CLIMATIC MATTERS

Brian Gunter, Narooma, NSW, Australia    http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

" The art of prophecy is very difficult, especially about the future." - Mark Twain

 

 

 

 AUSTRALIAN LONG-TERM TEMPERATURE TRENDS

 

 

 

 

 

PRELUDE: 

IF CLIMATE CHANGE IS REAL AND IS AS SERIOUS AS IS OFTEN CLAIMED WE SHOULD BE ABLE TO CONFIRM       IT BY A SIMPLE EXAMINATION OF RECORDED CLIMATOLOGICAL DATA.  TO PUT IT ANOTHER WAY, IF THE           PAST TEMPERATURE RECORDS SHOW THAT OUR WORLD IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY HOTTER WE CAN            REASONABLY CONCLUDE THAT WE HAVE A SERIOUS PROBLEM ON OUR HANDS.

KEEP IT SIMPLE!  IF OUR TEMPERATURES HAVE BEEN RISING WE DON'T NEED COMPUTER MODELS, ICE              CORES, TREE RINGS OR ECONOMISTS TO PROVE IT.  WHY NOT USE THE DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF AIR             TEMPERATURE THAT HAVE BEEN DILIGENTLY COLLECTED THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA OVER MORE THAN           THE PAST CENTURY?

I HAVE CHECKED IT OUT USING TEMPERATURE DATA FROM 13 LOCATIONS THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA.                 THESE ARE ALL LONG-TERM STATIONS, COMMENCING OVER 100 YEARS AGO, AND WITH LARGELY                        UNBROKEN RECORDS.  I HAVE CHOSEN ONLY RURAL OR SMALL TOWN STATIONS SO AS TO AVOID THE                UNCERTAIN URBANISATION EFFECTS ON TEMPERATURE IN CITIES.

ALL OF THE TEMPERATURE DATA USED IN MY ANALYSIS ARE RAW DATA (AS RECORDED BY THE                             OBSERVERS, WITHOUT ANY ADJUSTMENTS OF ANY KIND) AND WERE DOWNLOADED FROM THE BUREAU             OF METEOROLOGY WEBSITE.

IF THE HISTORICAL TEMPERATURE RECORDS SHOW THAT OUR TEMPERATURES ARE ACCELERATING                  THEN WE CERTAINLY HAVE A PROBLEM AND NEED TO TAKE SOME ACTION.  ON THE OTHER HAND, IF NO            SUCH ACCELERATION IN TEMPERATURE IS EVIDENT THEN WE SHOULD RECOGNISE THAT EVEN DRASTIC           ACTIONS (SUCH AS THE PROPOSED CARBON (DIOXIDE) TAX) WILL NOT HAVE ANY SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON         TEMPERATURE.

PLEASE READ ON AND MAKE YOUR OWN ASSESSMENT.

 

 

 

Many of my friends say that our summers are getting hotter and the winters are getting colder but are they?  Others say that floods are becoming larger and more frequent but are they?  And droughts are getting longer too but are they?  Our media are full of claims that recent ecological changes are caused by changing climate, whilst many studies and computer projections predict increasingly severe climate changes in the coming years.  Many prominent politicians and economists tell us that things are going to only get worse.  On the other hand there are many other people who passionately claim that the whole climate change question is vastly overstated.  It is understandably all very confusing to most people!

So I decided to have an independent look at the question.  Being a retired professional engineering hydrologist with many years spent analysing climate and river flow data, I feel that I have some qualification to make such an assessment.  My initial approach was to return to basics and look at recorded long-term temperature trends in Australia.  My thesis is that, if the predictions of accelerating temperatures in Australia are correct, this effect surely must be evident from the vast amount of temperature data that have been collected  throughout Australia over the past 150 years.  These data are available on the Bureau of Meteorology website.

My analyses involved 13 long-term stations located throughout rural Australia.  The analyses were all performed over the same 101-year period, 1910-2010 (much of the temperature data prior to 1910 are of doubtful quality due to different instrumentation).  Urban areas were excluded from the study in order to exclude the local effects of urban warming.  For these 13 stations I extracted various annual temperature indices (such as mean annual, maximum monthly, minimum monthly and extreme temperatures for each year) and presented them graphically.  Details of the 13 stations analysed are presented below.

My conclusions are:

-           All of the 13 stations have very similar and consistent long-term temperature trends.

-         Most of the temperature indices show that temperatures in Australia have been increasing at a more-or-less constant rate since 1910.

-         An interesting exception is that most northern Australian stations have experienced (and undoubtedly enjoyed) a steady decrease in summer maximum temperatures since 1910.

-         There is no evidence that the temperature trends in recent years (say, since 1980) are any different than for the rest of the period since 1910.

So what does all this mean?

-         Temperature increases in Australia are not a recent phenomenon, but have been occurring at about the same rate (an average of about 0.7C/century) over the past century.  [ This is consistent with longer temperature records in Europe that show that temperatures there have been increasing steadily since the end of the Little Ice Age in the late 1600s. Similar trends in temperature were recorded from the late 1800s at Melbourne and Sydney ]

-         There is no evidence (not even one index at one station!) that there has been any abnormal increase or decrease in the temperature trend in recent years.  [ Some cyclic patterns are evident (wet, La Nina periods are cooler for example), but the recent years are within the historical variation from the long-term mean trend. ]  

My advice:

-         Be Alert?  Yes, although temperatures have been generally increasing for the past century (and prior to that too), there is no evidence of any abnormal increase or decrease in temperatures in recent years, we should regularly reassess temperatures (say in five years time) in case there are any trend changes.

-         Be Alarmed?  No, not until there is some real evidence of a problem!

-         Be Concerned?  Yes, policies and decisions are often made on unproven presumptions.  For example, the present carbon tax proposals in Australia presume that long-term temperature trends in Australia are accelerating but it just aint true!

-         Be -Ware!  There is a lot of mis-information out there.

 

 

MY OVERALL CONCLUSIONS: 

THERE IS NO EVIDENCE THAT TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN AUSTRALIA HAVE CHANGED OVER THE PAST                 CENTURY.

MOST TEMPERATURE INDICES HAVE  INCREASED OVER THE PAST CENTURY AT MORE-OR-LESS CONSTANT        RATES; ALTHOUGH SUMMER TEMPERATURES AT NORTHERN AUSTRALIAN INLAND LOCATIONS HAVE                  DECREASED, WHILE WINTER TEMPERATURES AT SOME SOUTHERN LOCATIONS HAVE ALSO DECREASED.

THE UNANIMOUS CONCLUSIONS AT THE 13 LOCATIONS ANALYSED WOULD BE EXPECTED TO APPLY                        THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA.

THE CLAIM BY MANY ORGANISATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS  OF ACCELERATING TEMPERATURE RISE IN                  AUSTRALIA IS CLEARLY  INCORRECT AND THESE CLAIMS SHOULD BE URGENTLY REVIEWED. 

 

_____________________________________________________

 

DETAILS OF THE ANALYSES

The 13 stations selected for the analyses are listed below.    These stations are all located in rural areas or small towns.  The stations had mainly unbroken records between 1910 and 2010 and were geographically representative (as far as was possible) of the Australian continent.  Unfortunately no suitable stations could be located in the Northern Territory or Tasmania and there are other large expanses (especially in Western Australia and South Australia) with no suitable data.

All of the data were raw data (as measured by the local observers) and were downloaded from the Bureau of Meteorology website:  http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/data/

 

LOCATION

STATE

BOM No.

COMPLETE YEARS *

Moruya Heads

NSW

069018

97

Wilsons Promontory

VIC

085096

96

Echuca

VIC

080015

100

Robe

SA

026026

100

Wilcannia

NSW

046043

79

Tibooburra

NSW

046037

87

Gayndah

QLD

039039

98

Boulia

QLD

038003

94

Richmond

QLD

030045

95

Burketown

QLD

029004

83

Marble Bar

WA

004020

94

Northam

WA

010111

94

Cape Leeuwin

WA

009518

101

NOTE:  * Complete years based on both monthly maximum and minimum records.

 

 

Nine different annual indices of temperature were extracted for each of the 13 stations and these were plotted on an annual time base.  The nine indices used were:

-         Annual Mean Max Temp.  This is the average of all 365 (or 366) daily maximum temperatures measured in each year.

-         Annual Mean Min Temp.  This is the average of all 365 (or 366) daily minimum temperatures measured in each year.

-         Annual Mean Temp.  This index is not measured, but is the average of the Annual Mean Max Temp and the Annual Mean Min Temp. 

-         Max Monthly Max Temp.  This is the highest value of the average monthly maximum temperature measured in each year.  This is usually the average January or February maximum temperature.

-         Min Monthly Max Temp.  This is the lowest value of the average monthly maximum temperature measured in each year.  This is usually the average July or August maximum temperature.

-         Max Monthly Min Temp.  This is the highest value of the average monthly minimum temperature measured in each year.  This is usually the average January or February minimum temperature.

-         Min Monthly Min Temp.  This is the lowest value of the average monthly minimum temperature measured in each year.  This is usually the average July or August minimum temperature.

-         Extreme Max Temp.  This is the highest maximum temperature measured on any day during the year.

-         Extreme Min Temp.  This is the lowest minimum temperature measured on any day during the year.

A linear (straight) line was fitted through each of the plotted data sets and these best fit lines were added to the graphs.  This is not intended to imply that all temperature trends are linear, but it is a more realistic reference base to assess trends than a constant mean that is normally used.  The long-term linear trend rate (expressed as C/century) for each index is tabulated at the end of each set of graphs.   Cyclic variations around the long-term linear trendlines are often evident. 

___________________________________________________

   

MORUYA HEADS, NEW SOUTH WALES

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Moruya            Heads

 

97

 

0.89

 

0.52

 

0.16

 

0.56

 

1.36

 

0.39

 

0.14

 

***

 

***

NOTES:       ***    No trend rate was computed as extreme data was available only since 1957.

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average positive trends of between 0.14 and           1.36 C/century over the past century.  

There is some indication of a cyclical pattern with a minimum about 1960 and maximums about     1920 and 2000.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

Extreme maximum and minimum temperatures show no abnormal trends since records commenced    in 1957.

 

___________________________________________________

   

WILSONS PROMONTORY, VICTORIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Wilsons Promontory

 

96

 

0.71

 

0.75

 

0.79

 

1.26

 

0.32

 

1.03

 

0.42

 

***

 

***

NOTES:       ***    No trend rate was computed as extreme data was available only since 1957.

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average positive trends of between 0.32 and              1.26 C/century over the past century.    

There is some indication of a cyclical pattern with a minimum about 1960 and maximums about        1920 and 2000.

Extreme maximum and minimum temperatures show no abnormal trends since records           commenced in 1957.

 

___________________________________________________

   

ECHUCA, VICTORIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

     EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Echuca

 

100

 

0.85

 

-0.21

 

-1.26

 

1.13

 

0.78

 

-0.37

 

-1.71

 

***

 

***

  NOTES:       ***    No trend rate was computed as extreme data was available only since 1957.

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxxxx 1.71 and 1.26 C/century over the past century.            

Winter temperatures  show negative trends for both maximum (day) and minimum (night)   temperatures.

The annual mean minimum temperature and the overall annual mean temperature show negative     trends .

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

Extreme maximum and minimum temperatures show no abnormal trends since records        commenced  in 1957.

   

___________________________________________________

   

ROBE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Robe

 

100

 

0.82

 

0.66

 

0.51

 

0.51

 

0.78

 

0.81

 

0.61

 

0.24

 

0.28

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average positive trends of between 0.24 and             0.82 C/century over the past century.  

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

   

___________________________________________________

   

WILCANNIA, NEW SOUTH WALES

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

   

 

   

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Wilcannia

 

79**

 

0.42

 

0.43

 

0.44

 

0.74

 

0.74

 

0.09

 

-0.24

 

***

 

***

NOTES:      **    Wilcannia had no minimum temperature data 1940-1956.

                  ***    No trend rate was computed as extreme data was available only since 1957.

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxxx     0.24 and 0.74 C/century over the past century.  

There were no minimum temperature data between 1940 and 1956.

Winter temperatures show near-zero and negative trends for maximum (day) and minimum (night) temperatures.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

Extreme maximum and minimum temperatures show no abnormal negative trends since records commenced in 1957.

___________________________________________________

   

TIBOOBURRA, QUEENSLAND

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Tibooburra

 

87**

 

0.55

 

1.05

 

1.55

 

0.92

 

0.68

 

2.35

 

1.13

 

0.73

 

0.32

NOTES:      **    Tibooburra had incomplete or  no minimum temperature data 1941-1952.         

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average positive trends of between 0.32 and             2.35 C/century over the past century.  

There were incomplete or no minimum temperature data between 1941 and 1952.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

GAYNDAH, QUEENSLAND

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Gayndah

 

98

 

0.31

 

1.36

 

2.41

 

-0.33

 

0.61

 

1.84

 

2.69

 

-0.46

 

1.30

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxxx     0.46 and 2.69 C/century over the past century.  

Summer temperatures show a negative trend for maximum (day) temperatures.

There is some indication of a cyclical pattern with a minimum about 1960 and maximums about      1920 and 2000.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

BOULIA, QUEENSLAND

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

   

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Boulia

 

94

 

0.44

 

1.08

 

1.58

 

-0.38

 

1.17

 

1.19

 

1.29

 

-0.72

 

1.04

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxxx    0.72 and 1.58 C/century over the past century.  

Summer temperatures show a negative trend for maximum (day) temperatures.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

RICHMOND, QUEENSLAND

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Richmond

 

95

 

0.29

 

0.96

 

1.59

 

-0.43

 

0.93

 

1.22

 

1.42

 

-0.46

 

1.30

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxx      0.46 and 1.59 C/century over the past century.  

Summer temperatures show a negative trend for maximum (day) temperatures.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

BURKETOWN, QUEENSLAND

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Burketown

 

83

 

0.77

 

1.16

 

1.55

 

0.35

 

1.15

 

0.74

 

2.24

 

-0.09

 

1.88

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between  xxxx      0.09 and 2.24 C/century over the past century.  

Summer temperatures (except for extreme maximums) show a positive trend for maximum (day) temperatures, in contrast to inland northern Australian stations.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

MARBLE BAR, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

   

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Marble          Bar

 

94**

 

-0.61

 

0.17

 

0.87

 

-0.82

 

0.41

 

0.19

 

1.65

 

-0.50

 

2.51

 NOTE:   **  There are no temperature records at Marble Bar since 2005.

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between xxxxx     0.82 and 1.65 C/century over the past century.  

Summer and annual temperatures show a negative trend for maximum (day) temperatures.

There is some indication of a cyclical pattern with a minimum about 1960 and maximums about       1930 and 2000.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

No temperature data were available since 2005.

 

___________________________________________________

   

NORTHAM, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Northam

 

94

 

0.85

 

0.25

 

-0.32

 

0.83

 

1.09

 

0.13

 

-0.69

 

0.27

 

-1.41

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average negative and positive trends of between xxxx       0.69 and 1.09 C/century over the past century.  

Winter and annual temperatures show a negative trend for minimum (night) temperatures.

There is no indication of a cyclical pattern during the past century.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

 

___________________________________________________

   

CAPE LEEUWIN, WESTERN AUSTRALIA

ANNUAL TEMPERATURE TRENDS 1910-2010

http://members.westnet.com.au/brigun/aust_temp_trends.html

 

 

 

 

Linear Temperature Trends 1910-2010  (C/century)

 

STATION

 

COMP YEARS

 

ANN MEAN MAX

 

ANN MEAN

 

ANN MEAN MIN

 

MAX MTHLY MAX

 

MIN MTHLY MAX

 

MAX MTHLY MIN

 

MIN MTHLY MIN

 

EXTR MAX

 

EXTR MIN

 

Cape         Leeuwin

 

101

 

0.66

 

0.56

 

0.47

 

0.52

 

1.14

 

0.63

 

0.38

 

1.53

 

0.78

 

Comments: 

Annual and monthly temperature indices show average positive trends of between 0.52 and                 1.53 C/century over the past century.  

This station has 101 years of unbroken temperature records, 1910-2010.

There is some indication of a cyclical pattern with a minimum about 1960 and maximums about       1920 and 1990.

There is no evidence of any abnormal accelerating or decelerating temperature trends.

___________________________________________________

 

The Author:

This article was written by Brian Gunter of Narooma.  In his previous life Brian was an engineering hydrologist 

involved over many years in the analysis of rainfall and river flow data for the planning of  water resources 

projects in Australia, Asia and Africa.  In recent years he has been one of the Marine 

Rescue NSW  (formerly the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol) volunteer weather observers

who operate the Narooma station for the Bureau of Meteorology.

 

  Brian Gunter        brigun@westnet.com.au        Prepared 17 May 2011      Updated 30 May 2011