the recording of a 6th Century Geminid meteor shower on a Classic Maya ceramic vessel."]

Lamb, Weldon. (2005). Tzotzil Maya Cosmology." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 163-172). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Love, Bruce. (1994). The Paris Codex: Handbook for a Maya Priest. [Note: The author, an anthropologist, Discusses the Paris Codex and whether the Maya had a zodiac. Bruce Love doesn't think the Paris Codex "zodiac" is a zodiac at all. The "Introduction" is by George Stuart. This short book of circa 150 pages is considered a comprehensive treatment of the Paris Codex. Details for Bruce Love: 1986 Ph.D. Anthropology, UCLA; 1981 M.A. Anthropology, UCLA; 1976 B.A. Anthropology, UCLA. Principal research fields: Maya archaeology and cultural anthropology of the Yucatan Peninsula, with special emphasis on Maya religion and ritual and deciphering the hieroglyphic inscriptions. Current (2010) occupation: 1993-present President of CRM TECH, an archaeological and historical consulting firm in Southern California. Previous position: 1990-1993 Director: Archaeological Research Unit, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside.]

Milbrath, Susan. (2000). Star Gods of the Maya: Astronomy in Art, Folklore, and Calendars. [Note: Excellent. The standard reference work on Mayan archaeoastronomy. See the (English-language) book reviews by Clemency Coggins in Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Volume 31, Number 3, Winter, 2001, Pages 479-481; and by Norman Hammond in American Anthropologist, Volume 103, Number 2, June, 2001, Pages 549-550. At the time of publication the author, a PhD, was Curator of Latin American Art and Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History; and Affiliate Professor of Anthropology at the University of Florida.]

Robbins, R[?]. (2005). "2000 Years of Continuity in Astronomical Symbols from Monte Albán to the Aztec Stone at Tenochtitlán." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space. (Pages 289-300).

Severin, Gregory. (1981). The Paris Codex: Decoding an Astronomical Ephemeris. [Note: Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 71, Part 5. See the critical (English-language) book reviews by Michael Closs in Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Centre for Archaeoastronomy, Volume VI, Numbers 1-4, January-December, 1983, Pages 164-171; and by David Kelley in Archaeoastronomy (Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy), Number 5 (Supplement to Volume 14), 1983, Pages S70-S72.]

Tedlock, Dennis. and Tedlock, Barbara. (2007). "Moon Woman Meets the Stars: A New Reading of the Lunar Almanacs in the Dresden Codex." In: Ruggles, Clive. and Urton, Gary. (Editors). Skywatching in the Ancient world: New Perspectives in Cultural Astronomy. (Pages 121-156).

Thompson, J[?]. (1974). "Maya astronomy." In: Hodgson, Frank. (Editor). The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World. (Pages 83-98).

Articles/Entries:

Hagar, Stansbury. (1910). "Elements of the Maya and Mexican Zodiacs." In: Proceedings of the XVI International Congress of Americanists, September 9-15, 1908, Vienna. (Pages 209-? (or 277-?)).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1913). "Izamal and its Celestial Plan." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 15, Number 1, January-March, Pages 16-32).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1914). "The Maya Zodiac at Acanceh." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 16, Number 1, January-March, Pages 88-95, and Plate XI).

Hagar, Stansbury. (1915). "The Maya Day Sign Manik." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 17, Number 3, July-September, Pages 488-491). [Note: The author pursues his ideas of a Mayan zodiac.]

Hagar, Stansbury, (1917). "The American Zodiac." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 19, Number 4, October-December, Pages 518-532). [Note: Stansbury Hagar was convinced of the existence of a common native zodiac in America. He argued for the existence of zodiacs, having very similar aspects, in Peru, Yucatan, Mexico (the Nahuas), and amongst the Pueblo and Hopi tribes. Further, he believed this zodiac corresponded closely to the Western zodiac inherited from Babylonia through the Greeks. He did not attempt to explain how pre-Columbian communication between the Old and New worlds occurred. He only offered that it had occurred centuries prior to the Spanish conquest and that it was accidental and sporadic (not the result of any general migration), and achieved by unknown route or routes. His evidence for the Old and New world zodiacs being identical was 3-fold: (1) The star-chart of Salcamayhua drawn by an Aymara Indian of Peru circa 1613, which depicts 12 zodiacal signs known in the Western zodiac (obviously Spanish influence rather than surviving native tradition); (2) Place-names within and around the sacred capital city Cuzco reflected the names and comparative positions of the 12 zodiacal signs (now discredited); and (3) The ritual of the annual festivals one of which was held each month and was directed towards the sign through which the sun was passing at the date of the festival, that is, the details of each ceremony reflected the attributes if it governing sign. He also maintained the existence of this zodiac is further attested by Blas Valera, a 'half-blood' Quechua Indian who wrote only a generation after the Spanish conquest, as well as by early Spanish writers.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1921). "Zodiacal Temple of Uxmal." (Popular Astronomy, Volume 29, February, Pages 94-102).

Park, Changbom. and Chung, Heajoo. (2009). "Identification of Postclassic Maya Constellations from the Venus Pages of the Dresden Codex." (Estudios de Cultura Maya, Volume XXXV, Pages 33-60 + 2 Appendices). [Note: Abstract: "Ancient Mayan civilization, flourished from 1200 B.C. to 1500 A.D., has left numerous hieroglyphic texts on astronomical observations and calendar. In particular, the Dresden Codex contains the most details of such ancient Mayan heritage. Page 24 and those from 46 to 50 of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural descriptions. We note that the calendar in Dresden Codex is a Venus-solar calendar. Our work focuses on the possibility that the calendar was made to work in conjunction with the periodic appearance of constellations on the sky. By analyzing the descriptions in the Venus pages, we propose that the columns in each page describe the motion of Venus with respect to major constellations at dates corresponding to special events while the calendar dates increase horizontally in the synodic period of Venus. We present twenty Mayan constellations identified from the Venus pages assuming that the first date of page 46 is February 6, 1228. We also report our understanding of verb expressions about the relative movement of constellations and Venus." Changbom Park: School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, Korea; Heajoo Chung:Institute of Iberoamerican Studies, Pusan University of Foreign Studies, Busan, Korea.]

Smiley, Charles. (1960). "The Antiquity and Precision of Mayan Astronomy." (Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Volume 54, Number 5, Pages 222-226). [Note: Detailed discussion of the Scorpion constellation and the Pleiades.]

Smith, Michael. (2003). "Can We Read Cosmology in Ancient Maya City Plans? Comment on Ashmore and Sabloff." (Latin American Antiquity, Volume 14, Number 2, Pages 221-228). [Note: Informed article critical of assertions of possible cosmological influences on Maya city planning. Michael Smith is presently (2006) an archaeologist at Arizona State University. He specializes in ancient Mesoamerican civilizations. Life dates: 1953- .]

Smith, Michael. (2005). "Did the Maya Build Architectural Cosmograms?" (Latin American Antiquity, Volume 16, Number 2, Pages 217-224). [Note: An informed article critical of assertions of possible cosmological influences on Maya city planning.]

Inca

Books/Pamphlets:

Aveni, Anthony. (Editor). (1990). The Lines of Nazca. [Note: Contains some brief critical discussions of the constellation/stellar alignment theory of the Nazca lines.]

Bauer, Brian. and Dearborn, David. (1995). Astronomy and Empire in the Ancient Andes. [Note: See specifically Chapter 5: Stellar Observations., Pages 101-140. See the (English-language) book reviews by Anthony Aveni in Archaeoastronomy (Supplement to Journal for the History of Astronomy), 1997, Number 22, Supplement to Volume 28, Pages S85-S87; and by Gary Urton in American Anthropologist, 1997, Volume 99, Number 2, June, Pages 458-459.]

Curry, Andrew. (2009). "Rituals of the Nasca Lines." (Archaeology, May/June, Volume 62, Number 3,  Pages 34-39). [Note: Sets out the results of new excavations that the purpose of the geoglyphs was rain ceremonies arising out of scarce water supplies as the climate changed circa 1000 BCE and the region became drier, and the rivers dried up.]

Hagar [his surname can also appear as Hager], Stansbury. (1900). "The Stellar Chart of Salcamayhua." In: Congrčs International des Américanistes.

Hagar, Stansbury. (1902). "Cuzco, The Celestial City." In: Transactions of the International Congress of Americanists. (Pages 217-225). [Note: Paper presented at the 13th Session, New York, 1902. The Transactions were published in 1905. Also appeared as an off-print.]

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As it is very difficult to find information on Stansbury Hagar I have chosen to give considerable details here.

Some genealogy information is confusing. According to one source he was born in San Francisco on December 9, 1869 (but most sources give (mistakenly?) December 9, 1871). (Bulletin of Yale University, Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University Deceased During the Year 1942-1943, Series 40, 1 January 1944, Number 1, Pages 34-35, gives "Born December 9, 1869, in San Francisco, Calif.") He was the grandson of William Hager and Mary (Alexander) Hager. (According to several sources (one a genealogical website) he was the son (and only child) of Thomas Smith Hager (1848-1887) and Amanda Tiffany Trembley (also spelled Trembly) [= Amy Hagar]) (born 1841 (but a source gives 1849)). (Note: According to records at ancestry.co he was born in San Francisco on 9 December 1871 to Thomas S. Hagar (1848-1887) and Amanda Tiffany Hagar (1849-?).) Several sources confirm Thomas Smith Hagar. However, San Francisco was likely not his parents (permanent) city of residence. His father, Thomas Hagar, was the/a bookkeeper for Tiffany & Company, New York City, and was the son of William Hagar and Mary (nee Smith) Hagar of Brooklyn. His mother, Chloe Amanda (Tremblay) Hagar, was the daughter of Daniel Tremblay and Harriet Amanda (nee Tiffany) Tremblay of Brooklyn. Yale University relatives of Stansbury Hagar include a great-uncle, William H. Tiffany (B.A., 1840). (Information from The New York Times (1868) on the wedding of his parents, and some other information, was kindly brought to my attention by Ann Bradburd, New York. It explains the Hagar family relationship to the (very wealthy) Tiffany family.) The Rev. William A. McVickar, at the residence of the bride's uncle, Charles L. Tiffany, on Wednesday, November 11, 1868, married Thomas Hagar, of Brooklyn, New York to Amy (i.e., Amanda) Trembly, of New-York City. Amanda Trembly’s mother was Harriet A. Tiffany who married Daniel Trembly. They had a daughter Amanda (Amy). Stansbury Hagar was a grandson of Harriet Tiffany Tremblay. (The Tiffanys of America: History and Genealogy by Charles Tiffany (1901) mentions Thomas S. Hager (Page 37), and Amanda Tiffany Trembley (Pages 37 and 452). (From the wording used, likely taken from U.S. census records.) Amanda Tiffany, born Brooklyn, Connecticut, 1849, married Thomas S. Hager in 1870, in New York. Using The Tingley Family by Raymon[d?] Tingley (1910, Page 109); and The Tingley Family Revised (2 Volumes) by Marian McCauley (2006, Page 145) we obtain slightly different information. Thomas S. Hager [a resident] of San Francisco, California, son of William and Mary (Alexander) Hager, born 1848, died 1887, child Stansbury, born 1871 [mistake for 1869?]. Harriet Amanda Tiffany-Trembley is mentioned on Pages 109 and 430 of the earlier book. Amanda Tiffany Trembley-Hager (Harriet) is mentioned on Page 145 of the latter book. Amanda Trembley-Hager (born 1849) is the daughter of Harriet Tiffany-Trembley (born 1815). (Hagar was the grandson of (Aunt) Harriet Tiffany Tremblay (Trembley).) Out of all of this we reliably get: William Hager married Mary (Alexander) Hager and they had a son Thomas Hager (born 1848 - died (19 February) 1887) who (in 1870 in New York ) married Amanda Tiffany Trembley [= Amanda Tiffany Trembley-Hager] (born in Brooklyn, Connecticut, 1849). They had a (only) son, Stansbury Hager, who was born in San Francisco in 1869 (some sources state 1871). Thus Stansbury Hager was directly connected with the wealthy and influential Tiffany family. (The Tiffany family were originally farmers and later some of the family began a highly successful retail jewelry business.)

Stansbury Hagar attended Brooklyn Latin School, Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute and Briar Cliff Military Academy, Ossining, New York State. He entered Yale University with the Class of 1891, was president Class Literary Society Freshman year; and a member of the Yale Union. Stansbury Hagar graduated from Yale University (Connecticut) Class of 1892 (correctly 1893?) with an A.B. [B.A.] (Bachelor of Arts). From the Catalogue of Yale University 1891-92 we get: Stansbury Tiffany Hager, Brooklyn, N.Y., 9 Library Street, Academical Department, Yale College, Senior Class, 1891-92. The Academical Department was one of 2 sections under The Department of Philosophy and the Arts. (In the Catalogue of Yale University 1891-92 no professor is listed as teaching ethnology/anthropology.) However, it is indicated that Hagar may have had an association with the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, under Frederic Putnam (a Professor of Archaeology) who had been appointed to head the so-called Department of Ethnology at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago (Department of Ethnology, World's Fair Exposition). Putnam had charge of the ethnological exhibits to be established in the Midway Plaisance. This may have been Hagar's initial exposure to ethnology/anthropology. In the year 1888-89 Hagar was in the Sophomore Class of the Academical Department.

On numerous occasions Hagar made generous gifts of money to Yale University. 'The Report of the President' in the Bulletin of Yale University (1909, Page 301) note: "As in former years, gifts of money include valuable contributions from Mr. Stansbury Hagar (Yale 1892) ...." The American Anthropologist, Volume 18, 1906, Page 485, mentions that the only only annual contributor of money to the anthropological section of the Yale University Museum (Peabody Museum of Natural history at Yale) is Stansbury Hagar. At that time the anthropological section of the Yale University Museum existed in an attic and without funds. The Harvard graduates magazine, Volume 17, 1909, records: "Voted that the gift of $15, from Mr. Stansbury Hagar, toward Archaeological Explorations under the direction of Professor FW Putnam, be gratefully accepted." In 1932-1933, at least, he is listed as a donor to the Yale University Library for that period. Hagar was a frequent donor. In 1910 he is listed as a contributor to The Research Fellowship Fund of The Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. (Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) was the first professional woman astronomer in the USA.)

In 1887 his address was Stansbury Hager, Box 532, N.Y.P.O. [New York Post Office]. Stansbury Hagar attended New York Law School, 1895-1897. He graduated from the New York Law School in 1897 with an LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws). (To be exact he received his Bachelor of Law Degree on June 10, 1897.) He was admitted to the bar in 1898, and practiced independently in New York City from 1898 until his retirement in 1925. In 1926 Hagar stated he was expanding on the "skeleton outlines" of themes he had already published (on Native American symbolism and astronomy). The title Professor is mistaken. The surname Hagar also appears as Hager - this spelling being used by Hagar past 1900 (and also by others). His names appear in a multitude of spellings. The Yale Pot-pourri (1892, Volume 27) has him listed as Stanbury [obviously a misprint for Stansbury] Tiffany Hager. In one edition of the Directory of the Living Graduates of Yale University (Page 74) he appears as "Stanbury Hager, 48 Wall st., N. Y. City. (Law)." In the Yearbook (Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences), Volume 7, 1894, his name appears as Stansbury T. Hager. In The Tiffanys of America: History and Genealogy by Charles Tiffany (1901) he also appears (Pages 38) as Stanbury Hager.) It was usual, as least in his early life, and by friends, to call him "Stannie." It appears certain his name was originally Stansbury Tiffany Hager - but the spelling of his surname became changed to Hagar. (For his articles published in 1895 he used the spelling Hager. (On the cover of a complimentary copy of his article issued as a pamphlet, "What Was the Star of Bethlehem," Hagar has amended (in ink) Hager to Hagar by writing A over the E.) (The Yale Alumni Weekly, Volume XXVI, Number 1, Page 719, states: "Stansbury Hagar addressed the University Club of Chicago on Saturday, March [?], his subject being "The Star of Bethlehem, an Astronomical Interpretation.") With his paper "Notes on the customs and traditions of the Mic Macs." (Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Volume 13, 1895, he appears as S. T. Hager. (In August, 1897, he was a registered attendee at the Science Congress (British Association for the Advancement of Science) in Toronto. His address was given as Brooklyn. See: New-York Daily Tribune, Monday, August 23, 1897, Page 7.) In 1896, The Evening Post newspaper used the spelling Stanbury T. Hager when reporting his paper "Magic and Medicine Among the Micmacs." (See: The critic, Issues 724-749, Page 26, 1896. In his lengthy study on Myths of the Cherokee (1900) the ethnologist James Mooney has the spelling Hagar. Hagar is a variant of Hager.)

Stansbury Tiffany Hagar was primarily a lawyer (he identified himself as a Counsellor-at-Law). In a letter to The New York Clipper, May 2, 1917, Page 21, Hagar identified himself as a lawyer. (His legal stationary was headed: Stansbury Hagar, Counselor at Law, 48 Wall Street, New York, Telephone Hanover 5174.) His ethnological interests in Indian culture and astronomy (initially Central America and Peru) were carried out in combination with his law practice.

Stansbury Hagar is listed in the Real Estate Record and Builders' Guide, Volume 70, 1902. An edition of Bender's Lawyers' Diary and Directory for the State of New York listing of Stansbury Hagar has his address as 31 Nassau [Avenue, Brooklyn]. The Biographical Dictionary of the State of New York, 1900 lists (page 176) ) his occupation as Lawyer and his business address as 31 Nassau Street, New York City. His residence is listed as 372 Washington Street, Brooklyn. As he also engaged in ethnological inquiry during his career he also regarded himself (and was likewise regarded) as an ethnologist. The obituary in the Explorer's Journal describes him as a student of American ethnology. (He was not, however, a professional ethnologist.) Who's Who in America states: "He studied Native American ethnology, and also archaeology, since he was at College [Yale]." (Who's Who in America: Volume 1 (1899, states: "Since he was at college he studied American (native) ethnology and archaeology ....") There is no indication that he formally studied ethnology or archaeology at Yale University. (It is actually quite likely that he had no formal training in anthropology/ethnology. Like others, he was perhaps self-trained.) The Geograph-Kalendar edited by Hermann Haack and Gebhard Schönith, Volume 5, 1907, Page 419, (& Volume 11, 1913, Page 229), records Stansbury Hagar as "Folk-lore [Folklorist], Ethnol [Ethnologist], Lawyer." In the 1890s (beginning perhaps when he was only 22 or 23 years old) when he travelled to Nova [also Novia] Scotia to research Mi'kmaq culture and lore he perhaps would be suitably labelled as a folklorist. (Most likely he travelled by steamboat from New York to Digby and vice versa.)

His studies are among the earliest and still among the most frequently cited/used. In August, 1894, Stansbury Hagar described the Mi'kmaq rattlesnake dance to the Brooklyn Convention in his address titled "Note and Customs of the Micmacs." (Two of Stansbury Hagar's early Mi'kmaq informants (now called consultants) were Abram Glode and Newell Glode. Abram Glode was 73, and considered to be a very reliable Micmac by Stansbury Hagar, when initially interviewed in 1895 by Hagar for his article published that year. (Note: for an example of Abram(Abraham) Glode's ability to embellish Old Testament stories see the Cape Breton's Magazine article, "Of Water Fairies: Two MicMac Tales" (Issue 12, Page 23, published 1 December 1975 (1975/12/1). It is most likely that Stansbury Hagar first met Newell Glode (Abram Glode's son) in New York City. In 1890 Newell Glode (who appears to have been well educated) had presented a somewhat controversial paper (talk) to the New York Academy of Sciences on his views of the nature of folklore and mythology. Earlier, in 1888, in several published articles, Newell Glode had emphasised the need to collect Native American material on folklore, myths, and tales.) Hagar's "Micmac Magic and Medicine" was originally (prior to publication) a paper read at the Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Folklore Society. He might be better termed an investigator of Native American lore. He basically recorded stories and collected artifacts. (He can be loosely categorised as a lawyer, ethnologist, and folklorist (and perhaps adventurer and traveller).) Hagar frequently contributed papers to the meetings of various science organisations he was a member of. (Another early paper was "On the Names Glooscap and Illa Tichi Uira Cocha," American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1899.) Hagar's interest in Indian civilisation dates from his 1880 meeting with W. S. Beebe, an army officer then living in Brooklyn. In several of his earliest publications Hagar expressed thanks to W. S. Beebe. (Brevet-Major William Beebe (1841-1898) of Thompson, Connecticut, died in Havana, Cuba whilst serving in the US Army as Chief Ordinance Officer. He had a distinguished Civil War record. Beebe was interested in American archaeology and was a convinced diffusionist (readily embracing hoaxes/frauds as authentic evidence of pre-Columbian voyages to the Americas). He was also interested in the astronomical interpretations of mythology and structures.

Hagar first went to Peru in the summer of 1891, and returned home to graduate from Yale University in 1892.

At the time that Hagar carried out his work there was no established standard for anthropological/ethnological certification. During the late 19th-century ethnology (cultural heritage of 'primitive' peoples) was considered to be a subdivision of anthropology (the science of mankind).) Stansbury Hagar's principal investigations were conducted in Peru, among the Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, and the Mi'kmaqs of Nova Scotia, and in various European Museums. He early identified himself as a student of American ethnology and archaeology, especially the symbolic astronomy of Peru. (He was lecturing on Peruvian cosmology as early as 1899. In 1899 Hagar presented a paper on "The Astronomical Cosmogony of the Peruvians" to the New York Academy of Sciences. (Circa 1900 his address was 7 Lefferts Place, Brooklyn.) The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, February 18, 1901, Page 15, advertised: "Lecture by Stansbury Hagar, secretary of the department of astronomy on "An Ancient Peruvian Star Chart." Illustrated by lantern photographs and by Peruvian collection. Large lecture room, first floor, 502 Fulton street, 8:15 P.M." This was the lecture room of the Young Men's Christian Association. Hagar was on the executive committee of the department of astronomy for 1903-1939. Hagar believed the ancient Peruvians possessed a large amount of astronomical knowledge.) Who's Who in New York 1914 basically offers he was: "Specially interested in Native American ethnology, both North and South America, making original researches and contributions on subject of astronomical symbolism of ancient Peru, and mythology and ritual of American Indians."

By the standards of the day he can be called a Lawyer and Ethnologist. The New International Encyclopaedia, 1906, Volume 9, notes: "He became an investigator of Native American archaeology and ethnology." (At the turn of the 19th-century ethnology was still a new discipline. Broadly, each person wanting to be an ethnologist had to create their own credentials and reputation through research and publication.) According to the American Anthropologist, 1906, Hagar had completed a study of the "Astronomy and Astrology of the American Indians." Stansbury Hagar also visited Europe and this included pursuing his studies by visiting many European museums. (It is presently difficult to work out how he switched roles between lawyer and ethnologist.) His early ethnological work focused on the (North American) Mi'kmaqs of Nova Scotia, with 4 articles published on them between 1895 and 1900 in the American Anthropologist. (Silas Rand and Stansbury Hagar produced the earliest and most frequently cited sources for Mi'kmaq folklore.) However, in this time frame he also published an equal number of articles in other scientific journals. His early investigations also involved carrying out ethnological studies of the Cherokees of North Carolina, circa 1899-1900 (and was, I think, made a blood-brother). His manuscript on Cherokee star-lore was completed in 1900 (but never published). His paper on Cherokee Star lore was not printed in the American Anthropologist as planned. It appeared in the Festschrift Boas (1906). (He was also adopted by the Hopi Indians of Arizona.)

He also had an early focus on Meso-American and South American ethnology (and visited Peru prior to 1900) and promoted numerous speculative ideas regarding ancient Peruvian astronomy. On March 5, 1902, he gave a public lecture "Cuzco, the Ancient City of the Sun, a Study in Peruvian Astronomy." (See: The Fourteenth Year Book of The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences (1918).) Circa 1930 he believed he had found evidence that the Aztecs and Maya distinguished between various meteor groups. (See: Science Newsletter, Volume 20, 1931, Page 313.) A public lecture in 1916 was titled: "The Maya Zodiac of Santa Rita."

One of his early ethnological goals was to record Micmac traditions and customs before the last informants were gone. (His work with the Mi'kmaqs began at least by 1894.) For his several studies of Micmac lore he always based himself in the town of Digby (Nova Scotia). His research apparently took place at and near Digby. At least as early as 1897 he was a member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. (The time he spent in Canada is yet to be identified. The British Association for the Advancement of Science: Second List of Resident and Non-Resident Members and Associates (Toronto, August 18, 1897), lists "Hagar, Stansbury, 372 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y.; 55 Grenville Street [Toronto, near the Toronto General Hospital]." and notes: "The Addresses of Non-Resident Members during the Meeting are placed after a semicolon." Hagar read a paper on "Star-lore of the Micmacs of Nova Scotia" at the August, 1897 Toronto meeting of the British Association. At this meeting Hagar was included with those attendees described as anthropologists. According to the journal Science (New Series, Volume VI, Number 146, October 15, 1897, Page 577): "In this essay valuable details were given of the stellar Eden of the Micmacs, their lore of the Pleiades, moon and sun, the heaven-birds, etc.") Hagar did venture out into the Digby area to spend time with Mi'kmaq peoples but his form of transport is unknown. As well as visiting the Digby area he may have gone elsewhere. (It has been commented that Hagar's research apparently took place near Digby.) On one occasion Hagar travelled and camped with a group of Mi'kmaqs in Nova Scotia. In 1895 his name and address (given in The Journal of American Folklore, Volume 8, 1895) was Stansbury Hager, Digby, Nova Scotia [H 56]. As well as collecting Mi'kmaq lore throughout the 1890s he he also collected Mi'kmaq compound medicine materials and made drawings of Mi'kmaq scenes. (In an article in The Register-Guard (a newspaper published in Eugene, Oregon) for December 12, 1943, the amateur astronomer Dr James Pruett identifies that at one time Stansbury Hagar was travelling and camping with a Micmac chief.) At the time of these studies there were only 160 Micmac in Digby County.

On April 29, 1894, he presented a lantern photograph lecture on the Mi'kmaqs, at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. In 1895 he read a paper on "Micmac Magic and Medicine" to the Seventh Annual Meeting of the American Folk-lore Society. At the June 21, 1898 meeting of the (English) Folk-Lore Society Hager's paper "The Star-Lore of the Micmacs of Nova Scotia" was read. On December 29, 1897(?) at at a joint (annual) meeting of the (American) Folk-Lore Society and Section H, Anthropology, of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Hagar read his paper "Star Lore of the Micmacs." Hager's paper on "The Star-lore of the Micmacs of Nova Scotia." was read (by ?) at the Tuesday, June 21st, 1898 meeting of the (British) Folk-Lore Society. In 1899 he gave a lecture: "The Curious Customs of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia."

However, from 1897 he basically focused on practicing law. He was also, from 1892(1893?) till his resignation in 1939, an officer at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. After his resignation he did not maintain contact. He became Secretary of the Department of archaeology in 1892. However, some confusion exists in the sources. It is also indicated his initial positions there were (apparently) Executive Officer (rather than Secretary, as some sources state) of the Department of Astronomy (likely to correctly be the Department of Archaeology), and (apparently) Secretary of the Department of Ethnology. I have not seen the Brooklyn Institute identify him as Secretary of the Department of Astronomy. It is likely that this is a mistake in the 1914 edition of Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography. (American Men of Science (1906) states he was a Member of the Executive Committee of the Department of Astronomy at the Brooklyn Institute. However, The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Monday, February 18, 1901, Page 15, (mentioning his lecture on The Ancient Peruvian Star Chart) describes him as "secretary of the department of astronomy." The lecture address given is "Large lecture room, first floor, 502 Fulton Street.") (The Annual Prospectus, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Department of Education (1917, Page 50) states: "Lectures on Ethnology will be given from time to time during the year in co-operation with the Departments of Geography and Astronomy." Hagar was (apparently) variously Secretary of the Department of Ethnology (from 1892(1893?)), then Secretary of the Department of Archaeology (from at least 1900, (in his paper presented to Congrčs international des américanistes; XIIe session, tenue ŕ Paris en 1900 he identifies he is Secretary of the Department of Archaeology, published in 1902 as Volume 12, Congrčs International des Américanistes), President of the Department of Ethnology (by at least 1918) and Lecturer on Ethnology, Executive Officer of the Departments of Ethnology and Astronomy (at least by 1920), Secretary of the Council, and President of the Department of Ethnology (at least by 1927).

By at least 1902 there was a Department of Archaeology and a Department of astronomy at the Brooklyn Institute.

When he gave a (illustrated with lantern slides) on "The Curious Customs of the Micmac Indians of Nova Scotia" on Monday, December 19, 1898, at the Art Building, 174 Montague Street, Brooklyn, he was identified as Secretary of the Department of Archeology of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. (See: The New York Times, Tuesday, December 20, 1898, Page 4.) Sometimes this is given as: Secretary Brooklyn Institute, Archaeology Section. (The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Department of Education, Prospectus, 1917-1918, identifies Stansbury Hagar as President of the Department of Ethnology.) (American Men of Science, Volume 1 (1960, Page 130) states/corrects he was appointed Secretary of the Department of Archaeology at the Brooklyn Institute in 1895.) An early date for Stansbury Hagar as Secretary of the Department of Ethnology causes some confusion as the sources differ somewhat on titles and dates. (In 1893 he has the title of Secretary for some department at the Brooklyn Institute but the claim for Secretary of the Department of Ethnology creates a puzzle.) (The Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences established a Department of Ethnology in 1903. Stewart Culin (1858-1929) was the founding Curator of Ethnology at the Museum from 1903 until he retired from his role in the 1920s. It appears the expectation was his time was to be largely given to research work on the archaeological material with a view to publication. He was an avid collector of Native American relics for the Museum. Note: At the beginning of the 20th-century there were few public museums in the USA.) However, circa 1902 he is mentioned in publications as Secretary of the Department of Archaeology at the Brooklyn Institute. (But this can be dated earlier.) Possibly there was a name change with the Department from Archaeology to Ethnology in 1903, when it appears the Department of Ethnology was established. The Department of Archaeology was organised in 1889 with 24 members, and Stansbury Hager as Secretary (possibly Secretary Membership?). In 1894 it had 133 members. Between 1904 and 1927 he represented the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences periodically at the annual conferences of the International Congress of Americanists. By 1912 he was certainly Secretary of the Department of Ethnology. (The Brooklyn Museum Handbook for 1967 states that from 1897-1918 Stansbury Hagar was Secretary of the Department of Archaeology and Secretary, President of the Department of Ethnology.) The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences had a Department of Education which issued a Prospectus that set out the program of Lectures and Conferences, etc. (In the publication The Brooklyn Institute of Arts & Sciences, Department of Education, Prospectus for 1915-1916, his name appears as Stansbury Hagar, M.A., Secretary, Department of Ethnology, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences.) He was also, by 1903 at least, a member of the Executive Committee of the Brooklyn Institute. The Twenty-eighth Year Book of The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1916, Volume 29, states that Department of Ethnology Officers for 1916-1917 included Stansbury Hagar as Secretary of the Executive Committee. (I cannot presently identify whether any of the positions he held were intended as full-time or part-time paid positions, or were simply honorary. Regardless, Hagar gave regular lectures at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences.) According to Yale University Obituary Record, Hagar was: "... secretary department of ethnology Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 1908-21 and president 1922-39, secretary of council 1922-39, ...." In April, 1915, through the Department of Education at the Brooklyn Institute, he organised a conference on "The Zodiacal Symbolism of the Snake Dance and Other Hopi Ceremonies." In early 114 Hagar was elected/re elected Treasure of the American Ethnological Society. In 1915 Hagar, following an Executive Committee meeting of the American Ethnological Society, was instructed to take the necessary step for the Society to become incorporated.

It is reported that in July, 1926 (likely an error), visited and studied the remains of the extensive earthworks of the Mound Builders in and around Ohio. However, his talk on his conclusions concerning the serpent mound to the AAAS was given in January, 1925. In 1928, at the American Museum of Natural History, he presented a talk on the mythology of the zodiacal constellations. (This talk may have been given in 1927. See: The Annual Report of the American Museum of Natural History, Volume 59, 1927(1928?), Page 37.) At the 1902 meeting of the International Congress of Americanists in New York, Stansbury Hagar was one of a dozen high profile mostly academic persons present at a dinner which included Zelia Nuttall. Circa 1925 Hagar was engaged in the preparation for publication of his complete studies on the symbolism of the zodiac in the pre-Columbian culture of Central and South America. A number of papers on this subject had already been published by Hagar. (See: Journal of the National Institute of Social Sciences, Volume 10, 1925, Page 100.) By 1917 Hagar a member of the National Institute of Social Sciences. The Proceedings - Twentythird International Congress of Americanists, Volume 2, Issue 2, 1930, states Stansbury Hagar, Department of Education, Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn. His residence and law office was in New York City (i.e., variously apartments in Brooklyn and Harlem). In an article on Micmac customs in Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science his address is 372 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn, NY. (This address for Stansbury Hagar appears in Lain's Directory 1897-1898 Brooklyn.) In 1900 (at least until 1902) he had a Law Office at 31 Nassau Street, New York City, and later his Law Office was at 48 Wall Street, Manhattan, New York City. In the morning of 11 August, 1902, fire and water caused damage to the building, including significant damage to the libraries and offices of law firms there, including those of Stansbury Hagar. (For 1905 (at least) one publication has his address as 62 Wall Street, New York City, but this is likely an error.) Circa 1921 his address was 662, East, 21st Street, Brooklyn. In 1923 his address is 347 5th Avenue, New York. Other addresses given - for Brooklyn - are 205 Park Place, Times, Brooklyn (at least his residence for 1930-circa 1938), and 162 St. Marks Avenue, Brooklyn, NY (this latter address is given in the Alumni Directory of Yale University, Living Graduates and Non-Graduates, 1926, and also American Anthropologist, Volume 27, Issue 1, January-March, 1925, which has 162 Marks Avenue [correctly 162 St. Mark's Avenue], Brooklyn). Another source lists (for 1926) 162 St. Mark's Avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y. (American Men of Science: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 5, 1938, Page 453, gives Hagar's address as, 205 Park Place, Brooklyn, N.Y.) The address 162 St. Mark's Avenue appears for 1929. Also, 527 West 121st Street, New York. The Summarized Proceedings and a Directory of Members, Issue 50, by the American Association for the Science[s?], (2009), Section 6, Page 169, has "Hagar, Stansbury, 179 Kingston Avenue." under New York. His second last address (listed in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volumes 53-54, 1941) was 24 Fiske Place Times Plaza, Brooklyn, New York. However, his obituary in the Explorers Journal states his home was at Polhemus Place (no street number given), Brooklyn.

Stansbury Hagar was a member/fellow of numerous organisations and scientific societies. He was probably, at one time or another, a member of some 30-40 organisations/societies/clubs and held office in many of them. He also attended a variety of conferences - he attended the 1908 International Congress of Arts and Science: Secular and Religious Education. In August 1900, at the New York meeting of the American Association, he was elected a member of the General Committee. This was enabled by the resignation of Professor Joseph Jastrow. (See: Science, Volume 12, Number 294, 17th August, 1900, Pages 265-269.) In January, 1901, he was a Fellow of the American Ethnological Society. He was a founder and member of the American Anthropological Association - and later a Fellow of such. (In 1916 and 1925 at least he a Council Member of the American Anthropological Association.) The Pan American Society, Inc. Year Book for 1912 lists Stansbury Hagar as a member. He was not always well liked. In a letter to Alfred Kroeber in 1918 Edward Sapir wrote: "Presumably Hagar will get sore and resign in a huff. Well, let him." Stansbury Hagar remained a member of the American Anthropological Association until his death. (In an annotation to this particular 1918 letter by the German-born anthropologist and linguist Edward Sapir to Alfred Kroeber, in the book The Sapir - Kroeber Correspondence (1984), the editor Victor Golla wrote: "Stansbury Hagar remained a member of the A.A.A. until his death in the mid-1930's." However, Hagar was still alive in 1939. Victor Golla was, at least 2001, Editor, The Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas Bulletin.) Hagar's publications were not always highly regarded. J. Alden Mason (University of Pennsylvania), writing (in 1948) to Charles Muses stated: "I am sending you today in a large envelope the ten reprints of the articles by of Stansbury Hagar, whom I knew slightly years ago. There is no urgency about returning them; it has been a while since I have looked at them. And I may never look at them." In 1910 at least Hagar was on the Executive Committee of the American Ethnological Society. (At the meeting of the American Ethnological Society on January 24, 1910, Hagar was one of the officers elected by acclamation to the Executive Committee, at the recommendation of the Executive Committee.) He was also a Fellow of the American Ethnological Society. He was also a member of the International Congress of Americanists (Congrčs International des Américanistes), and was also a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In the 1929 listing of members of the Society of Americanists his membership details are: "Hagar, Stansbury, 205, Park place, Brooklyn, N. Y. (États-Unis). [décembre 1921]." (Hagar was an Emeritus life member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.) He attended, or at least sent papers, to the conferences of the International Congress of Americanists as early as 1902. He was made (i.e., elected) a member  of the American Association for the Advancement of Science Council in 1900. (The Programme volume, 1928, for the American Association for the Advancement of Science lists a number of his presentations, including (page 69) ""A Zodical (sic) Series in Codex-Laud" Stansbury Hagar, New York.") He was a member of the American Folk-Lore Society (and (elected) Councillor and Second Vice-President, 1900 (though sometimes mistakenly stated to be Vice-President in 1900)). In 1899 Hager was an officer of the American Folk-Lore Society. (In 1897 Stewart Culin was the President of The American Folk-Lore Society and Stansbury Hagar was a Council member.) In 1916 at least Hagar appears as Treasurer of the American Folk-lore Society. In 1927 he was appointed 1st vice-president of the newly formed Amateur Astronomers Association - and later one of the treasurers. (More completely: Amateur Astronomers Association of New York. 1927: elected 1st vice-president; 1928: at meeting elected a vice-president (to 1930?); 1930: an officer of the AAANY; 1931: elected a board member; 1933: elected/chosen to be a board member.) By 1929 at least he was a Member of the the Executive Council of the Amateur Astronomers Association. The Eightieth Annual Report of the [New York] A. I. C. P. [Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor] 1923, Page 74, acknowledges a donation of $10 from Stansbury Hagar. In 1927 Stansbury Hagar is listed as an Officer (Council Member) and Member (Active Member) of the American Anthropological Association. Also his address is given as: 162 St. Marks Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. He was an active member of the Explorers Club of New York, one of its founders and earliest members, also treasurer and secretary, and also a member of the Board of Directors of the Explorer's Club of New York. Interestingly, Dr Clyde Fisher was the President. Fisher believed the zodiac was 26,000 years old. (He resigned from the Explorer's Club circa the the early/mid 1930s then rejoined it again in 1937.) He was a staunch advocate of Indian rights. Hagar (while at 62 Wall Street, New York) was a member of the Indian Rights Association. (It is apparently indicated that from 1907 to 1912 he was on the Board of Directors. In 1917 he is also listed in the Annual Report of the Executive committee of the Indian Rights Association. While with the Indian Rights Association he attended a conference of "Friends of the Indians.") In the 2nd decade of the 20th-century he was associated with the fledgling organisation and publication The Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians. He supported the liberal view that all religions in essence were the same. He viewed differences among among religions as racially distinctive pathways towards the same truths. He found it difficult to remain a member of the Society of American Indians which was interfering with Native American religious freedom in the guise of supporting their rights. (See: We Have Religion by Tisa Wenger (2009, Page 167).) Hagar was also connected with the Indian Rights Association, a social activist group formed in Philadelphia in 1882. He was either a member of, or supporter of, the Indian Rights Association. In 1911 he attended (representing the American Ethnological Society) the Universal Races Conference held in London from July 26-29. This congress was stated to have 300 delegates (See: The New York Times, 24 July, 1911). (Interestingly, in 1932 he was Vice-President of the Vendanta Society (New York Centre). He was a follower of Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) who had impressed him when he first heard him (perhaps in Chicago at the "Conference of World Religions" on Sep-11-1893, or soon after). The Daily Argus, Mount Vernon, N.Y., Wednesday, February 5, 1905, Page Four: "A lecture under the auspices of the Vedanta Society will be given by Stansbury Hagar on Peruvian astronomy and religion and their vedic (sic) analogies next Monday evening, at 62 W. 71st street, New York City. A number of Mount Vernonites will attend." The Vedanta Monthly Bulletin, Volume 2, 1908 reports: "Stansbury Hagar, Vice-President of the Society, spoke briefly of the impression Swami Vivekananda made upon him when for the first time he heard him lecture before the Ethical Society of Brooklyn." Obviously unknown to Hagar was Vivekananda's enthusiasm for visiting brothels. Later his position was was that of Treasurer.) Stansbury Hagar was also a member of the Salmagundi Club, also known as the Salmagundi Art Club, from 1908 until 1935. The club serves as a center for fine arts and artists, conducting art exhibitions, art classes, demonstrations, and art auctions, and hosts many other events.

The 1904 St. Louis World's Fair was an  exposition, embracing the participation of the states and nations of the world. Hidden away from the fair-going public was another part of the World's Fair, a series of formal addresses by leading authorities from around the world. Labeled the International Congress of Arts and Sciences it included more than 340 invited speakers selected from most academic disciplines, but especially from the sciences. The papers were published in 8 volumes titled The International Congress of Arts and Science, 1904-1905. Stansbury Hagar presented a paper on, “Symbolism of the Portsmouth works.” The paper was printed in Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St. Louis, 1904, Vol 1. (The area occupied by The St. Louis World's Fair, also called the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, contained more than 1,500 buildings.) (Hagar seemed to move in the upper social circles with ease (he was from a wealthy family background).) His social activities were even included in newspaper reports of social events and happenings. The New York Times July 26, 1903, reported (under the heading "At North Conway"): "Mr and Mrs S. Hagar of New York City and Miss Stevens of Yonkers spent a few days at the Randall House during the week en route for the metropolis." His association with family/relatives is now almost impossible to establish. According to the Real Estate Record and Builder's Guide July 20, 1907, Volume 80, Number 2053, contains the entry (under the heading "Mortgages, Borough of the Bronx"): "*Hagar, Jennie L, of Yonkers, N Y. to Stansbury Hagar. Castle Hill av. n w cor Chatterton av, 180x205, Unionport. All title. June 1 5 years, 5%. July 15, 1907. Under this head * denotes the property is located in the new Annexed District (Act of 1895)."

It appears he helped to establish the Explorer's Club (of New York). It appears that he was a Director of the Explorers' Club of New York at least by 1915. Whatever the date he first joined he resigned and then rejoined in 1937 as an active life member. The New York Hotel Record, Volume 12, 1913, Page 27, records that Stansbury Hagar attended the Explorer's Club Banquet, with Admiral Peary in attendance. Peary Arctic Club members were also in attendance.

Two sources state he married Clara Robinson in New York City on September 20, 1900 (which is certainly the correct date). However, the St. John Daily Sun, September 25, 1900, Page 2 reports "Stansbury Hagar of New York and Miss Robinson, daughter of our [Digby, Canada] post master, were married on Friday at Boston, where the bride has been living for the past two years. So, again there is some confusion existing, the correct date is also claimed to be September 20, 1900; and the location of the marriage to be Boston. According to the Yale University Obituary Record, Clara Finck Robinson was the daughter of George Appleton Robinson and Jane (nee Easterbrooks) Robinson. Records state that George A. Robinson was Postmaster, County of Digby, Nova Scotia, from 1892-1894 inclusive. (From 1890 to 1897, at least, a Clara F. Robinson taught drawing and algebra at Rhode Island Normal School, and was paid $5.00 per week. See the Annual Reports of the Rhode Island Board of Education for the 1890s. Rhode Island is 94 kilometres from Boston. This person and Hagar's future wife could have been the same person. However, there is a record stating that a Clara F. Robinson taught drawing and physiology at the State Normal School at Whitewater, Wisconsin, 1886-1890. Also, a teacher named Clara F. Robinson appears in the Report of the School Committee of the Town of Dennis, for the School Year 1874-5. These latter 2 persons - likely the same - could not have been Hagar's future wife; and all 3 listed in school records could have been the same person.) Clara Robinson appears in the Robinson Family Papers, 1684-1915, held at the John D. Rockefeller, Jr Library. One encyclopedia entry states "Clara Robinson of St. John, N.B., [New Brunswick] and Digby, N.S. [Nova Scotia]" Clara Robinson was from the port city of Saint John (St. John) New Brunswick (N.B.) Nova Scotia, Canada.) They will reside at New York, where the groom practises law." (One source identifies their residence as 179 Kingston Avenue, Brooklyn.) According to 1 source they had 3 children, 2 daughters: Margery, Mary, and 1 son: Thomas. According to the Yale University Obituary Record their children were "Dorothy (died in infancy), and Thomas and Margery (adopted)." In Hagar's correspondence with William Gates it is identified he and his wife adopted Thomas and Margery in 1919 when one was aged 3 years and the other aged 7 years. (Sorting out exactly who was who is somewhat problematic. Miss Mary Hagar is mentioned in The Twelfth Year Book of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences (Volume 12, 1900) and also the earlier year book, Volume 6, 1893.) His marriage to Clara Robinson indicates he must have spent considerable time in Digby when research Mi'kmaq culture and lore. (One early 1900s source still has him as as single. Another source indicates his wife died young, but she was almost in her mid 60s when she died. In the 1940 U.S. Census Stansbury Hagar is identified as widowed.)

Clara Frink Robinson (Mrs Stansbury Hagar), in 1923, is listed as a member of  the National Society, Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century. She is also mentioned as 6th in descent from Christopher Robinson (who is identifiable as a Canadian lawyer flourishing circa 1860). (See: List of Members in Organization, Constitution, By-laws, Membership, National Society of the Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century (1923, Page 83). The main title also appears as Society of Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century.) After Britain's defeat in the American Revolution Christopher Robinson, a pro-British family member, relocated from the USA to Canada. (See: The Robinson Family Papers, 1684-1915, held by the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library in Williamsburg, Virginia. They were purchased by the library in 1994.) It  it possible that Clara Robinson was born in 1876 (the identification is not certain). The 1930 United States Federal Census indicates that Clara F. Hagar (spouse of Hansbury (sic, = Stansbury) Hagar) was born circa 1871, and the residence (city) in 1930 was Kings, New York. His wife died on 17 April 1934. After becoming a widower it appears that Stansbury Hagar was simply appearing alone at social events/engagements. Interestingly, Mrs Stansbury Hagar is mentioned in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York, Friday December 20, 1918, Page 7, as one of the many guests attending a Musicale arranged by the Colonial Daughters of the Seventeenth Century, for the benefit of the Red Cross work of the Society. It was held at Mrs Henry Palmer's palatial home, 216 Clinton Avenue, Brooklyn. Stansbury Hagar is not listed as attending this highly rated/important social event. Clara Hagar became a 'member' of Brooklyn 'Society' and an attendee at their events. Interestingly, the Proceedings - Nineteenth International Congress of Americanists, Volume 42, Part 10, 1917, mentions/lists Mrs Stansbury Hagar (obviously a mistake for Mr).

As early as 1903 the Year-Book of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences mentions "The Stansbury Hagar Collection of Indian Relics." (The earliest mention of the collection I can find is 1902.) Hagar was somewhat obsessed with astronomical interpretations. He was a strong supporter of the rather bizarre astronomical mythology propounded by the English civil servant James Hewitt (1835-1908). Stansbury Hagar considered Hewitt's book The Ruling Races of Mankind to be a valuable work and was considerably influenced by it. He was also an avid supporter of the solar mythology school. He was an ardent cultural diffusionist. (See: The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, Volume 231, 1901, for his support for the ideas of James Hewitt, Robert Brown Junior, John O'Neill, and Zelia Nuttall.) In his article entitled "Micmac Customs and Traditions," in the American Anthropologist, January, 1895, Stansbury Hager suggested the possibility of some connections between the Micmac tribes of Nova Scotia and the Mayas. These comprised the pre-Columbian game of Woltēstōmkwon, and the peculiar signification for the division of time of certain numbers in the same game, with both nations. Hagar also suggested the signification of the arrow in this same game, among the Tiahuancos of Bolivia and in the myth of the Navajo story of the Apaches. Also, according to Hagar, similar resemblances are found in the serpent dances and the Pleiades of these different nations, in Yucatan, Peru, Mexico, etc. Hager published a considerable number of articles on Central and South America. "The Jaguar and Serpent Mural at Chichen Itza." was presented at the American Anthropological Association 18th annual meeting (Peabody Museum, Harvard University), December, 1919.

His favourite theme was a common zodiac existing throughout the Americas (literally a zodiacal cult) prior to Columbus. (See especially his review of the pamphlet Las Constelaciones del Orión y de las Hiadas by the German anthropologist/ethnologist Robert Lehmann-Nitzsche (1921) in American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 24, 1922, Pages 217-219.) He believed he had identified a zodiac in the stucco decorations of the facade of a pyramid at the Mayan city of Acanceh. He also believed he had identified a zodiac at the Santa Rita Mayan Ruin, and he also attempted to make the identification of a Mayan zodiac at Palenque. His paper on "The Maya Zodiac of Santa Rita" was presented on the last day of the General Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, December 29-31, 1916. The General Meeting was a joint session at Washington with the Nineteenth International Congress of Americanists. His attempts to identify astronomical patterns in Peruvian and other landscapes are most likely mistaken. The Inca concept of sovereignty and the Spanish administration in Peru by Charles Gibson (1920-1985 (University of Texas, Degree of Master of Arts, in June, 1947 (published 1948, University of Texas Press; reprinted 1969) states: "Attempts to relate the urban form of Cuzco and other Peruvian sites to a wider astronomical pattern are probably failures (Page 34?)." His misguided attempts to reconstruct the constellations of the Inca were made on his erroneous assumption that they were identical to Greek and Roman constellations. (As example: Hagar believed that the Mayan temples at Izamal, Yucatan, were based upon the zodiacal constellations (which matched the Greek zodiac) as symbols. Also according to Hagar the Peruvian temples at Cuzco had exactly the same significance.) According to Stansbury Hagar all old American temples in Yucatan (Maya) and Mexico (Aztec) were planned and executed after a cosmic scheme. (The Annual Prospectus, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Department of Education, (1917, Page 148), lists: "April 6. Conference on "The Temples of Uxinal, Yucatan." conducted by Stansbury Hagar.) Journal of the National Institute of Social Sciences (Volume 10, 1925) noted: "Stansbury Hagar has been engaged in the preparation for eventual publication of his complete studies on the symbolism of the zodiac in ... [Mesoamerica]." Hager's beliefs and imagination enabled him to publish claims for a (common) solar zodiac amongst the Mayas, Aztecs, and Peruvians that resemble the Old World solar zodiac. He saw this as evidence for one-way trips across the Atlantic by mariners from the Mediterranean. On March 30, 1912, under the auspices of the Brooklyn Institute, Hagar gave a public lecture on "The Mexican Zodiac." The Brooklyn Institute of Arts & Sciences, Department of Education, Prospectus for 1915-1916 contains: "Apr. 1 - Conference on "The Zodiacal Symbolism of the Snake Dance and Other Hopi Ceremonies," to be conducted by Stansbury Hagar, MA, Secretary, Department of Ethnology, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences." Mostly on the basis of the pre-Columbian game of Wolttěstomkwon Hagar (American Anthropologist, 1895) suggested there were connections between the Micmacs and the Maya (of Mexico).

Though throughout his career Hagar was usually highly thought of as an ethnologist his ideas and conclusions are now rarely cited by professional anthropologists/ethnologists. Hagar has been enthusiastically (uncritically) described as an expert on Mesopotamian archaeoastronomy. (Stansbury Hagar, while in California in the summer of 1929, made a special study of certain astronomical and ethnological problems in the observatories and museums of that State.) Hagar is most probably to be classed as a minor ethnologist. In some sort of 1903 survey by AMS vote of prominent ethnologists/anthropologists he was, I believe, rated something like 55th. (He was also sometimes identified as an ethnologist and archaeologist.) He even stated (in 1912) that he was contented with practicing law. (He was an avocational ethnologist. Ethnology was engaged in as a hobby.) His law work encompassed property sales and protection of wildlife/game. He was extremely active throughout his life. He was described by Ernest Ingersoll of the Explorer's Club (1943) as "... a man of indefatigable enthusiasm and endeavour." (He seems to have done little continuous or lengthy field work.) He published an article (his last?) in 1933 (but possibly 1942).

On Saturday December 12, 1914, he gave an illustrated lecture on "Star Lore of Christmas and Other Festivals." The talk was under the auspices of the Brooklyn Museum. The Monthly Evening Sky Map (later Popular Astronomy), 1928 / The Review of Popular Astronomy, Volumes 22-24, 1928, notes that he gave a (public) lecture on "American Indian Legends of the Celestial Bear and Mummy," on the lawn in front of Bear Mountain Inn, Saturday evening, June 2, at 9.00pm. Popular Astronomy, Volume 38, 1930, notes Stansbury Hagar, as part of a schedule of talks by the Amateur Astronomers Association, New York City, was to give a radio talk on "Star Lore and Astronomy of the North American Indian," over Station WOR on Saturday, January 11, from 5.30pm to 5.45pm. (Hagar recycled his lecture material. The Year Book of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Volume 26, 1914, lists his lecture "Star Lore of the American Indians.") Popular Astronomy, (Volume 39, 1931, Page 618) notes that, through the Amateur Astronomers Association (which arranged a series of lectures by miscellaneous persons), Stansbury Hagar gave a lecture on "Astronomical Temples of the Maya and the Mound Builders," at the American Museum of Natural History, New York (January 20). Popular Astronomy (Volume 39, 1931) also notes that on May 3 Hagar gave a lecture on "Evening With American Indian Astronomy and Traditions" at the American Museum of Natural History.

The extant correspondence between William Gates (1863-1940, American Mayanist) and Stansbury Hagar for 1916-1920 helps shed light on a number of issues. It is evident that William Gates, who lived in Baltimore and Stansbury Hagar were good friends. The correspondence includes: (1) Circa 1916 Hagar visited the Hopi, when returning home to New York (29 Claremount Avenue, Phone 5372 (and this remained his residential address until at least 1920) from a trip to San Diego. (2) In late 1918 William Gates formally nominated Hagar for membership in the Institute of Archaeology.(3) Hagar's views differed to those of Alfred Tozzer (1877-1954; PhD 1904; later Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University; a pioneer in Maya archaeology) and Herbert Spinden (1879-1969; American archaeologist and art historian; PhD 1909, Harvard University; Curator, Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1929-1951), and this lead to some argumentation and animosity. (4) Hagar's presentations on his belief in the zodiacal structure of Maya temples were controversial and usually started intense debates at professional meetings where he presented. (5) Hagar's critics stated he saw zodiacs everywhere. (6) Hagar argued with Tozzer at professional meetings. (7) Members of the Maya Society were opposed to Hagar's views. (8) Spinden believed that Hagar created theories from guesswork (9) Hagar believed he had studies the subject too long and too carefully to yield to the views of his critics, who he believed were uninformed. It is indicated the Brooklyn Institute gave Hagar the freedom he needed to present his particular views.

In his 1933 paper "The Portsmouth Works," Stansbury Hagar attempted to show that the most extensive and important earthworks of the Mound Builders of the Ohio Valley reveal an astronomical design and were in fact an astronomical temple. He proposed that the crescent-shaped mounds at the Portsmouth Earthworks were meant to symbolise the moon (Popular Archaeology, Volume 42, Number 2, Pages 35-50).

Hagar stated he was a Democrat in politics. At least when he was younger he engaged in some political activity. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, Thursday, October 28, 1897, Page 15: "LOW MEETINGS. The following meetings in the interest of Soth Low's candidacy will be held tonight: INDOOR. ... Fourth Ward Soth (sic) Low headquarters, 259 Washington Street, ... Speakers, Stanbury (sic) Hager, ...." Seth Low (Brooklyn, 1850-?) president of Columbia university and twice mayor of Brooklyn, was a candidate for Major of greater New York. In 1888 Low had been offered the nomination for governor of New York but declined it. (See: The Daily Star, Thursday Evening, September 2, 1897, Volume 5, Number 793, Frontpage.)  The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York (Wednesday, October 25, 1938, Page 7) has an article about Stansbury Hagar presiding over a Forum debate between John Strachey and Jerome Davis, at the Academy of Music. The debate topic was "Resolved, That communism is the only alternative to barbarism." John Stracey was a (British) Labor member of Parliament from 1929 to 1931. Jerome Davis was a Professor of sociology at Yale University. The article states Hagar was "secretary of the council of the Institute" (= Brooklyn Institute). Another political debated involving Stansbury Hagar is reported in the article "Fish Proposes Group to Seek Russian Trade." in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, New York, Wednesday November 20, 1929, Page 5. A political debate between Colonel Raymond Robins and Congressman Hamilton Fish was held under the auspices of the Department of Political science of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Stansbury Hagar, as Secretary of the Associate Members, was Chairman.

Stansbury Hagar was 1 of 20 members of the AAA Executive Council that in 1919 voted to censure Franz Boas for his published letter ("Scientists as Spies." The Nation, October 16, 1919) claiming (correctly) that 4 unnamed researchers were involved in espionage activities using archaeological research as a front. The censure action resulted in Boas being stripped of his National Research Council council membership. In his book Franklin D. Roosevelt: The ordeal (1973), Frank Freidel notes that in January 1921 there was a brief exchange of letters between FDR and Stansbury Hagar. Hagar's death was due to cerebral thrombosis. Stansbury Hagar died at New York Methodist Hospital (in Brooklyn) on Wednesday 23 December, 1942, aged 73 years (following a short illness). His funeral service was conducted at 4pm on 27 December at Walter B. Cooke Funeral Home, Inc., 50 7th Avenue. Stansbury Hagar was a member of the Episcopal church. At 10am on 28 December he was cremated and his ashes interred (in a grave?) at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn.  He was survived by 1 (adopted) daughter (Margery) and 1 (adopted) son (Thomas). (Also, possibly he rejoined the New York Explorer's Club in 1932.) His home in 1942 at least was at Polhemus Place, Brooklyn. His 'residential' addresses change considerably over the years. Apart from addresses mentioned above others given in publications were: 1896: 372 Washington Avenue, Brooklyn; 1902: 179 Kingston Avenue, Brooklyn (Summarized Proceedings and Directory of Members: American Association for the Advancement of Science); 1907: Residential: 172 West 147th Street, New York City, Office: 48 Wall Street, New York (Geographen-Kalendar: Volume 5 (1907)); 1920: 29 Claremount Avenue (The Commercial Register, New York); 1929: 162 St. Mark's Avenue, Brooklyn. At the time of his death Brooklyn had 30,000 inhabitants, was a garrison town, and had been the centre of the nitrate shipping trade.) At the time of his death he had lost all contact with the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences (which was circa 1941-1942 making inquiries regarding his whereabouts).

In 1922 Hagar is listed on the Council of the American Anthropological Association. In 1922, at the 20th annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association (on December 29 at the Brooklyn Institute Museum), Hagar present a paper, "The solsticial page 9 of the Codex Cortesianus." (The 2-day gathering of the AAA comprised the council meeting on December 28 and the annual meeting on December 29.) Circa 1922 Hagar had retired from the active practice of law in order to concentrate on ethnological studies. It is indicated he did little with this time.

His Scrapbook [of Stansbury Hager, of the class of Yale College, 1892] is held at Yale University Library. Two volumes of his notebooks of personal research on pre-Columbian archaeology are held in the Yale University Library Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection. The correspondence of William Gates with Stansbury Hagar (for 1916-1920) in held in the Manuscript Collection at Brigham Young University. The extent is 1 folder. (Johns Hopkins anthropologist William Gates, in 1920 created The Maya Society, an organization of specialists. Due to internal squabbles it soon foundered but was revived in the 1930s.) The correspondence of the anthropologist Alfred Hallowell with Stansbury Hagar are in the Alfred Hallowell Papers at the American Philosophical Society. See also: Register to the Records of the Bureau of American Ethnology by Catherine O'Sullivan (December 2007, National Anthropological Archives Smithsonian Institution, Page 77.) regarding Stansbury Hagar correspondence (Box 169). Hagar was essentially interested in Native American symbolism and astronomy. His main interests are commonly given as "astronomical myths and symbols." Stansbury Hagar's approach to the study of Inca constellations was somewhat muddled. He attempted to reconstruct the Inca constellations as though they were identical to the Greek and Roman constellations. From his careful study of the cosmological drawing of Pachacuti Yamqui, Hagar concluded the 12 figures in the drawing were to be equated with the 12 constellations of the European zodiac. His article, "First Study of Heavenly Bodies," Lesson VIII, appears in School Science and Mathematics, Volume 21, Page(s) 298-? Hagar was very keen to try and find proof (but was unsuccessful) for his belief that the Maya Serpent symbol was a constellation.

There was brief correspondence between Stansbury Hagar and the (eccentric and rather incompetence) Canadian (born of Icelandic parents) ethnologist/anthropologist and explorer Vilhjálmur Stefánsson (1879-1962). See the Vilhjálmur Stefánsson correspondence held at Rauner Special Collections Library at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA. Specifically: Box 3, Folder 26, Correspondence: Explorers Club, 1919; and Box 14, Folder 9, Correspondence: Ha-Hi, 1925.

According to Yale University Obituary Record, Hagar: " ... contributed numerous articles on ethnology and astronomy to various scientific journals, fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science (counselor and emeritus life member) and American Ethnological Society (elected treasurer 1915); honorary member Swedish Astronomical Society, member International Congress of Americanists (delegate to meeting in Paris 1900, New York City 1902, Vienna 1908, and New Mexico 1910), Anthropological Association, Institut Internationale d'Anthropologie, American Forestry Association, National Institute of Social Sciences, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Indian Rights Association, Society of American Indians, Explorers Club of New York (treasurer and secretary), Salmagundi Club, Vedanta Society of New York, and Episcopal church." An obituary (by Walter Frost in the Explorers Journal) notes he was survived by one daughter, Margery Hagar. Walter Frost wrote: "To talk to him was an unfailing pleasure and inspiration." Brief biographical entries for him appear in many types of encyclopedias for the period 1900-1940. See: Who's Who In America 1903-1905 edited by [Albert Marquis and] John Leonard, 1903, Page 619; Who's Who in New York (City and State) 1914, edited by W[?]. Mohr, Sixth Biennial Edition, 1915, Page 315; and Who's Who In America, Volume 22, 1942-1943 edited by Albert Marquis [Editor Emeritus], 1942, Page 973. See also: "Obituaries Section - Stansbury Hagar" in The New York Times, Friday, December 25, 1942, Pages 17ff; and "Obituary - Stansbury Hagar" by Walter Frost (1876-1964) in Explorer's Journal, Volume 21 [Volumes 21-26], 1943, Page 8. A portrait photograph of Stansbury Hagar exists in the Mitchell-Tiffany Family Papers (Album 7: "Portraits (Miscellaneous)") held at Yale University Library. A photograph of Stansbury Hagar also exist in the Yale University Library, Mitchell-Tiffany Family Papers, MS701, (Request Box 36, Folder 28, Album 3, Page 14,"Stannie Hagar" (Stansbury Hagar). The material in the box dates 1860-1890. A portrait photograph of Stansbury Hagar is indicated as appearing in The Yale Banner [The Yale University Banner], Volume 47, 1888. However, a check reveals this is not so. A reason why Stansbury Hagar is overlooked present-day is the recognition that he was prone to make speculative interpretations. Life dates: December 9, 1869-December 23, 1942. Note: I have seen 1943 given as the year of his death (A.A.A.S. Bulletin, Volumes 1-3, 1944, Page 70, states September 27, 1943 (with the name spelled Hager), however, 1942 is the correct date.

Review article: Journal de la Société des Americanistes, Année 1906, Volume 3, Numéro 2, Pages 329-330.

The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. New York. Thursday. March 6. 1902. Page 12. The brief article contains rare biographical details for Stansbury Hagar.

Mention of Stansbury Hagar's speculative astronomical interpretation of the Serpent Mound in Ohio. Source: Daily Star, Monday Evening, January 5, 1925, Page Twelve.

Death/Funeral notice for Clara Hagar nee Robinson, in The Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York), Tuesday, April 17, 1934, Page 13.

Obituary for Stansbury Hagar appearing in the Brooklyn Eagle, Sunday, December 27, 1942.

Legal notice in Brooklyn Eagle, Tuesday, January 11, 1949, Page 7, regarding settlement of Stansbury Hagar's estate. As his death occurred in 1942 this is a considerable delay. The Executor was Frank Price, Brooklyn. The notice mentions Mary Hagar, Margery Hagar, Bertram Robinson, Save the Redwood League, and Yale University. Stansbury Hagar's last address is given as 862(882?) Union Street Brooklyn. The 1940 U.S. Federal Population Census has Stansbury Hagar as age 70 at time of census; estimated year of birth as 1870 (other sources variously give 9 December 1869, and 9 December 1871); head of household (retired); marital status as widowed; residence as Assembly district 10, Brooklyn, New York City, Kings, NY (house rented for $55 per month); other people in household as Thomas Hagar (single), 26 years, adopted son (employed by travel agency, salary received in 1939 was $1000); and Mary Hagar (single), daughter, 24 years (daughter not employed, engaged in household duties). The census information was given by Mary Hagar. Mary Hagar can only be the adopted daughter Margery Hagar who has preferred the diminutive Mary as her first given name to be called by. Other relevant records include: Massachusetts Marriage Records, 1840-1915; U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925; and 1920 United States Federal Census.

Presentation by Jenny James, Southwestern Community College. From Southern Anthropological Society, Program of Annual Meeting, March 13-15, 2008.

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Hagar, Stansbury. (1904). "The Peruvian Asterisms and Their Relation to the Ritual." (The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, Volume XXVI, January-November, Number 6, Pages 329-336).  [Note: First presented at the 14th International Congress of Americanists held in Stuttgart, 1904.]

Hagar, Stansbury. (1906). "The Peruvian Asterisms and Their Relation to the Ritual." In: XIV Internationaler Amerikanisten-Kongress. (3 Volumes). [Note: The article is in Volume 2, Pages 593-602. The 14th International Congress of Americanists was held in Stuttgart, 1904. The article is another speculative attempt by the author to show the existence of a European type zodiac in pre-Columbian America.]

Mali, Giulio. (2007). "Dark-cloud constellations and the sacred landscape of the Inca heartland." In: Zedda, Mauro. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors).  Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy. (Pages 137-142). [Notes: Proceedings of the SEAC 2005, Isili, Sardinia, 28 June to 3 July. SEAC = European Society for Astronomy in Culture.]

Pitluga, Phyllis. (2005). "Analysis of the Nazca Spirals." In: Kelley, David. and Milone, Gene. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 331-338).

Randall, Robert. (1982). "Qoyllur Rit'i, an Inca Fiesta of the Pleiades: Reflections on Time & Space in the Andean World." (Bulletin de l'Institut français d'études andines, Volume XI, Number 1-2, Pages 37-81).

Sullivan, William. (1996). The Secret of the Incas. [Note: The author, who holds a doctorate from the Center of American Indian Studies at the University of Saint Andrew's (Scotland), applies the precessional mythology theme of Hamlet's Mill to the mythology of the Incas. His PhD was awarded in 1987 for research on which the book is based. The title of his doctoral dissertation was "The astronomy of Andean myth: The history of a cosmology." The Abstract reads: "It is shown that Andean myth, on one level, represents a technical language recording astronomical observations of precession and, at the same time, an historical record of simultaneous social and celestial transformations. Topographic and architectural terms of Andean myth are interpreted as a metaphor for the organization of and locations on the celestial sphere. Via ethnoastronomical date, mythical animals are identified as stars and placed on the celestial sphere according to their topographical location. Tested in the planetarium, these arrays generate cluster of dates - 200 B.C. and 650 A.D. Analysis of the names of Wiraqocha and Manco Capac indicates they represent Saturn and Jupiter and that their mythical meeting represents their conjunction in 650 A.D. The astronomy of Andean myth is then used as an historical tool to examine how the Andean priest-astronomers recorded the simultaneous creation of the avllu and of this distinctive astronomical system about 200 B.C. The idea that the agricultural avllu, with its double descent system stressing the importance of paternity, represents a transformation of society from an earlier matrilineal/horticultural era is examined in light of the sexual imagery employed in myth. Wiraqocha's androgyny and the division of the celestial sphere into male (ecliptic) and female (celestial equator = earth) are interpreted as cosmological validations of the new social structure. Phoebe-Lou Adams in The Atlantic Online, April, 1996, Brief Reviews, states: "The Secret of the Incas by William Sullivan Crown, 496 pages, $35.00. Mr. Sullivan candidly explains that his study was inspired by two books -- Alexander Marshack's The Roots of Civilization and Hamlet's Mill, by Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend. The first [seemingly] demonstrates the enormous antiquity of moon-calendar keeping, and the second argues the factual content of myths. Mr. Sullivan sees Inca myth as a coded record of astronomical events with a bearing on Inca religion. He does not expect to be taken seriously by archaeologists, astronomers, anthropologists, or myth experts, and he probably won't be, but even if one assumes that the puzzle the author claims to have solved was of his own creation, his book is of interest as the record of an intellectual obsession." See also the equally critical (English-language) book review by Gerardo Aldana in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy Supplement, Volume 28, Number 22, 1997, Pages S88-S89. See also the (English-language) book reviews in Antiquity, 1996, by A[?]. Sinclair and in Archaeoastronomy, Number 22, 1997, by Gerardo Aldan. The author also holds a MLitt degree from the Centre for Latin American Linguistic Studies at the University of Saint Andrew's (Scotland). The thesis topic for this was "Quechua Star Names", and was based on fieldwork into star names currently known to the Indians of Peru and Bolivia. Sullivan's career is focused on working as a carpenter and house renovator. He is still (incorrectly) referred to as an archaeoastronomer, cultural astronomer, historian, and anthropologist.]

Urton, Gary. (1981). At the Crossroads of the Earth and the Sky. [Note: See especially Chapter 5: The Stars and Constellations., Pages 95-111.]

Urton, Gary. (2005). "Constructions of the Ritual-Agricultural Calendar in Pacariqtambo, Peru." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 180-192). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Woodside, Joseph. (2005). "Amhuaca Astronomy and Star Lore." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 229-235). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Zuidema, Reiner. (1983). "Catachillay: the role of the Pleiades and of the Southern Cross and Alpha and Beta Centauri in the calendar of the Incas." In: Aveni, Anthony. and Urton, Gary. (Editors). Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics. (203-229.]

Zuidema, Reiner. (1983). "Towards a general Andean star calendar in ancient Peru." In: Aveni, Anthony. and Brotherston, Gordon. (Editors). Calendars in Mesoamerica and Peru: Native American Computations of Time. [Note: Proceedings of the 44th International Congress of Americanists, BAR [British Archaeological Reports] International Series 174, Pages 235-262. Reiner Zuidema is Professor of Anthropology Emeritus at the University of Illinois. Life dates: 1927- .]

Articles/Entries:

Columbus, Claudette. (1992). "Llamastronomers-Eyes-and-Roads: Chaupińamca of Huarochirí." (Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Volume 78, Issue 78-1, Pages 31-44).

du Gourcq, Jean. (1894). "The Astronomy of the Incas." (The Popular Science Monthly, October, Pages 823-832). [Note: Translated from an article in the Revue Scientifique.]

Steele, Paul. and Allen, Catherine. (2004). "Constellations." In: Handbook of Inca Mythology. (Pages 142-145).

Urton, Gary. (1978). "Beasts and Geometry: Some Constellations of the Peruvian Quechuas." (Anthropos, Volume 73, Hefte 1/2, Pages 32-40).

Urton, Gary. (1980). "Celestial Crosses: The Cruciform in Quecha Astronomy." (Journal of Latin American Lore. Volume 6, Number 1. Pages ?-?).

Urton, Gary. (1981). "Animals and Astronomy in the Quechua Universe." (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Volume 125, Number 2, April 30, Pages 110-127).

Zuidema, Reiner. and Urton, Gary. (1976). "La constelación del la Llama en los andes peruanos." (Allpanchis Phuturinga: Revista del Instituto de Pastoral Andina, Volume 9, Pages 59-120).

Peruvian/Amazonian

Books/Pamphlets:

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1919). La Cosmogonia según los Puelche de la Patagonia.

Lehmann-Nitsche, Robert. (1921). Las constelaciones del Orión y de las Híadas. [Note: Intended as the first of a series of pamphlets dealing with the astronomical knowledge of South American tribal Indians. The author was a German anthropologist/ethnologist. See the (English-language) review by the amateur ethnologist Stansbury Hagar in American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 24, 1922, Pages 217-219.]

Roe, Peter. (2005). "Mythic Substitution and the Stars: Aspects of Shipibo and Quechua Ethnoastronomy Compared." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 193-228). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Wilbert, Johannes. (1996). Mindful of Famine: Religious Climatology of the Warao Indians. [Note: Includes a detailed discussion of constellaton and star names.]

Articles/Entries:

Santos Granero, Fernando. (1992). "The dry and the wet: astronomy, agriculture and ceremonial life in Western Amazonia." (Journal de Société des Américanistes, Tome 78, Number 2, Pages 107-132). [Note: Discusses constellation and star lore.]

Gundrum, Darrell. (2000). "Fabric of Time." (Archaeology, Volume 53, Number 2, March/April, Pages ?-?). [Note: The author has analysed the imagery on a restored ancient textile from Peru's Paracas Peninsula and identified, amongst other things, several stars and constellations.]

Roe, Peter, (1993). "The Pleiades in Comparative Perspective: The Waiwai Shirkoimo and the Shipibo Huishmabo." In: Ruggles, Clive. and Saunders, Nicholas. (Editors). Astronomies and Cultures. (Chapter 10, Pages 296-328).

Steinen, Karl von den. (1894). "<<Plejaden>> und <<Jahr>> bei Indianern des nordöstlichen Südamerikas (Globus, Band LXV (65), Number 15, Pages 243-246). [Note: The year of publication sometimes appears incorrectly as 1891. The author was a distinguished German ethnologist/anthropologist (and university Professor) who spent a number of years (during the 1880s) in expeditions studying Indian tribes of South America. This short article concerns the star lore of South American Indians, particularly the Bakairi Indians of Central Brazil. Life dates: 1855-1929. See the (English-language) obituary in Nature, Volume 125, Issue 3145, February 8, 1930, Pages 208-209; and the (German-language) entry "Karl von den Steinen" by Hans Plischke i Deutsches Biographisches Jahrbuch, Band 11, 1929; and also "Nécrologie: Karl von den Steinen" by Erland Nordenskiöld in Journal de la Societé Américanistes, Band 22, 1930, Pages 221-227.]

Burmese/Cambodian

Books/Pamphlets:

Barth, Auguste. and Bergaigne, Abel. (1885). Inscriptions sanscrites du Cambodge. [Note: French-language book. Life dates for Auguste Barth: 1834-1916. Life dates for Abel Bergaigne: 1838-1888.]

Faraut, F[?]. (1910). Astronomie cambodgienne. [Note: The title also appears as Astronomie cambodienne. The French-language book (approximately 280 pages) deals with Khmer astronomy. The author was probably working for the (French) Commission Archéologique de l'Indo-Chine. Life dates: circa 1850-1911.]

Irwin. A[?]. (1909). The Burmese and Arakanese Calendars. [Note: Brief listing of zodiacal signs and nakshtras (nekkats).]

Marshall, Harry [Harold]. (1922). The Karen People of Burma: A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology. [Note: See: VII. Measure of Time and Space. Karen Astronomy. starting page 48.]

Articles/Entries:

Chatterjee, S[?]. (1998). "Traditional Calendar of Myanmar (Burma)." (Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 33, Number 2, Pages 143-160).

De Silva, Thomas. (1914). "Burmese Astronomy." (Journal of the Burma Research Society, Volume 4, April, Pages 23-43; 107-118; 171-207).

Stewart, Joe. (1980). "On Burmese Calendrics and Astronomy." (Archaeoastronomy: The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 3, Number 3, July-August-September, Pages 17-19).

Zaw, Khin. (1937). "The 27 Nakshatras and the 8 Inner Constellations." (Journal of the Burma Research Society, Volume 27, Number 1, Pages 75-83).

Indonesian/Malaysian

Books/Pamphlets:

Ammarell, Gene. (2005). "The Planetarium and the Plough: Interpreting Star Calendars of Rural Java." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 320-335). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Evans, Ivor. (1922; Reprinted 1978). Among Primitive Peoples in Borneo. [Note: Contains a discussion of constellations recognised. Ivor Evans was an idiosyncratic colonial ethnographer (British anthropologist) who spent much of his career in Malaya from 1912 to 1932 as curator and ethnographer at the Perak Museum in Taiping. Prior (1910-1911), he briefly served in the North Borneo Chartered Company as a cadet in the district administration. He took early retirement and returned to England but in 1938 he returned to Borneo and undertook ethnographic research. Life dates: 1887-1957.]

Hoskins, Janet. (1997). The Play of Time: Kodi Perspectives on Calendars, History and Exchange. [Note: See pages 349-351 for a brief discussion of constellations and star names.]

Mackenzie, Donald. (1930). Myths from Melanesia and Indonesia. [Note: The author was a Scottish journalist and prolific writer on religion, mythology, and anthropology in the early 20th-century. Life dates 1873-1936.]

Pelras, Christian. (1987). "Le Ciel et Les Jours. Constellations et Calendriers Agraires Chez Les Bugis (Celebes, Indonesie)." In: Koechlin, Bernard. (Editor). De la Vout Celeste au Terroir, du Jardin au Foyer: Mosaďque Sociographique. (Pages 19-33). [Note: Festschrift for Lucien Bernot.]

Articles/Entries:

Ammarell, Gene. (1988). "Sky Calendars of the Indo-Malay Archipelago: Regional Diversity/Local Knowledge." (Indonesia, Volume 45, April, Pages 84-104).

Ammarell, Gene. (1991). "The Planetarium and the Plough: Interpreting Star Calendars of Java." (Yale Graduate Journal of Anthropology, Volume 3, Pages 11-25).

Ammarell, Gene. (1997). "Astronomy in the Indo-Malay Archipelago." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. (Pages 117-125).

Hose, Charles. (1904). "Various Methods of Computing Time for Planting Among the Races of Borneo." (Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Number 42). [Note: Charles Hose was a colonial administrator (Divisional Resident and Member of The Supreme Council of Sarawak) and zoologist. Life dates: 1863-1929.]

Philippines

Books/Pamphlets:

Galang, Zoilo. (Editor). (3rd edition, 1950-1958). Encyclopedia of the Philippines. [Note: 20 Volume publication. Relevant topics are grouped together in particular volumes. Volumes 13-14 Science has an article on the antiquity of Philippine astronomy.]

Articles/Entries:

Espinas. Phoebe. (1993). "The Folk Astronomy of the Ayta of San Marcelino." (National Museum Papers, Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 36-46). [Note: At the time of the article the author was a Senior Researcher of the Planetarium Division of the National Museum, and was detailed to the Anthropology Division. She has a Master of Science degree in plant biology. The native Ayta community were made accessible when they were forced to flee the Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruption in 1991 and resettle in New Cabalan, Olongapo.]

Schlegel, Stuart. (1967). "Tiruray Constellations: The Agricultural Astronomy of a Philippine Hill." (Philippine Journal of Science, Volume 96, Number 3, Pages 319-331).

Schlegel, Stuart. (1987-1988). "The Traditional Tiruray Zodiac: The Celestial Calendar of a Philippine Swidden and Foraging People." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 10, Pages 61-69). [Note: Also published in the Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, Volume 15, Numbers 1-2, 1987, Pages 12-26.]

Oceania/Pacific

Books/Pamphlets:

Ĺkerblom, Kjell. (1968). Astronomy and Navigation in Polynesia and Micronesia, A Survey. [Note: Approximately 170 pages. A comprehensive summary of Oceanic astronomy and navigation. The largest section deals with Polynesia. See the (English-language) book reviews by Ben Finney (The Research School of Pacific Studies) in American Anthropologist, Volume 72, Issue 1, February, 1970, Pages 134-135; and by Leith Duncan in The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 81, Number 2, June, 1972, Pages 272-274.]

Bastion, Adolf. (1881, Reprinted 1986). Die heilige Sage der Polynesier, Kosmologie und Theogonie. [Note: The original edition is now quite rare.]

Bruce, Lesley. (1976). "Preliminary Study of Three Polynesian Sources for Celestial Navigation." In: Peacock, Karen. et. al. (Editors). Miscellaneous Work Papers: Micronesian and Polynesian Voyaging. [Note: Publication of Pacific Islands Program: University of Hawaii. A critical assessment/corrective of the original sources/informants for indigenous astronomical information. The author is/was with the University of Southern California?]

Bryan, Junior., E[?]. (1955, Reprinted 1977 and 1988). Stars over Hawaii. [Note: 48-page pamphlet but only pages 44-48 deal with native Polynesian/Hawaiian astronomy/star names.]

Capell, A[?]. (1968, 3rd edition). A New Fijian Dictionary.

Chauvin, Michael. (2000). "Useful and Conceptual Astronomy in Ancient Hawaii." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Culture: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. (Pages 91-125).

Collocott, Ernest. (1922). Tongan Astronomy and Calendar. [Note: 19 page pamphlet (Occasional Paper (Volume 8, Number 4) of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. Life dates 1886-1970.]

Cruchet, Louis. (2005). Le Ciel en Polynésie: Essai d'ethnoastronomie en Polynésie orientale. [Note: Kindly brought to my attention by Martha Noyes.]

Dodd, Edward. (1972). Polynesian Seafaring: a disquisition on prehistoric celestial navigation.

Fale, Tevita. (1999). Tongan Astronomy.

Finney, Ben. (2005). "Applied Ethnoastronomy: Navigating by the Stars Across the Pacific." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 336-348). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Goodenough, Ward. (1953). Native Astronomy in the Central Carolines. [Note: 50 page monograph. Discussion of navigational stars.]

Johnson, Rubellite. and Mahelona, John. (1975). Na Inoa Hoku: A Catalogue of Hawaiian and Pacific Star Names. [Note: The authors attempt to gather together the fragmentary record of Oceanic star knowledge. The main body of the book comprises 3 annotated lists of star names: Hawaiian, Pacific, and Indo-European. They are out of their depth when dealing with Egyptian, European, and Near Eastern star lore. In these areas they can be completely unreliable through uncritically accepting dated popular material. See the (English-language) book reviews by Garth Rogers in The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 86, 1977, Pages 425-428; and by William Tagupa in Archaeology & Physical Anthropology in Oceania, Volume XIV, Number 3, October, 1979, Pages 227-228. A revised edition by Rubellite Johnson, John Mahelona, and Clive Ruggles was expected circa 2005 but is still (November, 2010) in preparation. It is now expected to be published some time in 2013. The Hawaiian astronomer Paul Coleman (University of Hawaii, Institute for Astronomy) is also actively involved in clarifying and expanding the knowledge of Oceanic star names.]

Kirch, Patrick. and Green, Roger. (2001). Hawaiki, Ancestral Polynesia: An Essay in Historical Anthropology. [Note: See: "Time Reckoning and the Ritual Cycle." Pages 260-276. Detailed discussion of the calendrical importance of the Pleiades star cluster. An excellent discussion of the agricultural importance of the Pleiades for the Polynesians. Both authors are anthropologists and academics.]

Kotz, Alfred. (1911). Über die astronomischen Kenntnisse der Naturvölker Australiens und der Südsee. [Note: Doctoral thesis of less than 100 pages. A comprehensive summary. Life dates: 1888-?]

Kyselka, Will. and Brunton, George. (1969, reprinted 1989?). Polynesian Stars and Men: The Puzzle of the Ancient Navigation of the Polynesians.

Kyselka, Will. (1993). "On the Rising of the Pleiades." (The Hawaiian Journal of History, Volume 27, Pages 173-183).

Lewis, David. (1972, Reprinted 1973, and 1975). We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific. [Note: Excellent.]

Lewis, David. (1974). "Voyaging stars: aspects of Polynesian and Micronesian astronomy." In: Hodgson, Frank. (Editor). The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World. (Pages 133-148).

Mackenzie, Donald. (1930). Myths from Melanesia and Indonesia. [Note: The author was a Scottish journalist and prolific writer on religion, mythology, and anthropology in the early 20th-century. Life dates 1873-1936.]

Makemson, Maud. (1941). The Morning Star Rises: An Account of Polynesian Astronomy. [Note: An account of Polynesian astronomy and navigation. Includes astronomical folklore. The book is based on her personal research over 5 years, including time in Hawaii using the resources of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. In all 772 star names are listed - but the identification of many of these are quite vague. See the (English-language) book reviews by William Barton Junior in American Anthropologist, New Series, January/March, 1944, Volume 46, Issue Number 1, Pages 134-135; and by Herbert Chatley in Folk-Lore, Volume 58, Number 1, March, 1947, Pages 242-243. Maud Makemson was an American astronomer (largely self-taught). She started her career as a newspaper reporter and public school teacher. She obtained her Ph.D. in astronomy in 1930 from the University of California, Berkeley. At the time of writing the book she was Chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Vassar College (City of Poughkeepsie, New York). In 1957 the author retired from the position of Maria Mitchell Alumnae Professor of Astronomy at Vassar College (after 25 years on the faculty). She was also director of the Vassar College Observatory. See the biographical entry in American Women in Science: A Biographical Dictionary by Martha Bailey (1994) Pages 232-233; and also the biographical entry in Notable Women Scientists edited by Pamela Proffitt (1999) Pages 350-351. Life dates: 1891-1977.]

Masse, William. [W. Bruce Masse].,  Johnson, Rubellite., and Tuggle, Harold. [H. David Tuggle]. (In Preparation). Islands in the Sky: Astronomy and the Role of the Celestial Phenomena in Hawaiian Mythology, Language, Religion, and Chiefly Power. [Note: To be published by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Masse is an environmental archaeologist (currently, 2010) at Los Alamos National Laboratory; Johnson is currently (2010) Emeritus Professor, Department of Hawaiian and Indo-Pacific Languages, University of Hawaii; Tuggle was an anthropologist/archaeologist with the University of Hawaii. Tuggle retired from October 1, 2010. He worked in Hawai'i and the Pacific for 40 years. He received his PhD in anthropology from the University of Arizona in 1970.]

Meech, Karen. and Warther, Francis. (1996). "Kumu Kahi. First beginnings: astronomy and cosmic architecture in ancient Hawai'i." Koleva, Vesselina. and Kolev, Dimiter (Editors). Astronomical Traditions in Past Cultures. (Pages 25-33). [Note: A collection of 20 selected papers from the first annual conference of the European Society for Astronomy in Culture (SEAC), held in Smolyan, Bulgaria, in 1993. The volume also contains the SEAC statutes, both in French and English. Papers are in English with abstracts in Bulgarian. Published by the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria. Francis Warther, a retired architect living in Hawaii, claims the heiau complexes (at least on Mauna Kea?) are often exact reflections on earth of star constellations. Karen Meech is an astronomer.]

Noyes, Martha. (2010). Polynesian Star Catalog. [Note: 79 pages; privately circulated. Presently (2010) comprising a two-part list and the key sources (which are placed with the first list) - any translations and explanations are presently omitted. The first list sets out English-language names to Polynesian-language names, and the second list sets out Polynesian-language names to English-language names. It is an immensely useful compilation of star names, constellation names, and miscellaneous astronomical names. It provides a solid working base for any researcher. Publication as an expanded book is planned. Martha Noyes (Mrs H. D. Williams) is an award winning Honolulu freelance writer, book author, artist, documentary maker, and independent researcher. Her writing has earned her the Pa'i, Kahili, and Loren Tarr Gill awards. (Martha Noyes (independent writing and editing professional), instructor of communication, received first place in the poetry division of the Lorin Tarr Gill Literary Award sponsored by the National League of Pen Women, Honolulu chapter. (Hawai’i Pacific University Today, Fall, 2002, Page 13).) She is also an authority on Polynesian star names and astronomical mythology. Martha Noyes was born in San Francisco and her family moved to Honolulu in 1965. She is a graduate of Punahou School, she received her M.A. from the University of Hawaii-Manoa. Since 1996 she has been an adjunct instructor at Hawaii Pacific University. Martha Noyes has researched and written about Hawaiian culture for thirty years. Her primary research interest is Precontact Hawaiian Cultural Astronomy. She is an ardent student of the ancient Hawaiian sky and is currently (2011) a graduate student, Cultural Astronomy, University of Wales Trinity St. David. Life dates: 1949- ).]

Noyes, Martha. (2010). Polynesian Star Catalog. [Note: Martha Noyes identifies herself as compiler rather than author. An expanded version of her privately circulated manuscript. 118 pages.]

Orchiston, Wayne. (2000). "A Polynesian Astronomical Perspective: The Maori of New Zealand." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Culture: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. (Pages 161-196).

Pukui, Mary. and Elbert, Samuel. (1986, Revised and enlarged edition). Hawaiian Dictionary. [Note: First published 1957. Life dates for Mary Pukui 1895-? Life dates for Samuel Elbert 1907-?]

Sharp, Andrew. (1956, Reprinted 1957). Ancient Voyagers in the Pacific. [Note: Somewhat critical of the theory of astral navigation.]

Sharp, Andrew. (1963). Ancient Voyages in Polynesia. [Note: The author spent much of his career in the Indian Civil Service.]

Williamson, Robert. (1933, Reprinted 1977). Religious and Cosmic Beliefs of Central Polynesia. (2 Volumes; See Volume 1). [Note: Not always reliable. The author died before he could carry out final revisions of the manuscript. New Zealand, Hawaii, and Fiji are excluded. See the (English-language) book reviews by Walter Ivens in Folk-Lore, Volume XLV, 1934, Pages 94-95; J. C. A. in The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 43, Number 170, 1934, Pages 118-123; Arthur Hocart in Nature, Volume 133, Issue 3366, 1934, Pages 663-664; and by F[?]. Bell in Oceania, Volume 4, Number 3, March, 1934, Pages 369-370. Reverend Robert Williamson M.Sc., worked under the British anthropologist Alfred Haddon in New Guinea but was not himself an academic. Life dates 1856-1932.]

Articles/Entries:

Akimichi, Tomoya. (1980). "Storm star and the ethnometeorology on Satawai." (Kikan Jinruigaku, Volume 11, Number 4, Pages 3-51). [Note: The article is in Japanese. The journal is published by Kyoto University, Japan. The author is a Professor there. The study focuses on forecasting the weather based on 21 "storm stars," among navigators of Satawai Island, Micronesia.]

Best, Elsdon. (1918). "Polynesian Navigators: Their Exploring and Settlement of the Pacific." (Geographical Review, Volume V, Pages 169-182).

Bunton, George. and Valier, Louis. (1963). "Stars over paradise." (Pacific Discovery, Volume 16, Number 6, November-December, Pages 2-9).

Bunton, George. (1973). "Primitive Navigation in the Pacific." (Griffith Observer, November, Pages ?-?).

Goodenough, Ward. (1951). "Native Astronomy in Micronesia: A Rudimentary Science." (Scientific Monthly, Volume 73, Number 2, Pages 105-110). [Note: The short article covers the star compass, almanacs, and calendar.]

Grimble, Arthur. (1931). "Gilbertese Astronomy and Astronomical Observances." (Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 40 [XL], Number 160, Pages 197-224). [Note: Amplifies and corrects an earlier (1924) publication: Astronomical Notes in Part. 4 of "Canoes in the Gilbert Islands." Sir Arthur Grimble was a member of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony Administrative Service from 1914-1932. Particularly during the period from 1922 to 1925, when he was Colony Lands Commissioner, he spent his spare time in ethnographic research. When Colony Resident Commissioner from 1926 to 1932 he wrote six unpublished papers on aspects of  Gilbertese culture. Life dates: 1888-1956.]

Harber, Hubert. (1979). "Astronomical Techniques of the Polynesian Seafarers." (The Planetarian, Volume 8, Number 3).

Henry, Teuira. (1907). "Tahitian Astronomy, Birth of the Heavenly Bodies." (The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume XVI, Number 2, Number 62, June, Pages 101-104). [Note: The information contained in the article dates back to a record of oral tradition made in 1822.]

Hoeppe, Götz. (2000). "When the Shark Bites the Stingray: The Night Sky in the Construction of the Manus World." (Anthropos, Band 95, Hefte 1, Pages 23-36). [Note: At the time of publication Götz Hoeppe, MSc (Physics), was a PhD student in ethnology at the Freie Universität Berlin. He had studied physics and astronomy in Göttingen and Albuquerque and worked as an astronomer. Manus Island is part of Manus Province in northern Papua New Guinea and is the largest island of the Admiralty Islands. It is the fifth largest island in Papua Guinea. New Studies of indigenous astronomical knowledge mostly considers stars and constellations as calendrical markers and tools for navigation, especially in the Pacific. Abstract: "It is argued that to understand the Manus' construction of their environment their view of the night sky has to be taken into account. In Manus thought, celestial bodies and constellations were believed to reside at the edge of a saucer-shaped world, being able to permeate sea and sky and interact with the people's immediate environment. While on a small number of constellations have been named, these were sufficient to function as a calendar, a visualization of the seasonal cycle and a metaphorical explanation of the seasons. As such, they made the Manus world autonomous in the sense that the causes supposed to bring about seasonal change were situated within this world or at its edge."]

Hops, Alfred. (1956). "Die polyesische und mikronesische Seefahrt." (Der Seewart, Band 17, Number 3, Pages 86-93, Band 17, Number 4, Pages 125-134, and Band 17, Number 5, Pages 172-183).

Iping, Rosina. (1998). "The Astronomical Significance of Ancient Chamorro Cave Paintings." (Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Volume 31, December, Pages 671-???).

Kursh, Charlotte. and Kreps, Theodora. (1974). "Starpaths: Linear Constellations in Tropical Navigation." (Current Anthropology, Volume 15, Number 3, September, Pages 334-337). [Note: The authors discuss the concept of linear constellations (starpaths = stars sharing the same declination i.e., the same rising and setting point) for navigational purposes. The  theory of Polynesian long navigation by the stars was introduced by Harold Gatty, an expert in modern navigation, in his book Nature is Your Guide (1958). The theory has been criticised as misunderstanding astronomy. Also see the starpath discussion in: The History of Cartography, Volume 2, Issue 3 edited by David Woodward (1998, Pages 461-468).]

Kyselka, Will. (1992). "Preliminary Thoughts on Ku-kani-loko." [Note: An astronomical investigation of Ku-kani-loko birthing site on the island of Oahu. 16 pages. A draft copy was privately circulated. Kindly brought to my attention by Martha Noyes who advises the article is available at the Department of Land and Natural Resources Historic Preservation Division (Hawai'i).]

Kyselka, Will. (1993). "On the Rising of the Pleiades." (The Hawaiian Journal of History, Volume 27, Pages 173-183). [Note: A copy of the article was kindly supplied to me by Martha Noyes.]

Makemson, Maud. (1938). "Hawaiian astronomical concepts." (American Anthropologist, Volume 40, Pages 370-383).

Makemson, Maud. (1939). "Hawaiian astronomical concepts II." (American Anthropologist, Volume 41, Pages 589-596).

Moyle, Richard. (2003). "Waning Stars: Changes to Takū's Star Knowledge." (The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 112, Number 1, Pages 7-32). [Note: Excellent discussion of star/constellation names. Takū (also known as Mortlock Island(s)) is an atoll lying some 200 kilometres off the east coast of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea. The author is with University of Auckland. Richard Moyle has written extensively on the music, oral tradition and history of Polynesia and Aboriginal Australia. His research on the Polynesian outlier of Takuu, ongoing since 1994, has produced three books, the most recent being an encyclopedia of the language. Richard held appointments at the University of Hawaii, and the Australian Institute for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, before moving to The University of Auckland where, most recently, he was Director of the Centre for Pacific Studies. He is currently (2011) Honorary Research Professor at the Centre for Pacific Studies, and Adjunct Professor, Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre, Griffith University.]

Peteuil, Marie-Françoise. (2003). "Ciel d'îles." (Journal de la Société des Océanistes, Tome 116, Pages?-?). [Note: Abstract. This paper focuses on the links found in Polynesia between navigation and the stars (such as the star compass and the etak). It also attempts to show other links, such as those existing between stars and islands, stars and sea travels, stars and time, between the names of stars, heroes and toponymy.

Di Piazza, Anne. (2010). "A Reconstruction of a Tahitian Star Compass based on Tupaia's "Chart for the Society Islands with Otaheite in the Center"." (The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume 119, Number 4, Pages 377-392).

Schück, Albert. (1882). "Die astronomischen, geographischen und nautischen kentnisse der bewonner de Karolinen- und Marshallinseln." (Aus allen Welttheilen, Band 13, Pages 51-57). [Note: Drawing from early European accounts, Schück discusses the knowledge and use of the various points in the rising and setting of stars in relation to the horizon as well as the use of important stars for 12 wind directions. Schück also discusses European recordings of indigenous knowledge and use of stars, planets, and constellations, the construction of a stellar compass with bamboo sticks, and the usage of tattoos as geographical registers in the Carolines.]

Schück, Albert. (1884). "Die eentwickelung unseres bekanntwedens mit den astronomischen, geographischen und nautischen kenntnissen der Karolineninsulaner im Westlichen grossen Nord-Ocean." (Tijdschrift van het Koninklijke Nederlandsch Aardrijksundig, Genootschap te Amsterdam, Serie 1, Deel 2, Pages 226-251). [Note: In summarizing early European documentation on the navigational abilities and exploits of Caroline islanders, Schück notes the division of the horizon into 12 directions, indigenous names of 23 stars and constellations prominent in stellar phases of navigation, the use of the height of stars to reach a target island’s latitude, the use of stick charts during voyages to determine direction, and the conceptualization of the earth as a disc on whose edge the sky rests.

Stair, John. (1898). "The Names and Movements of the Heavenly Bodies, as Looked at From a Samoan Point of View." (Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume VII, Number 1, [Number 25], March, Pages 48-49).

Easter Island

Books/Pamphlets:

Barthel, Thomas. (1978). The Eighth Land: The Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island.

Churchill, William. and Roussel, Hippolyte. (1912). Easter Island: The Rapanui Speech and the Peopling of Southeast Polynesia.

Edwards, Edmundo. and Edwards, Alexandra. (2010). Rapanui Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy: FLAG #83 Expedition Report, February-June. [Note: 25 pages. Report of an Explorer's Club Flag expedition. Detailed discussion of star names and constellations.]

Métraux, Alfred. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island.

Van Tilburg, JoAnne. (1994). Easter Island: Archaeology, Ecology, and Culture.

Articles/Entries:

Belmonte, Juan. (2010). “Finding Our Place in the Cosmos: The Role of Astronomy In Ancient Cultures” (Journal of Cosmology, Volume 9, April 14, Pages 2052-2062). [Note: Notes the importance of certain asterisms in the culture of Rapa Nui − singularly Matariki (the Pleiades) or Tautoru (Orion’s Belt). JournalofCosmology.com is a freely accessible online (electronic) journal.]

Edwards, Edmundo. and Belmonte, Juan. (2004). "Megalithic astronomy of Easter Island: a reassessment." (Journal for the History of Astronomy Volume 35, Pages 421-33). [Note: Identifies the importance of certain asterisms in the culture of Rapa Nui − singularly Matariki (the Pleiades) or Tautoru (Orion's Belt). Edmundo Edwards, Instituto de Estudios Isla de Pascua; and Juan Belmonte, Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.]

Hockey, Thomas. and Hoffman, Alice. (2000). "An Archaeological Investigation: Does a Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" (Rapa Nui Journal, Volume XIV, Number 3, September, Pages 85-88). [Note: Suggests the identification of the stars of Sagittarius on a particular pattern of hollows made on a rock.]

Australian Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islanders

Books/Pamphlets:

Burra, Laksar. (1998). Spirit of the Night Sky. [Note: Small booklet with an emphasis on Aboriginal star lore. Uncritical and makes use of dated sources and dubious 'alternative history' sources.]

Cairns, Hugh. and Branagan, David. (1992). "Artificial patterns on rock surfaces in the Sydney region, New South Wales. Evidence for Aboriginal time charts and sky maps." In: Macdonald, J[?]. and Haskovic, I[?]. (Editors). State of the Art: regional art studies in Australia and Melanesia. (Pages ?-?).

Cairns, Hugh. (2000). "Astronomical Reference and Spiritualities in Empirical Aboriginal Night Sky." In: Esteban, César. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors). Oxford VI and SEAC 99 "Astronomy and Cultural Diversity." (Pages 349-358). [Note: This publication is the proceedings of the 6th "Oxford" international symposium on archaeoastronomy, jointly with the SEAC99 (European archaeoastronomy) meeting, held in La Laguna, Tenerife, in 1999. Copies of the book are exceedingly rare due to water damage to stock during a devastating Madrid flood. A PDF file has now (February, 2010) been kindly made available by Michael Rappenglück and is freely downloadable from the publications page of the SEAC web site.]

Cairns, Hugh. (2003). "Discoveries in Aboriginal Sky-Mapping (Australia)." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space. (Pages 523-538). [Note: Selected papers from the 5th Oxford international conference on archaeoastronomy held at Santa Fe in 1996.]

Fredrick, Serena. (2008). The Sky of Knowledge: Ethnoastronomy of the Aboriginal People of Australia. [Note: Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Leicester. Somewhat patchy.]

Hamacher, Duane. and Norris, Ray. (2011). ""Bridging the Gap" through Australian Cultural Astronomy." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Oxford IX: International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy & Astronomy in Culture. (Pages ?-?). [Note: Abstract: For more than 50,000 years, Indigenous Australians have incorporated celestial events into their oral traditions and used the motions of celestial bodies for navigation, time-keeping, food economics, and social structure. In this paper, we explore the ways in which Aboriginal people made careful observations of the sky, measurements of celestial bodies, and incorporated astronomical events into complex oral traditions by searching for written records of time-keeping using celestial bodies, the use of rising and setting stars as indicators of special events, recorded observations of variable stars, the solar cycle, and lunar phases (including ocean tides and eclipses) in oral tradition, as well as astronomical measurements of the equinox, solstice, and cardinal points.]

Haddon, Alfred. (1901-1912). Reports of the Cambridge anthropological expedition to Torres Straits. (6 Volumes). [Note: See specifically volume 4 (published 1912), volume 5 (published 1904), and volume 6 (published 1908). During 1888-1889 Alfred Haddon was on an 18 month expedition investigating the marine zoology of Torres Straits. At the time of the expedition he was Professor of Zoology at the Royal College of Sciences, and Assistant Naturalist to the Science and Art Museum in Dublin. During the course of this expedition he spent his most of his spare time making ethnological observations. Life dates: 1855-1940.]

Haynes, Raymond. et. al. (1996). Explorers of the Southern Sky: A History of Australian Astronomy. [Note: See Chapter 1 (Pages-7-20): Dreaming the Stars: Aboriginal Astronomy and the Southern Sky.]

Haynes, Roslynn. (2000). "Astronomy and the Dreaming: The Astronomy of the Aboriginal Australians." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Culture: The History of Non-Western Astronomy. (Pages 53-90).

Johnson, Dianne. (1998). Night Skies of Aboriginal Australia: A Noctuary. [Note: An excellent 147 page monograph that comprises a comprehensive compilation of information gained second-hand through library research. She was not aware of the comprehensive doctoral dissertation by Alfred Kotz. The author is an anthropologist. See the (English-language) book reviews by John Morieson in Oceania, Volume 69, Number 2, December 1, 1998, Pages 142-144; by Claire Farrer in American Ethnologist, Volume 27, Number 3, August, 2000, Pages 777-778; and by John Morton The Australian Journal of Anthropology, August, 2001.]

Johnson, Dianne. (2011). "Interpretations of the Pleiades in Australian Aboriginal astronomies." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy: Building Bridges between Cultures. (Pages 291-297). [Note: Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Volume 7, SymposiumS278 [Issue 278], ("Oxford IX" International Symposium on Archaeoastronomy).]

Kotz, Alfred. (1911). Über die astronomischen Kenntnisse der Naturvölker Australiens und der Südsee. [Note: Doctoral thesis of less than 100 pages. A comprehensive summary. Life dates: 1888-?]

Morieson, John. (1996). The night sky of the Boorong. [Note: Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of Melbourne. The author teaches at Swinburne Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Victoria. The style of presentation for the scant evidence is somewhat odd for a Master's thesis. The author believes he has presented evidence for the Boorong aboriginal clan of north-west Victoria (now no longer extant) having a system of some 30 constellations that may date back 23,000 years (if the carbon-dating case holds). It is also held that the ecliptic was a primary reference point for the marking of these constellations. The case largely revolves around notes made by William Stanbridge, an early 19th-century north-west Victorian farmer, of the astronomical lore related to him by a particular family belonging to the Boorong clan. William Stanbridge is the only source for the existence of the Boorong clan and its astronomical knowledge. I thought the thesis was 'diffuse, loose and rambling.']

Morieson, John. (2002). Stars over Tyrell: The night sky of the Boorong. [Note: Privately published by the author. Undoubtedly comprised of his 1996 M.A. thesis.]

Morieson, John. (2006). "From Archaeo" to "Ethno" - An Indigenous Australian Astronomy: The Story of Action Research into Boorong Astronomy Since 1995." In: Bostwick, Todd. and Bates, Bryan. (Editors). Viewing the Sky Through Past and Present Cultures. (Pages 139-148). [Note: The volume contains selected papers from the Oxford VII International Conference on Archaeoastronomy. The paper contains further hypothetical reconstructions of Boorong astronomy. One wonders how much longer Morieson can 'stretch things out' regarding Boorong astronomy.]

Norris, Ray. and Hamacher, Duane. (2009). "The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia." In: Valls-Gabaud, David. and Boksenberg, Alec. (Editors). The Role of Astronomy in Society and Culture. (Pages 10-17). [Note: Proceedings IAU Symposium Number 260. Speculative article that includes a brief discussion of some Koori constellations. Ray Norris is an astrophysicist at CSIRO Astronomy & Space Science. He was born in England, obtained an MA in theoretical physics at Cambridge, followed by a PhD and postdoc in radio-astronomy at Manchester, while also studying the astronomy of ancient standing stones. In 1983, Ray Norris and his family moved to Australia where he joined the CSIRO, and now researches the formation and evolution of the first galaxies in the Universe, and also the astronomy of Aboriginal Australians. He was appointed as an Adjunct Professor at the Macquarie University Department of Indigenous Studies in 2008.]

Orchiston, Wayne. (1996). "Australian Aboriginal, Polynesian and Maori Astronomy." In: Walker, Christopher. (Editor). Astronomy before the Telescope. (Pages 318-328).

Sharp, Nonie. (1993). Stars of the Tagai: The Torres Strait Islanders. [Note: Broad study of the culture and mythology (and politics) of the Torres Strait Islanders.]

Smyth, Robert. (1878, (2 volumes); reprinted 1972). The Aborigines of Victoria. [Note: See Volume 1, Page 432 for discussion of William Stanbridge and the constellations of the Boorong clan. The authors last name is sometimes given in bibliographies as Brough-Smyth or Brough-Smith. Life dates 1830-1889.]

Tindale, Norman. (2005). "Celestial Lore of Some Australian Tribes." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 358-379). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Wells, Ann. (1964). Skies of Arnhem Land.

Wells, Ann. (1973). Stars in the Sky: Legends of Arnhem Land.

Yudumduma, Bill. and Wozitsky, J[?]. (1996). Under the Paperbark Tree. [Note: Small book based on ABC radio broadcasts.]

Articles/Entries:

Bhathal, Ragbir. (2006). "Astronomy in Aboriginal culture." (Astronomy and Geophysics, Volume 47, Number 5, October, Pages 5.27-5.30). [Note: The author holds that the Aboriginal peoples' views of the night sky probably pre-date those of other civilizations. The author is an astrophysicist in the School of Engineering at the University of Western Sydney. He is undertaking a national project on Aboriginal astronomy.]

Branagan, David. and Cairns, Hugh. (1993). "Marks on sandstone surfaces - Sydney region, Australia: cultural origins and meanings?" (Journal and Proceedings of The Royal Society of New South Wales, Volume 126, Parts 3-4, December, Pages 125-133).

Cairns, Hugh. (1993). "Aboriginal sky-mapping? Possible astronomical interpretation of Australian Aboriginal ethnographic and archaeological material." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Archaeoastronomy in the 1990s. (Pages 136-154).

Clarke, Philip. (1997). "The Aboriginal Cosmic Landscape of Southern South Australia." (Records of the South Australian Museum, Volume 29, Number 1 [Part 2?], March, Pages 125-145).

Clarke, Philip. (1998). "The Study of Ethnoastronomy in Australia." (Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News, Number 29, September Equinox).

Clarke, Philip. (2007-2008). "An Overview of Australian Aboriginal Ethnoastronomy." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, Volume XXI, Pages 39-58). [Note: Good bibliography.]

Griffin, J[?]. (1923). "Australian Aboriginal Astronomy." (Journal of the Royal Society of Canada, Volume 17, May, Pages 156-163). [Note: Popular article based on secondary sources. Discusses a number of constellations including the Pleiades.]

Hamacher, Duane. and Frew, David. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae." (Journal for Astronomical History and Heritage, Volume 13, Issue 3, November, Pages 220-234). [Note: Well researched for biographical details of William Stanbridge. Abstract: "We present evidence that the Boorong Aboriginal people of northwestern Victoria observed the Great Eruption of Eta (η) Carinae in the nineteenth century and incorporated the event into their oral traditions. We identify this star, as well as others not specifically identified by name, using descriptive material presented in the 1858 paper by William Edward Stanbridge in conjunction with early southern star catalogues. This identification of a transient astronomical event supports the assertion that Aboriginal oral traditions are dynamic and evolving, and not static. This is the only definitive indigenous record of η Carinae's outburst identified in the literature to date." The author's state in Note 1: "Many of the characters observed by the Boorong, identified as bright stars by Stanbridge (1858), have been considered by Morieson (1996; 2002; 2006) to represent patterns of stars, which sometimes include very dim stars. Since Aboriginal groups in southeast Australia generally avoided a "connect-the-dots" approach to grouping constellations …, instead attributing individual stars to specific characters in their oral traditions, these proposed constellation patterns seem unlikely to have been recorded by the Boorong." American-born Duane Hamacher has a BSc in Physics (University of Missouri); a MSc in Astronomy (University of New South Wales); and (2011) is completing a PhD in Indigenous Studies (Macquarie University). He is part of the Aboriginal Astronomy Project, centred in the Department of Indigenous Studies at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. His primary research is in Australian Cultural Astronomy, often termed "Aboriginal Astronomy". It involves the study of the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians using the techniques of archaeoastronomy, ethnoastronomy, historical astronomy, and geomythology. The project is now part of the new Research Centre for Astronomy, Astrophysics & Astrophotonics at Macquarie University. It involves him working with Aboriginal communities such as the Dharawal (NSW), Wathaurong (VIC), and Wardaman (NT). Hamacher is also an astronomy educator at Sydney Observatory and Macquarie Observatory & Planetarium, where he guides telescope viewings, lead planetarium sessions, and develops Indigenous Astronomy education programs. He also works as an archaeologist for a consultancy firm in Newcastle. He is also active in science education and outreach and works with the CSIRO "Scientists in Schools" program. As part of his work, he developed and edits the Aboriginal Astronomy Blog.]

Haynes, Roslynn. (1992). "Aboriginal Astronomy." (Australian Journal of Astronomy, Volume 4, Pages 127-140).

Haynes, Roslynn. (1995). "Dreaming the stars: the astronomy of the Australian Aborigines." (Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Volume 20, Number 3, Pages 187-197).

Haynes, Roslynn. (1997). "Dreaming the sky." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 74, Number 3, September, Pages 72-76).

Haynes, Roslynn. (1997). "Astronomy of the Australian People." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. (Pages 105-108).

MacPherson, Peter. (1881). "Astronomy of the Australian Aborigines." (Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Volume 15, Pages 71-80). [Note: Some sources give the date as 1882. The paper was read to the Royal Society of New south Wales on 6th July, 1881 and naturally included in Volume 15 for that year. The actual date of publication of Volume 15 was 1882.]

Maegraith, Brian. (1932). "The astronomy of the Aranda and Luritja tribes." (Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, Volume 56, Number 1, Pages 19-26). [Note: The author appears to have been a doctor or medical researcher.]

Morieson, John. (1999). "The Astronomy of the Boorong." (Mission, Volume 2, Number 4, December, Pages 21-30). [Note: Mission is the Journal of Australian Indigenous Issues.]

Morieson, John. (2007?). "The case study of the Boorong." (Archaeologia Baltica, Volume 10, Pages ?-?). [Note: The author has kept repeating the same limited conjectural-deductive theme for 10 years. "Abstract: They were here as recently as 150 years ago. They spoke about the main players in their celestial domain and pointed them out in the night sky. Today they are gone and the reconstruction of their cosmology has required the breadth of the nineteenth century natural philosopher, drawing on zoology, botany, and linguistics, ethnography, geography and anthropology, as well as patient, long-term naked eye observation. It has been an exciting and stimulating task to gradually unfold these stories of the Australian Aboriginal clan who were regarded by neighbouring clans as the best astronomers in the region."]

Natelle, Antonella. (2012). "The Pleiades and the Dreamtime: an Aboriginal Women's Story and Other Ancient World Traditions." (Coolabah, Number 9, Pages 113-127). [Note: An esoteric jumble.]

Norris, Ray. (2007?). "Searching for the astronomy of aboriginal Australians." (Archaeologia Baltica, Volume 10, Pages ?-?). [Note: "Abstract: It is widely accepted that the traditional culture of Aboriginal Australians has a significant astronomical component, but it is unclear whether this component extended beyond ceremonial songs and stories. Here I summarise a growing body of evidence that there was a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, that this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars, and there may even be evidence for careful records and measurements."]

Norris, Ray. (2008). "In Search of Aboriginal Astronomy." (Australian Sky and Telescope, March/April, Pages 20-24). [Note: Includes a discussion of stars and calendars.]

Stanbridge, William. (1857). "On the astronomy and mythology of the Aborigines of Victoria." (Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria, Volume 2, Pages 137-140). [Note: William Stanbridge was a pastoralist, newly arrived from England, who settled near Lake Tyrell in Victoria. (More accurately he was a Mallee squatter.) It appears he published only one additional (but lengthy) paper on the topic. It would appear that the Boorong formed a clan within the Wergaia language area. Present-day, the descendents of the Boorong people have been identified as the Darung people (a language group of tribes occupying the Sydney area). There are no records regarding Boorong astronomy prior to Stanbridge's papers, and none since. The Boorong clan no longer exists as an independent group, but their descendents are held to still live in the region as members of the Kulin people (of Central Victoria).]

Stanbridge, William. (1861). "Some Particulars of the General Characteristics, Astronomy and Mythology of the Tribes in the Central Part of Victoria, Southern Australia." (Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, New Series, Volume 1, Pages 286-303). [note: William Stanbridge (1816-1894) was a pastoralist and MLC (Member of the Legislative Council. He was the son of Edward Stanbridge and his wife Ann Croft. He was born in Warwickshire, United Kingdom. He married Florence Colles, the daughter of Richard Colles. He was a pioneer of rural postal services handling packages and held the Wombat and other runs. See biographical entry in: Pounds and Pedigrees: The Upper Class in Victoria, 1850-80 by Paul de Serville (1991, Page 339).]

Maori

Books/Pamphlets:

Best, Elsdon. (1922, Reprinted 1955, and 1972). The Astronomical Knowledge of the Maori. [Note: A booklet. One of the key sources for understanding ancient Maori constellations and star names. However, Elsdon Best Best has been criticised for being ignorant of astronomy. Elsdon Best was a member of the staff of the Dominion Museum from 1911 to 1931. He was considered to be the foremost Maori ethnologist of his time. He spent numerous years living among the Maori people and his numerous writings preserve a lot of information that would otherwise have been lost. In 1960 a monument to him was erected at Grasslees Reserve in Tawa, near to where he was born. See the lengthy biography: Man of the Mist: A Biography of Elsdon Best by Elsdon Craig (1964). Life dates: 1856-1931.]

Best, Elsdon. (1922, Reprinted 1959, 1987, and 1986). The Maori Division of Time.

Best, Elsdon. (1923, Reprinted 1954). Polynesian Voyagers. [Note: Pamphlet.]

Cowan, James. (1930). The Maori: Yesterday and Today. [Note: See Chapter VII. - On Stars and Star Lore.]

Leather, Kay. and Hall, Richard. (2004). Tātai Arorangi: Māori Astronomy. Work of the Gods. [Note: Maori star lore. The publication is advertised as a book but is little more than a heavily illustrated (92-page) pamphlet obviously produced for a popular audience. There are some 35 half-page or larger illustrations and some 10 quarter-page illustrations. Both authors are employed by the Carter Observatory.]

Taylor, Richard. (1855; Reprinted 1974). Te Ika-a-Maui or New Zealand and its inhabitants. [Note: Reverend Richard Taylor was a missionary stationed at Wanganui. His book includes notes on cosmology and star names - the latter lacking suitable clarity.]

Tregear, Edward. (1904). The Maori Race. [Note: Contains a brief discussion of Maori star names and constellations and the difficulty of recovering knowledge of such. The author was a public servant, linguist, Polynesian scholar, and writer. Life dates: 1846-1931.]

White, John. (1886-1891). The ancient history of the Maori: his history and traditions. (9 parts in 5 volumes). [Note: There were a number of early editions of this book i.e., 1887-1890, 6 volumes; 1889, 4 volumes. The author was a native interpreter. Life dates: 1826-1891.]

Articles/Entries:

Best, Elsdon. (1910). "Maori Star Names." (The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume XIX, Number 2, Number 74, June, Pages 97-99).

[Editor]. (1911). "Maori Star Names." (The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Volume XX, Number 1, Number 77, March, Pages 10-11). [Note: Additional commentary on 1910 article of same name by Elsdon Best.]

Kingsley-Smith, C[?]. (1967). "Astronomers in puipuis. Maori star lore." (Southern Stars, Volume 22, Pages 5-10).

Orchiston, Wayne. (1986). "Towards an accurate history of early New Zealand astronomy." (Southern Stars, Volume 31, Pages 257-266).

Indian/Vedic

Books/Pamphlets:

Abegg, Emil. (1928). Der Messiasglaube in Indien und Iran. [Note: Includes discussion of the astronomical context of these beliefs.]

Anghelina, Cataln. (2013). On the Nature of the Vedic Gods. [Note: Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 241, October, 2013. Speculative and containing numerous errors and controversial statements.]

Billard, Roger. (1971). L'astronomie indienne.

Das, Sukumar. (1937). "The Naksatras or the Constellation in Jaina Astronomy." In: S. Belvalkar. (Editor). Jha Commemoration Volume. Essays on Oriental Subjects Presented to Ganganatha Jha. (Pages 129-138). [Note: Festschriften. After limited checking I am now doubtful whether this is the correct reference.]

Ekendranath, Ghost. (1983). Studies in Rigvedic Deities - Astronomical and Meteorological.

Kaye, George. (1924; reprinted 1998). Hindu Astronomy. [Note: Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, Number 18. An excellent overview of Indian astronomy. Includes a discussion of Indian constellations (Pages 24-26).]

Kelley, David. and Milone, Gene. (2005). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. [Note: See the section "Indian Constellations and Asterisms," Page 294. A problem with the book in general is its reliance on secondary sources. At times the sources used are unreliable and as a result numerous topics covered lack reliability.]

Mitchiner, John. (1982, Reprinted 2000). Traditions of the Seven Rsis. [Note: Excellent chapter devoted to a discussion of Ursa Major.]

Miyajima, Kazuhiko. (2002). "Projection Methods in East Asian Star Maps'." In: S. M. Razaullah Ansari. (Editor). History of Oriental Astronomy. (Pages 59-65).

Mukherji, Kalinath. (1905; Reprinted 1969). Popular Hindu Astronomy. [Note: The author, whose name frequently appears as S. R. Mukerji, was a prominent lawyer. The book is full of speculation and unsubstantiated interpretations/claims; and parts are quite erroneous.]

Pike, Albert. (1872; Reprinted 1930). Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship as Contained in the Rig-Veda. [Note: The author was a Freemason who taught himself Sanskrit. Considerable discussion of constellations. Life dates: 1809(?)-1891.]

Pingree, David. (1989). "MUL.APIN and Vedic Astronomy." In: Behrens, Hermann. et. al. (Editors). DUMU-E2-DUB-BA-A. Studies in Honor of Ĺke W. Sjoberg. (Pages 439-445).

Pingree, David. (1998). "Legacies in Astronomy and Celestial Omens." In: Dalley, Stephanie. (Editor). The Legacy of Mesopotamia. (Pages 125-137).

Pingree, David. (2007). "Mesopotamian and Greek Astronomy in India." In: Preisendanz, Karin. (Editor). Expanding and Merging Horizons: Contributions to South Asian and Cross-Cultural Studies in Commemoration of Wilhelm Halbfass. [Note: One of the last papers by David Pingree before his untimely death.]

Plunket, Emmeline. (1903). "Astronomy in the Rig Veda." In: Ancient Calendars and Constellations. (Part I, Chapter V, Pages 88-148). [Note: Completely dated. Originally appeared in the Actes of the Twelfth Oriental Congress held in Rome (Actes Douzičme Congrčs International des Orientalistes, 1899, Pages 55-100).]

Plunket, Emmeline. (1903). "Ancient Indian Astronomy." In: Ancient Calendars and Constellations. (Part I, Chapter VII, Pages 162-184). [Note: Completely dated. Originally appeared in the Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, February, 1900.]

Singh, Rana and Malville, J[?]. (2000). "Sacred Landscapes and Cosmic Geometries: A Study of the Holy Places of North India." In: Esteban, César. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors). Oxford VI and SEAC 99 "Astronomy and Cultural Diversity." (Pages 99-106). [Note: This publication is the proceedings of the 6th "Oxford" international symposium on archaeoastronomy, jointly with the SEAC99 (European archaeoastronomy) meeting, held in La Laguna, Tenerife, in 1999. Copies of the book are exceedingly rare due to water damage to stock during a devastating Madrid flood. A PDF file has now (February, 2010) been kindly made available by Michael Rappenglück and is freely downloadable from the publications page of the SEAC web site.]

Singh, Rana. (2009). Cosmic Order and Cultural Astronomy: Sacred Cities of India.

Subbarayappa, B[?]. (1989). "Indian astronomy: an historical perspective." In: Biswas, S[?]., Mallik, D[?]., and Vishveshwara, C[?]. (Editors). Cosmic Perspectives: Essays Dedicated to the Memory of M.K.V. Bappu. [Note: The article by Subbarayappa contains an excellent discussion of the lunar mansions.]

Tilak, Bál. (1893). The Orion or Researches into The Antiquity of the Vedas. [Note: Unreliable. The author was an Indian lawyer and prominent political activist. Contains an argument for precessional mythology and "world ages." Tilak claimed an Arctic home for the Aryans and the Vadas. His basic arguments were: (1) the early Vedic hymns placed the vernal equinox in Orion, and (2) the earliest Vedic calendars were based on (northern) polar constellations. Inherent in his arguments are flawed chronological assumptions. Demolitions of Tilak's fantasies (which later proponents copy) can be found in: "The Home of the Aryans: an Astronomical Approach," by N. R. Waradpande. In: Shantaram Bhalchandra Deo and Suryanath Kamath (Editors). The Aryan Problem (1993, Pages 123-134); The RigVeda, a Historical Analysis by Shrikant Talageri (1st edition 2000; 2nd edition 2009); The Saffron Swastika by Koenraad Elst (2001, Volume 2). Some comments from publications by Koenraad Elst: "This erratic theory is so inordinately popular among Western racists for providing  "independent" Indian confirmation to a North-European Homeland Theory (in reality, Tilak had tried to bend the Vedic evidence often ludicrously, to bring it in conformity with fashionable Western theories)." "The main point is that Tilak goes to absurd lengths to read "Arctic" references in Vedic episodes, e.g., the Battle of the Ten Kings is interpreted metaphorically as referring to the "ten cold months" ...." Tilak's "... theories find no genuine support whosoever in the Vedic text or in any other expression of Hindu tradition, which is why at the end of his life, Tilak developed doubts." Tilak's argument also relied on now outdated early studies of the Vedas by European scholars who advocated a great antiquity for Hindu astronomy. Also, Tilak saw support for his (flawed) chronology in the studies of Hermann Jacobi (whose dating arguments for the 5th-millennium BCE as the date of the Vedas are largely rejected). The proper foundations for the history and antiquity of the Vedas and Hindu astronomy were laid by Max Müller and Henry Colebrooke. Interestingly, I have had several e-mails from India instructing me to change my website pages and "recognize " that the earliest astronomy originated in India with the Vedas. I would offer that the work of David Pingree has clarified many issues and further supports a recent origin for Indian astronomy.]

Tilak, Bál. (1893). Ä Summary of the Principal Facts and Arguments in the Orion; or Researches in the Antiquity of the Vedas." In: Morgan, E[?]. (Editor). Transactions of the Ninth International Congress of Orientalists. (2 Volumes). [Note: The Congress was held in 1892. The essay is in Volume 1, Pages 376-383.]

Vahia, Mayank. and Menon, Srikumar. (2011). "Foundations of Harappan Astronomy." In: Nakamura, Tsuko, Orchiston, Wayne, Sôma, Mitsuru, and Strom, Richard (Editors). Mapping the Oriental Sky: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Oriental Astronomy (ICOA-7). (Pages ?-?). [Note: 11 pages.]

Articles/Entries:

Abhyankar, K[?]. (2002). "Probable Rationale for Unequal Naksata Divisions in Jain Astronomy." (India Journal of History of Science, Volume 32, Number 1, Pages 31-36).

Abhyankar, K[?]. (2005). "Folklore and Astronomy: Agastrya a sage and a star." (Current Science, Volume 89, Number 12, 25 December, Pages 2174-2176). [Note: Speculative. The author is an astronomer. Abstract: It is argued that the star Agastya (Canopus) is named after sage Agastya, who crossed the Vindhya mountain and saw the star for the first time in about 4000–5000 BC. Further, it is shown that Agastya was the first national integrator, who combined the two ancient civilizations of India, viz. the Aryan (Sanskrit) civilization of the Indo-Gangetic plain and the Dravidian (Tamil) civilization of the Cauvery basin, into the mighty Hindu civilization of India.]

Ashfaque, Syed. (1989). "Primitive Astronomy in the Indus Civilization." (Wisconsin Archaeological Reports, Volume 2, Number 2).

Filliozat, Jean. (1969). "Notes on Ancient Iranian and Indian Astronomy." (Journal of the K.R. Cama Oriental Research Institute, Volume 42, Pages 100-135).

Frawley, David. (1994). "Planets in the Vedic Literature." (India Journal of Science, Volume 29, Number 4, Pages 495-506). [Note: The author supports the existence of a system of 27 Nakşatras with a 28th periodically inserted (intercalated) to keep order with the Moon traversing the Nakşatra system in 27.3 days.]

Kaye, George. (1920). "Hindu Astronomical Deities." (Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 16, New Series, Pages 57-77).

Rao, N[?]. (2005). "Aspects of prehistoric astronomy in India." (Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India, Volume 33, Pages 499-511). [Note: Includes a very speculative discussion of upper paleolithic period art (and later) as evidence for early constellations.]

Rudra, Prasanta. (2006). "A Short History of Hindu Astronomy & Ephemeris." (Physics Teacher [India], Volume 48, Number 4, Pages ?-?). [Note: At the time of publication the author was formerly with the Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, India.]

Von Simson, Georg. (1984). "The Mythic Background of the Mahābhārata." (Indological Taurinensia, Volume 12, Pages 191-223). [Note: The author is a German Indologist. His ideas are controversial and not considered reliable.]

Yampolsky, Philip. (1950). "The Origin of the Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions." (Osiris, Volumen Nonum [Volume 9], Pages 62-83). [Note: Presentation of various expert opinions for the origin of the system of lunar mansions found in China, India, and Arabia.]

Tibetan

Books/Pamphlets:

Crook, John. and Osmaston, Henry. (2001). Himalayan Buddhist Villages. [Note: Discusses lunar mansions, etc.]

Articles/Entries:

Petri, Winfried. (1966). "Uiger and Tibetan lists of the Indian Lunar Mansions." (Indian Journal of the History of Science, Volume 1, Number 2, Pages 83-90). [Note: Also issued separately twice.]

Petri, Winfried. (1967). "Tibetan Astronomy." (Vistas in Astronomy, Volume 9, Pages 159-164). [Note: Discusses lunar mansions. At the time the author wrote the paper he was with the Institute for the History of Science, University of Munich, Germany.]

African

Books/Pamphlets:

Holbrooke, Jarita. (2007). (Editor). African Cultural History: Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy. [Note: Excellent overview by expert contributors.]

Marshall, Lorna. (1986). "Some Bushman Star Lore." In: Vossen, Rainer. and Keuthmann, Klaus. (Editors). Contemporary Studies in Khoisan 2. (Pages 169-204).

Peek, Philip. and Yankah, Kwesi. (2004). African Folklore: An Encyclopedia. [Note: See especially "Astronomy" starting page 11.]

Snedegar, Keith. (1995). Astronomical traditions of Southern Africa. [Note: Unpublished report.]

Walton, Bill. and Savage, Mike. (1967). Stars Over Africa.

Warner, Brian. (1996). "Traditional Astronomical Knowledge in Africa." In: Walker, Christopher. (Editor). Astronomy before the Telescope. (Pages 304-317).

Articles/Entries:

Beyer, G[?]. (1919). "Suto astronomy." (South African Journal of Science, Volume 16, Pages 206-?).

Hirschberg, Walter. (1929). "Die Plejaden in Afrika und ihre Beziehung zum Bodenbau." (Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Band 61, Heft 4/6, Pages 321-337).

Hollmann, J[?]. (2007). ""The Sky's Thing's": Ixam Bushman 'Astrological Mythology' as recorded in the Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts." (African Skies / Cieux Africains, Number 11, July, Pages 8-12). [Note: Abstract. The Bleek and Lloyd Manuscripts are an extraordinary resource that comprises some 12 000 pages of Ixam Bushman beliefs collected in the 1870s in Cape Town, South Africa. About 17% of the collection concerns beliefs and observations of celestial bodies. This paper summarises Ixam knowledge about the origins of the celestial bodies as recorded in the manuscripts and situates this within the larger context of the Ixam worldview. The stars and planets originate from a mythological past in which they lived as ‘people’ who hunted and gathered as the Ixam did in the past, but who also had characteristics that were to make them the entities that we recognise today. Certain astronomical bodies have consciousness and supernatural potency. They exert an influence over people’s everyday lives. The author is with the School of Human and Social Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, and South Africa & Natal Museum, Pietermaritzburg.]

Koorts, W[?]. and Slotegraaf, A[?]. (2005). "lXam astronomical references in G. R. von Wielligh's Boesman-Stories." (Paper presented at the 2005 African Astronomical History Symposium, Cape Town). [Note: Abstract: The primary source of lXam sidereal narratives are the well-known works by Bleek and Lloyd. We present two new lXam accounts, explaining the origin of the Sun and the origin of the Evening Star, as collected and retold in Afrikaans by G R von Wielligh in Boesman-Stories, Part 1. We also give an English translation of those parts of the book containing astronomical references.]

Lagercrantz, Sture. (1952). "The Milky Way in Africa." (Ethnos, Pages 64-72). [Note: Ethnos is a peer-reviewed journal of anthropology. Sture Lagercrantz was a Swedish anthropologist and Africanist at Uppsala University. Life dates: 1910-?]

Marshall, Lorna. (1975). "Two Jũ/wă Constellations." (Botswana Notes and Records, Volume 7, Pages 153-159). [Note: Star lore of the !Xu Bushmen. The !Xu are a particular clan of the Bushmen. The Pleiades, Capella, and Canopus, appear to be the most important stars in Jũ/wă star lore. The stars of Orion, and the Great Magellan Cloud also have importance. Lorna Marshall has made numerous trips/field trips to the Kalahari and has also published a number of highly regarded social anthropological papers (International African Institute).]

Norton, [?]. Reverend Father. (1909). "Native star names." (South African Journal of Science, Volume 9, Pages 306-?).

Obenga, Theophile (1987). "Notes sur les Connaissances Astronomiques Bantu." (Muntu, Volume 6, Pages 63-78). Note: Reviews the literature on astronomical knowledge in Ancient Egypt, among the Borana (Ethiopia), Dogon, Lobi, Bambara (West Africa), Vili (Congo), Fang (Cameroun, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon) and Mbochi (Congo).]

Schlichter, Henry. (1899). "Travels and Researches in Rhodesia." (The Geographical Journal, Volume XIII, January to June, Pages 376-396). [Note: Speculations regarding astronomy and zodiac at Zimbabwe.]

Snedegar, Keith. (1995(6?)). "Stars and Seasons in Southern Africa." (Vistas in Astronomy, Volume 39, Pages 529-538). [Note: Keith Snedegar is Associate Professor of History at Utah Valley State College, and an authority on African astronomical lore.]

Snedegar, Keith. (1997). "Ikwezi is the Morning Star." (Mercury, Volume 26, Number 6, Pages 12-15).

Starr, Eileen. (1990[2?]). "Sub-Saharan African Astronomical Mythology." (The Planetarian, Volume 19[21?], Number [2?]3, September, Pages 8-18). [Note: Considered to be somewhat misleading. The correct reference may be: The Planetarian, Vol. 19, No. 3, September 1990, Pages 8-18.]

Von Sicard, Harald. (1966). "Karanga Stars." (Rhodesian Native Affairs Department Annual, Pages 42-65).

Siberian

Books/Pamphlets:

Holmberg, Uno. (1922). Der Baum des Lebens. [Note: Finnocized his name from Holmberg to Harva in 1927. His name sometimes appears as Holmberg-Harva.]

Holmberg, Uno. (1927). Finno-Ugric and Siberian Mythology. [Note: The writing of the Finno-Ugric and Siberian mythology was completed in 1916 but the book was not published until 1927. The author was a prominent historian of religion, an ethnologist, and a folklorist. He explored mythic structures in the ancient cosmologies of peoples living in the vast geographical area extending from Scandinavia in the west to the Bering Straits in the east and to the old areas of Central Asia and Asia Minor in the south. He showed morphologically related themes in the mythic narratives of shamanic hunters, cattle-breeding agriculturalists, and nomadic pastoralists. These included centre of the world (axis mundi) symbolism and analyses of motives in Mother Goddess (Magna Mater) traditions; they also dealt with themes and motives in shamanistic traditions, such as the significance of the shaman costume, the shaman's tree, and his ascent to the sky. Harva's accomplishments as a student of myth, cosmology, and ritual were highly valued by Mircea Eliade, Bronislaw Malinowski, and Weston LaBarre among others. Life dates: 1882-1949.]

Articles/Entries:

Gibbon, William. (1964). "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore: Ursa Major." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 77, January-March, Number 303, Pages 236-250).

Gibbon, William. (1972). "Asiatic Parallels in North American Star Lore Milky Way, Pleiades, Orion." (Journal of American Folklore, Volume 85, January-March, Number 335, Pages 236-247).

Inuit

Books/Pamphlets:

Bishop, Jeanne. (1999). "Eskimo Sky Ideas and Use." In: GLPA Conference Proceedings, 1999. [Note: GLPA = Great Lakes Planetarium Association. The Proceedings is an annual publication which includes a variety of presentations delivered at the annual Fall conference, and other articles submitted during the year. Jeanne Bishop also presented the paper at the IPS 2000 Conference. IPS = International Planetarium Society.]

Hawkes, Ernest. (1916, Reprinted 1970). The Labrador Eskimo. [Note: See page 136.]

MacDonald, John. (1998). The Arctic Sky: Inuit Astronomy, Star Lore, and Legend. [Note: The first complete book dealing with "Eskimo" sky lore. See the (English-language) book reviews by Peter Schledermann in Arctic (published by the Arctic Institute of North America), Volume 51, Number 4, December, 1998, Pages 394-395; by Diane Brooks in Journal of the Royal Society of Canada, Volume ?, Number ?, February, 1999, Pages ?-?; by ? in Sky and Telescope, 1999, Volume 98, Number 4, Pages 82, by Robin Ridington in The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 1999, November 1, Volume 36, Issue 4, Page 607; and by Brigitte Sonne in Isis, 2000, Volume 91, Number 3, September, Page 563; and the (French-language) book review by Frédéric Laugrand in Etudes Inuit Studies, Volume 24, Number 1, 2000, Pages ?-? John MacDonald has spent most of his life in the Canadian Arctic. At the time of publication of the book he was the co-ordinator at the Nunavut Research Centre in the Inuit community of Igloolik. (He has now retired and continues to live in Igloolik, Nunavut.) The book is the result of an oral history project conducted from 1988 to 1997. (He has been closely involved in the collection and documentation of the oral history and traditional knowledge of the Inuit in the region of the Nunavut territory.) He was the winner of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society's 1999 Fraser Lectureship and has spoken on Inuit astronomy at Laval, McGill, and Ottawa Universities. The content of the book is based on interviews with Inuit elders in the eastern Arctic settlement of Igloolik (and was written with the help of Igloolik's Innullariit Society). This settlement is located in the newly formed territory of Nunavut in Northern Canada. The Nunavut Land Claim (one-fifth of Canada) was the largest aboriginal settlement in history.]

Thule Expedition, 5th. [Rasmussen, Knud] (1929?; Reprinted [by AMS] 19?). Report of the Fifth [5th] Thule Expedition, 1921-24: the Danish Expedition to Arctic North America. [Note: Volumes 1-10 published 1927-1952 (and volumes reprinted also during this period). The volumes comprise a detailed record of the Danish Ethnographic and Geographic Expedition to Arctic North America. See: Volume 5, Part 1.]

Weyer, Edward. (1932, Reprinted 1962). The Eskimos: Their Environment and Folkways. [Note: Regarded as a major classic on the Inuit. Covers Inuit cosmology.]

Articles/Entries:

Murdoch, John. (1890). "Notes on the Names of the Heavenly Bodies and the Points of the Compass Among the Point Barrow Eskimo." (The American Anthropologist, Volume 3, Number 2, April, Page 136). [Note: Information on Inuit constellations and star names. The author spent 2 years with the Point Barrow Inuit.]

Tropics/Carab

Books/Pamphlets:

Hugh-Jones, Stephen. (1982). "The Pleiades and Scorpius in Barasana Cosmology." In: Aveni, Anthony. and Urton, Gary. (Editors). Ethnoastronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the American Tropics. (Pages 183-201). [Note: See the (English-language) book review by LeRoy Doggett in Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 5, Number 4, October-December, Pages 34-35.]

Articles/Entries:

Imbert, Maura. (2010). "The Possible Influence of Astronomy on the Culture of the Ceramic-Age, Pre-Columbian Inhabitants of Greencastle Hill in Antigua." (History in Action, Volume 1, Number 1, April, Pages 1?-7?).

Magańa, Edmundo. (1982). "A Comparison Between Carib, Tukano/Cubeo and Western Astronomy." (Archaeoastronomy: The Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 5, Number 2, April-June, Pages 23-31). [Note: The author is an anthropologist who has conducted extensive field research related to the ethnoastronomy of the Caribbean peoples.]

Magańa, Edmundo. and Jara, Fabiola. (1982). "The Carib Sky." (Journal de la Société des Américanistes, Tome 68, Pages 105-132). [Note: Excellent.]

Magańa, Edmundo. and Jara, Fabiola. (1983). "Invention of the Sky." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 6, Numbers 1-4, January-December, Pages 102-113). [Note: The authors continue with, and comment on, their earlier article.]

Magańa, Edmundo. and Jara, Fabiola. (1983). "Astronomy of the Coastal Caribs of Surinam." (L'Homme, Tome 23, Issue 1, January-March, Pages 111-133).

Robiou-Lamarche, Sebastián. (1984). "Astronomy in Taíno Myth." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Volume 7, Numbers 1-4, January-December, Pages 110-115).

Taylor, Douglas. (1946). "Notes on the Star Lore of the Caribbees." (American Anthropologist, New Series, Volume 48, Number 2, April-June, Pages 215-222).

Middle East/Levant

Books/Pamphlets:

Dijkstra, Meindert. (1998). "Astral Myth of the Birth of Shahar and Shalim (KTU 1.23)." In: Dietrich, Manfred. and Kottsieper, Ingo. (Editors). "Und Moses shrieb dieses Lied auf: Studien zum Alten Testament und zum Alten Orient. (Pages 265-287).

Gardner, Sara. (2002). The moon and stars of the southern Levant at Gezer and Megiddo: Cultural astronomy in Chalcolithic/Early and Middle Bronze Ages. [Note: Doctoral thesis. Somewhat speculative. Discusses possible 3rd millennium BCE constellations at Megiddo and Gezer. Abstract: "Astronomical images are found on monumental structures and decorative art, and metaphorically in seasonal myths, and are documented by calendars. In Israel and the southern Levant, images of the sun, the moon, and the stars were common decorating motifs. They were found on walls, pottery, and seals and date to as early as the Chalcolithic period; for example, the wall painting of a star at Teleilat Ghassul (North 1961). This dissertation establishes that the people of the Levant were aware of the apparent movement of the sun, and this will be discussed in Chapter 4. They began recording through representation drawings, astronomical phenomena no later than the Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age and continued to do so late into the Middle Bronze Age. The argument moves beyond the simple use of symbols to the use of images to represent constellations, with the focus on the constellation Leo in Chapter 5. Furthermore, the use of astronomy as a power and political tool is also suggested in Chapter 6. Nonetheless, the primary purpose that is addressed here is the tendency in Syro-Palestinian archaeology has been to attribute technological evidence found in the northern and southern Levant as diffused from Egypt or Assyria, particularly astronomy. This dissertation firmly establishes that astronomy was used in the southern Levant before any significant contact with the civilizations of Egypt or Assyria."]

Goldfarb, Amanda. (2012). Canaanite and Phoenician Astronomy: From the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age. [Note: Abstract: "The Phoenicians and Canaanites were renowned sailors, and have long been hailed as excellent astronomers by ancient writers such as Strabo and Aratus. Owing to their well-known maritime expertise, even today’s scholars assume their knowledge of the night sky to have been great. Yet very little modern study has been dedicated to determining the extent of their astronomical knowledge — were they just observational astronomers, or was there a more mathematical approach undertaken? It is thus the purpose of this thesis to introduce the topic and identify evidence of Canaanite and Phoenician astronomy. Both cultures had pantheons featuring astral gods and a rich mythology known today only through fragments. In order to determine if these astral gods are indicative of Canaanite and Phoenician practices, these pantheons were studied in comparison to contemporary Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions (as they were both known to practise observational astronomy). Ancient calendars were also reviewed, as these could indicate an understanding of the solar versus lunar year. From this assessment, it became clear that many important deities within the Canaanite and Phoenician cultures had astronomical significance — they were associated with planets, constellations and weather phenomena. Furthermore, it appears they had luni-solar calendars, akin to the Mesopotamians, indicating the importance of the moon, rather than the sun, as a time-keeping object. Armed with this knowledge, Canaanite and Phoenician iconography was then examined, in order to determine if well-known narratives, such as the lion/bull attack scenes (common over the Near East), had any possible astronomical significance. After reviewing several differing iconographical narratives, it was determined that there were clear astronomical associations apparent on artefacts with multivalent iconographies. The equinoxes, solstices and even eclipses were represented on bowls and mugs, found from Ugarit through to Italy, crafted by Phoenician and Canaanite tradesmen. While no mathematical approaches could be determined from this study, it was possible to show (rather than hypothesise) that the Phoenicians and Canaanites practised at least a basic level of observational astronomy."]

Jeffers, Ann. (1996). Magic and Divination in Ancient Palestine and Syria.

Macalister, Robert. (1912). The Excavation of Gezer. Volume II. (Pages 347-349). [Note: Illustration and discussion of the so-called (and misnamed) Gezer zodiac on a small half cylinder unbaked clay tablet. The symbols resemble those depicted on Kassite kudurru. (Boundary stones were also found at Gezer.) Life dates for Robert Macalister: 1870-1950.]

Smith, Mark. (2003). "Astral Religion and the Representation of Divinity: The Cases of Ugarit and Judah." In: Noegel, S., Walker, J., and Wheeler, B. (Editors). Prayer, Magic and the Stars in the Ancient and Late Antique World. (Pages 187-206).

Articles/Entries:

Cooley, Jeffrey. (2011). "Astral Religion in Ugarit and Ancient Israel." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 70, Number 2, Pages 281-287).

Cooley, Jeffrey. (2012). "Celestial Divination in Ugarit and Ancient Israel: A Reassessment." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 71, Number 1, April, Pages 21-30).

Gardner, Sara. (2005). "Scratching the Surface of Astronomy in the Land of the Bible: Archaeology, Texts, and Astronomy." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space (Pages 393-411).

Goldfarb, Amanda. (2013). "Reinterpreting Iconography with Astronomy." (Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Volume 50, Pages 215-236). [Note: Abstract: "This paper focuses on Canaanite and Phoenician iconographical depictions of astronomical events. It draws on star mapping programmes that provide new insights into the ancient night sky. It is argued that well-known narratives such as the lion/bull attack, common in the Near East, had astronomical significance. The different depictions of seasonal events - especially those decorating metal bowls - indicate that artefacts bore multivalent iconographies often with clear astronomical associations. Phoenicians and Canaanites practised at least a basic level of observational astronomy, although their mathematical determinations remain conjectural." Likely an extension of her (2012) MA thesis (University of Melbourne), Canaanite and Phoenician Astronomy: From the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age.]

Holladay, Junior., John. (1968). "The Day(s) the Moon Stood Still." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 87, Number 2, June, Pages 166-178). 

Jeffers, Ann. (2007). "Magic and Divination in Ancient Israel." (Religion Compass, Volume 1, Number 6, November, Pages 628-642).

Zatelli, Ida. (1991). "Astrology and Worship of Stars in the Hebrew Bible." (Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Band 103, Pages 86-99).

Miscellaneous

Books/Pamphlets:

Jobes, Gertrude. and Jobes, James. (1964). Outer Space: Myths, Name Meanings, Calendars from the Emergence of History to the Present Day. [Note: Attempts to be comprehensive but the compilation is both uncritical and now quite dated. The average date for their references would appear to be circa 1900.]

Lum, Peter. (1948, USA; no date but 1951, UK). The Stars in our Heaven: Myths and Fables. [Note: Devoid of any references. Popular exposition. See the (English-language) book review by Austin Fife in Western Folklore, Volume 8, Number 3, July, 1949, Pages 287-288.]

Staal, Julius. (1988). The New Patterns in the Sky: Myths and Legends of the Stars. [Note: Includes star-lore from throughout the world. A revision of his earlier book, Patterns in the Sky (1961) which focused largely on Graeco-Roman star-lore.]

Articles/Entries:

Masse, William. [W. Bruce Masse] (1995). "The Celestial Basis of Civilization." (Vistas in Astronomy, Volume 39, Pages 463-477). [Note: Highly speculative. William Masse is currently (2011) an environmental archaeologist with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Circa 2004 he was an environmental archaeologist with the U. S. Air Force.]

Masse, William., Johnson, Rubellite., and Tuggle, H[?] [H. David Tuggle]. (In preparation). Islands in the Sky: Traditional Astronomy and the Role of Celestial Phenomena in Hawaiian Myth, Language, Religion, and Chiefly Power. [Note: Under contract to University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Manuscript in preparation.]


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