HUMAN POWERED MILLS /
WATERMILLS - BATTERIES
WATERMILLS - FLOUR /
WATERMILLS - SAWMILLS /
WATERMILLS - OTHER
WINDMILLS - FLOUR /
WINDMILLS - OTHER
WATER - POWERED FLOURMILLS IN AUSTRALIA
New South Wales /
Norfolk Island /
= An image of the mill is available via e-mail.
- ALBURY - Bungowannah Park Station This station near Albury was selected by John DIGHT [1808 - 1867] in 1837 and he built a small water wheel there for himself and neighbours use [probably] post 1861 on a small tributary of the Murray River. This is the same man who built a windmill at Airds near Campbelltown in 1833 which he sold to move to Port Phillip in 1840. There he and his brother Charles Hilton DIGHT [1813 - ] built the Ceres Flour watermill on the Yarra River.
- BATHURST DISTRICT - 'YARROW', 'YARRA', 'YARRAS', 'WINBURNDALE', 'WINBOURNDALE' 'Yarrow' was the name of a 809.4 hectare grant in Roxburgh County in the Bathurst district made to George INNES on the 30th of June 1823, subject to his majesty's approval due to the acreage involved. Permission was evidently forthcoming and George, who was the younger brother of Major Archibald Clunes INNES whose name appears in the NEW SOUTH WALES - PORT MACQUARIE entry under Wind-Powered Flourmills, took possession. Archibald also used the name 'Yarrows' for his own property on the Hastings River on the NSW North Coast. INNES quickly established himself as a member of Bathurst's elite and in 1825 was treasurer of the short lived 'Bathurst Hunt Club'. The water powered corn mill on 'Yarrow' was advised in early October 1825 as ready to commence operations on the 15th of the month with ex convict John OSELAND apparently employed as miller. The same notice stated that INNES would receive offers to rent the mill for a one year term from the 1st of January 1826. Water for its operation was evidently supplied by the Winburndale Rivulet. In March 1826, with the mill then probably rented out, OSELAND was described as a miller, formerly in the employ of George INNES. By 1827 INNES had negotiated a $6,000 loan from Samuel TERRY in return for a lease of "Yarrow" for 1,000 years. This was in effect a conveyance to TERRY who is likely the same individual noted further down this page under the entry for LACHLAN & WATERLOO. By 1830, and now known as "Yarra", addition machinery for a four horse mill was also in readiness on the property. "Yarra" then disappeared from official records, but in 1832 TERRY was still listed as owning a watermill in the Bathurst District on 'Winburndale'. Whether there is some relationship between these two sites is not known. By 1835, the name had changed to "Winbourndale" and a mill continued to operate until at least 1838 under TERRY's ownership. By 1840 it, and or the property was evidently leased by one Gavin RALSTON, but RALSTON's connection appears to have been rather brief. By October 1841, the property, again referred to as "Winburndale", was being offered to Let described as a farm of 809.4 hectares, situated within 9.7 kilometres of Bathurst and containing a two story dwelling-house, detached kitchen, and servants' room, store, and stables; plus, a woollen factory and horse flour mill. It appears that the water-powered flour mill may by this time have been converted into a water-powered woollen or fulling mill. About 60.7 hectares of the property had been cleared and fenced and deemed fit for cultivation, the remainder being reputedly excellent pasture land. It seems very likely that all the property names listed above were the same entity and remained under the control of Samuel TERRY and his trustees until 1861, when notices appeared in the local paper for the sale of land by auction at "Yarrow's Estate," and the residuary estate of the late Samuel TERRY. The property was purchased by Thomas KITE and its name appears to have gradually changed from "Yarrow's/Yarrows" to "Yarras" in the 1860's. Today, , "Yarra" is known as "Yarras," and nearby, the "Winburndale" name has been resurrected as a result of the establishment of a vineyard bearing that name in 1998. "Yarras" is located on Yarras Lane, near to its intersection with Limekilns Road. The Winburndale Rivulet is the only "permanent" water course on "Yarras" and passes quite close to the homestead. It seems probable that the watermill was located in close proximity to the homestead and its outbuildings, although the present main building was only erected in 1863, as a wedding present, when Mowbray FORREST married Elizabeth KITE, one of Thomas KITE's daughters. The date of the watermill's demise has not yet  been established. "Yarras" is privately owned and not open to the public.
- BERRIMA James ATKINSON had a post mill at 'Oldbury' and advertised for a miller in 1827. In 1830 he applied for a neighbouring block with the proposal to build a watermill. The proposal was accepted so he may have built the mill. In March 1837 Geo Bruce BARTON advised the public that the Oldbury Steam Flour Mill was then at work so perhaps the earlier mill had been converted. There are a number of entries for an 'Oldbury' mill dating to 1871 which may refer to one of these mills.
- BRAIDWOOD The Warri water mill became operational from about December 1843. The terms at that time were 15 pence per bushel of wheat for grinding and dressing and an additional 3 pence for smutting if required. The first miller was James NEALE at Manar.
- CAMDEN Henry THOMPSON is alleged to have built the first flour mill in town on the corner of Argyle and Edwards streets, it purportedly having been powered by water. An Advertisement for the Camden Estate and Township in mid-1840 indicated that a watermill was "about to be erected on the Nepean River, immediately adjoining North Camden." The Nepean River then reportedly separated "North Camden" from the estates of the HASSALL family, Charles COWPER and Mr. BLACKMAN. The Camden Steam Flour Mills which were constructed by Joseph THOMPSON & Sons, commenced operation on the 2nd October 1843. It is unclear as to whether this is the same mill or even if the aforementioned watermill was ever built, as to date [AUG 2005], there does not appear to be any solid evidence that the watermill was actually built. The dating of "Camden Estate & Township" advertisement would seem to indicate that if the watermill was built, it could not have been completed before 1841.
- CLARENCE TOWN - BOATFALLS There was a watermill erected at Boatfalls just above Clarence Town in 1831 by the SINGLETON brothers. This was the head of river navigation on the Williams River. This appears to be the area known locally as Mill Flat Falls, Millbrook and other names. The following information is based on the assumption that the mill concerned is the Boatfalls Mill. : -It appears that by early 1830 (there is conflict here between this year and the 1831 construction date - further verification is required) SINGLETON was in financial trouble and owed $300 to RAPSEY and MITCHELL who obtained a legal ruling to sell the mill against the monies owed. It was therefore offered for sale in February 1830. SINGLETON arranged for the Sydney merchants, 'Hughes & Hosking' to bid on the property and rent it back to him for $200 a year and to be returned to him after seven years. The combination of an unannounced change of auction date along with the understanding that the deal with 'Hughes & Hosking' was being done to assist the owner led several bidders to withdraw from the sale or miss it completely. Some of these made depositions that they were prepared to pay up to $1000 for the mill which actually changed hands for $210 to 'Hughes & Hosking'. Some though that it was a ploy to remove competition from the bidding and that 'Hughes & Hosking' bought it for SINGLETON so that he could avoid paying the full amount to his creditors so the case went to court in March 1832 and the sale was put aside. Both Benjamin and James SINGLETON were resident at Boatfalls in 1832. It is of interest to note that in May 1841 'Hughes & Hosking' offered a mill at what appears to this location to be let. This mill was evidently destroyed by flood in 1857. Boatfalls is now known (in 2004) as Mill Dam Falls and serves as a weather recording and flood level monitoring site.
- DUNGOG - CROOK'S PARK A watermill and property known as the Crook's Mill was built on the Williams River at Crook's Park 3.2 kilometres from Dungog. The three story mill was fitted with a pair of 1.1 metre [3ft 8in] diameter millstones which from the use of the term "burrs" to describe them can be assumed to be French Burr millstones. Other equipment included a dressing machine and smutting machine. The mill was being leased to Mr EASTERBROOK for $100 per annum when it was advertised for sale in September 1845.
- EMU PLAINS - Jackson's Mill This mill was located on the Nepean river opposite the property known as 'Collit's or Collet's Farm', which along with the water mill, was advertised for let in October 1842. Present day "Jackson's Falls" evidently mark the site of the water mill. Application to let the mill was to be made to William BOWMAN of Richmond, who from 1833 through to at least the early 1840's, owned and/or operated a horse mill at Richmond.]
- GILMORE This watermill was situated on about 4 hectares of land about eight kilometres from Tumut on the Gilmore Creek. At the time this was on the road to Adelong. The mill had two pairs of stones and other requisite machinery. The property included a roomy Inn, slabbed and shingled, with detached kitchen which was noted as recently completed in November 1858 along with a stockyard and garden. There was also a part completed residence there at that date. The entire enterprise was offered for auction in November 1858 subject to a $600 mortgage to be cleared at the option of the buyer.
- GUNDERMAN - LAYBURY'S CREEK - SINGLETON, James James SINGLETON established a water mill on Laybury's Creek in 1833-34. In August 1841 an auction notice appeared listing amongst various lots, two water mills at what then was referred to as "Singleton's Valley, on the Hawkesbury." There appears strong reason to suspect that Benjamin and perhaps also James Singleton were involved in the construction of these two watermills, both of which were tide mills. Lot 5 which was a special grant of 2.02 hectares, was one of five lots described as being on a lower property, all of these being either on, or in close proximity to Gunderman Creek, which is a located a little upstream on the Hawkesbury River estuary from the town of Gunderman. The water mill being referred to in this case was that, which by 1842, had become known as the Gunderman Mill. The water mill was capable of storing two thousand bushels of grain and was equipped with an undershot wheel which at the time was driving a pair of French Burr millstones of 1.37 metre diameter with another pair of 1.22 metre diameter waiting to be set. Also listed were dressing and smut machines. It had an estimated output of eight to ten bushels an hour which it could maintain for about half the time, but it was suggested that improvements to the mill could double this performance. The weatherboard and shingled house which came with the mill had a verandah, three front rooms, and two at the rear. Both the house and mill stood on rock foundations.
- HAWKESBURY RIVER - MILL CREEK This mill was built by late 1820, apparently by Benjamin and James SINGLETON, and was by August 1825, owned by James, then described as a miller, of Dillon's Creek. In August 1841 an auction notice appeared listing a water mill on the 20.2 hectare Lot six which was on Dillons or Myrtle Creek, now known as Mill Creek. For Location see Lot 5 description for the Gunderman Mill. The mill was similar to the one on Lot 5 and was equipped with two pair of 1.22 metre diameter French Burr millstones although at the time only one pair was at work. Also listed were dressing machines. It had an estimated rate of six to eight bushels an hour which it could maintain about half the time but it was suggested that improvements could double this performance. The house which came with the mill was built of cut stone on a solid stone foundation. It included three front rooms and two rear, one chamber, three sleeping places for servants above stairs and a spacious loft in the roof. There was a cellar under the house which opened to the wharf alongside. There was also a blacksmiths shop on the property. The watermill was occupied by a Mr T. SAWKINS when it was advertised to let in 1846.
- INVERELL - ROSS, Colin Colin and Rosana ROSS established a store near a popular crossing on the McIntyre River in 1853 to cater for early settlers and the teamsters heading north to the Darling Downs. Soon after they added a water driven flour mill and an inn and in 1855 people in the area petitioned for a town to be developed there which blossomed into the present Inverell.
- KURRAJONG - CURRY[G]JONG MILL [KURRY JUNG MILL] - SINGLETON, Benjamin This mill, commonly referred to as SINGLETON's Mill, was constructed by early 1816 on "Winney Creek" (today Little Wheeney Creek), at the "Currajong Brush" in the Richmond district about 1.5 kilometres to the north of the present village of Kurrajong. The mill's former presence is signalled today by Mill Road, which crosses and runs alongside Little Wheeney Creek. Apparently constructed by Benjamin Singleton and capable of grinding 40 bushels per day, the overshot water mill with 40.47 hectares attached and four bullocks, was put up for sale by SINGLETON in March 1816, but a buyer could not be found. SINGLETON also developed pastoral and milling interests on the St. Patrick's Plains in the 1820's and the town of Singleton is named after him. By late 1821 SINGLETON was referring to this mill as the Kurry Jung Mill. In late February 1823, the Provost Marshal's Office advised that as a result of the case ROWE v. SINGLETON, the latter's water mill and appurtenances would be sold by auction, but SINGLETON evidently beat everybody to the jump, with new owner and baker William LEVERTON (see Lachlan & Waterloo Water Mills) having advertised the mill for let, a fortnight earlier. With LEVERTON's death by mid 1824, as part of his estate, the Curryjong Mill with now 101.15 hectares attached, was in July that year again put up for auction, it being up to that time rented by Mr TOWN for $500 per year. With the mill was also a weatherboard house. The mill at this time was in good repair and equipped with a single pair of French burr millstones. Eight working bullocks and two carts also belonging to the mill, were auctioned separately. From at least 1829, and throughout the 1830's, the mill was owned by John TOWN (senior). The degree of corroboration from another source in 1842 that refers to the Lower Curragong Water Mill, indicates that it is almost certain that this was the same operation being referred to, with the owner John TOWN (senior) of Richmond offering to sell the mill by private contract. The early 1842 description was for a mill with a single pair of 1.37 metre diameter French burr millstones, a smutting machine and a dressing machine, but with now only 4.07 hectares attached. The house was described as weatherboard and shingled. The local Kurrajong Historical Society has the millstones from what is assumed to be this mill as its logo. The millstones were initially dumped in the creek circa 1860, retrieved and used as a war memorial (1920), discarded during road widening (1945), recovered but then forgotten about again and recovered again in 1988 and are now on display at the Kurrajong shopping centre. It has now been established with reasonable certainty that only one watermill was ever constructed at, or in the vicinity of, Kurrajong, and that seeming references to the existence of two watermills in this area circa the 1830's, simply reflect a clerical error that was perpetuated in official statisitics concerning the area's mills, over at least a ten year period. Members of the SINGLETON family were involved in the construction and operation of two further water powered mills on the Hawkesbury below Richmond, but these were both tidal mills.
- LAGGAN There is some suggestion that there was an early water powered mill on the site when Donald McPHERSON purchased land at Laggan from the Crown in 1838 but little support exists for this.
- LITHGOW Scotsman Andrew BROWN [1797 - 1894] while working as an overseer crossed the Blue Mountains in early 1824 with his employer James WALKER who took up the "Wallerawang" estate one of the first land grants in the Lithgow district. WALKER built a watermill there sometime in the period 1825 - 1825 and BROWN may have been the supervisor at this mill during its construction. BROWN himself received a 80.94 hectare grant near the site of the future town of Lithgow on Cooerwull Brook. With the arrival of Andrew's younger brother William in 1836 he followed the example of his former employer and had William erect a flourmill in 1837 on the Cooerwull Brook (now Farmers Creek), on his 'Cooerwull' estate. (see watermills - Wallerawang) The Cooerwull Mill primarily ground grain for local distribution. The "newly erected" Cooerwull Mill was leased by neighbour and fellow prominent Lithgow pioneer Thomas BROWN, for a two year period from about September 1838. The watermill was converted to steam operations in 1851. It is not certain whether or not the two systems were used alongside each other or not. The mill was converted to a woollen mill by 1857.
- LIVERPOOL - HOLSWORTHY - BRISBANE MILL - LUCAS, John The mill at Holsworthy, which is now an outer suburb of Liverpool, was on land granted to Thomas ROWLEY. His neighbour John LUCAS, a son of Nathaniel LUCAS, built the mill on the Harris Creek over six months in 1822. Convict mechanics and labourers were assigned to assist him to build this mill by June 1822 and he appears to have obtained the millstones by October that year in exchange for flour from his mill. This was the first flour mill constructed by him, and was also the first mill built after the arrival of Governor BRISBANE; who gave permission to call the mill the Brisbane Mill or the Brisbane Water Mill. In October 1824 he appears as a defaulter in payment for assigned convict tradesman. It may have been known as the Harris Creek Mill for a period before this as from varying sources it was built on the Harris Creek or on the west bank of the Williams Creek. The answer to this conundrum is probably related to the fact that these two creeks have a common junction. Originally the mill was powered by an undershot wheel but a drought of the period had caused the mill to stand still for want of water. It was decided to increase the water supply for the mill and in circa 1824 Governor BRISBANE authorised a grant of 60.7 hectares of land which is presumed to cover the site of the dam. This was completed by March 1824 and with the increased supply and fall a change to one of the five more powerful standard drive modes was possible but at this time the choice is not known. In 1824 the capacity of this mill was stated as 1000 bushels of grain a week. During these years the mill was operated by John LUCAS, who was locally known as John the Miller. It appears that the mill dam was badly damaged in a flood that appears to have occurred late in 1824. This and other factors led to LUCAS's bankruptcy despite an apparent attempt to bail him out financially by a merchant named LEVEY. This is presumably Solomon LEVEY, the brother of Barnett LEVEY, the owner of the Colchester Mill in Sydney. Following LUCAS's bankruptcy circa 1828, the mill evidently passed into the ownership of the firm of 'Cooper and Levey' whose principals were Daniel COOPER and Solomon LEVEY. This same firm had by the 16th of February 1825 purchased all Right, Title and Interest in the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills , and by mid-December that same year commenced steam powered milling at its Waterloo Warehouse in Sydney. The Brisbane Mill along with 60.7 hectares of land in the parish of Holsworthy, was advertised to let in March 1845 with applications to be forwarded to the Waterloo Warehouse.
- LUCAS HEIGHTS - WORONORA RIVER - LUCAS, John After building his first mill at Harris Creek in 1822, John LUCAS the second son of Nathaniel LUCAS, wanted to build a second mill but found the Harris Creek property unsuitable so, in 1825 he applied for additional land. This request was at first refused because he was thought to already own enough land but 202.3 hectares of this actually belonged to his father so he applied again with more success and the backing of William MOORE for land at the head of the tidal waters of a then unnamed river. This was later named the Woronora River and the new mill was built adjacent to the old ford on a block surveyed in 1826. The machinery in this mill had a capacity of 1000 bushels a week and was according to some sources erected to grind wheat grown by Illawarra farmers. This would presumably be more specifically from the "Five Islands" area in the modern day Port Kembla, Lake Illawarra district and the grain itself was likely being transported by shallow draft boats to the Woronora Mill for processing. The Woronora river is one of the more out of the way locations one could have imagined for a flour mill around Sydney at that time, and there could be an entirely more fascinating reason behind the erection of this mill beyond a mere commercial enterprise which deserves further research. It is quite possible that the compensation for the difficulty of access was that the Woronora Mill was set up specifically to evade paying Customs and wharfage duties which were levied at Sydney Cove. With the advent of the new mill, wheat growers from the Five Islands area and elsewhere could sail shallow draft boats into Botany Bay and up the Georges River into the lower Woronora to have their grain ground there to avoid these charges as there was at that time evidently no customs presence at Botany Bay. The refined products were then taken into Sydney Harbour duty free. It is also interesting to note that despite the presence of several windmills in the Illawarra District from the early 1830's, the Woronora Mill apparently continued to prosper, which seems to suggest that significant quantities of wheat from another source such as perhaps Tasmania, were also finding its way to the mill. Following LUCAS's bankruptcy Ca.1828, the mill evidently passed into the ownership of the firm of 'COOPER and LEVEY'. The principal's of this interesting company were Daniel COOPER and Solomon LEVEY and they were already well involved with the milling trade. By the end of 1825 they had control of the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills which are discussed elsewhere, and operated a steam powered mill at their Waterloo Warehouse in Sydney. Some time in the late 1830's fire destroyed the mill but by then the mill may have been deemed unviable as a customs presence had been established in the area. Perhaps the fire that destroyed the mill actually followed the establishment of a customs presence in Botany Bay? The mill estate of 68.8 hectares was offered for sale in 1843 but failed to sell. In 1845 the estate was offered "To Let", but with still no takers, it was abandoned. On both occasions, applications were to forwarded to the Waterloo Warehouse. N.B. John LUCAS was also known as John the Miller and is probably the person after whom Lucas Heights is named.
- O'CONNELL PLAINS - ROBERTS, David O'Connell Plains was near Bathurst in the County of Westmoreland, and may well be an older name for O'Connell. From about 1835 David ROBERTS maintained a commercial watermill there. In 1845 he is reported to have generally improved the mill with provision for an additional pair of stones and a more powerful wheel, along with the addition of a smutting machine.
- PARRAMATTA Erected by the Government in 1803-4, under the direction of convict Alexander Dollis, who prior to his Parramatta appointment in late 1803, was a superintendent on Norfolk Island. It suffered from an intermittent water supply.
- PARRAMATTA - HOWELL - see wind-powered flourmills.
- PATTERSON This mill with its dam was on the Patterson River about three kilometres from the town. In 1842 it was part of a large holding of about 4,000 acres known as Gostwick occupied by William BURNETT and Thomas HECTOR.
- PENRITH There was a mill ,possibly a water mill, operating on the Nepean River about 1.5 kilometres from Penrith. This had dressing and smutting machines and in 1847, when it was advertised to let it, was tenanted by Mr S. COOPER.
- PENRITH One of the earliest water mills in the Penrith district was under construction in March 1830 on John McHENRY's "Chapman's Farm". This was on the banks of the Nepean River a short distance below the present day Nepean weir and just upstream from Jackson's Mill. By 1834 John McHENRY had died and the following year, the mill was owned by his widow Sarah. After John McHENRY's death, the mill was evidently operated by a Mr. BELL, then by the ALLEN family until it was demolished in 1872.
- POMEROY The Pomeroy Mill was built by Lieutenant Thomas WOORE, R.N. in 1870. A substantial stone two storey building, it provided for both water and steam power operation. The mill was completed in 1870. It was operated primarily by steam power. When the mill was in use, the main road to the planned village of Pomeroy crossed the river about 50 metres downstream, which rendered the mill most accessible. It is known that the mill did not operate for a long period, mainly due to the lack of local grain. In 2005 the structure was reported as being in danger of partial or complete collapse with large holes appearing in the masonry. image
- QUEANBEYAN - MOON , Henry There was a water-mill, on Captain A.T. FAUNCE's 'Dodsworth Estate'. These mills were operated by Henry MOON. The watermill was replaced by a steam-powered unit several years after its construction and was destroyed by fire on 21st March, 1881.
- ROWLANDS (ROLLANDS) PLAINS There was a dam mill there in 1830 which had probably been constructed in 1827 to serve the plantation established as an agricultural oupost of the Port Macquarie penal settlement. The mill was constructed from wood and was used to crush wheat and also sugar cane from the government plantation. It was from all reports not very successful and was destroyed by floods in the very early 1830's. There is some slight possibility it was rebuilt.
- ROWLANDS [ROLLANDS] PLAINS - WALLABY HILL This was a marriage grant to Major INNES' wife Margaret. The property was originally called 'Tilbuster'. Although there is some information from 1841 that suggests a windmill was built on the farm and that it was constructed by Robert PEEBLES it is more likely that this was a watermill. There was a dam built on the nearby Wilson River which would support this theory.
- ROWLANDS [ROLLANDS] PLAINS - WILLESBRO' FARM In about 1837 it is believed that a Mr GORHAM and a Mr FREEMAN erected a waterpowered corn mill on a 354 hectare lock of land owned by Mr C. JENKINS near Wallaby Hill. GORHAM was a relative of JENKINS and FREEMAN's property abutted JENKIN's land. The mill was definitely in existence by 1841 and apparently made Willesbro' the chief corn mart in the 'county'.
- SINGLETON - SINGLETON, Benjamin Benjamin SINGLETON erected a flour mill on a bank of the Hunter River in Singleton in 1829. Although not confirmed as a watermill, SINGLETON's record both before and after this date make this a strong possibility. It appears probable that this was the same mill that he was operating as the 'Phoenix Flour Mill' from 1830 to 1835. The mill was still operating in 1888 but apparently then as a steam mill and the buildings were finally destroyed in a major flood in 1955.
- SYDNEY - BARCOM GLEN The mill was probably erected near the corner of Boundary and Dillon Streets and its dam was about 40 metres upstream near the bottom of Liverpool ST, on the old creek coming from Woollahra. Thomas WEST, the builder, had arrived as a convict on the 'Earl Cornwallis' in 1801. The mill which was probably the first water mill constructed in Sydney was operating by mid January 1812 and the official opening was conducted by Governor MACQUARIE. WEST was granted a conditional pardon in late 1813 along with the donation of a cow from the government herd, evidently as reward for his work on the watermill. Details for the machinery in the mill list a 5.5.metre diameter wheel reported as being capable of grinding upwards of four and a half bushels of wheat an hour. WEST's son and later historian, Obed [1807 -1881] who took over the mill, added an orchard, dairy and quarry, but the mill had ceased to operate by 1832. Obed reported that the mill had a 7.3 metre overshot wheel directly driving a single set of stones. Either the wheel was changed or the measuring was not too exact. All remnants of the mill had disappeared by 1903 except two millstones which were moved to the Sydney Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, now the Powerhouse Museum. These are listed as 1.22 metres in diameter and constructed of basalt.
- SYDNEY - BOTANY - EASTLAKES - LACHLAN MILL This flour mill, was operated in conjunction with the nearby Waterloo mill for most of its existence. The Lachlan Mill was located at the edge of the Botany or Lachlan swamps 5.6 kilometres from Sydney. It was evidently sited on 230.8 hectares of land granted to Samuel TERRY, on the condition that he employ five convicts and construct a 12hp mill. In November 1819, TERRY was advertising the completion of a water mill apparently located on his grant. The inference from the advertisement is that there was then a single owner. However, in early January 1821, the one third share in the Lachlan Mills previously held by John HUTCHISON who had died the previous year, was being advertised for sale by auction, but the sale was evidently deferred until March 1821. HUTCHISON had some years earlier been involved with Simeon LORD's attempts to establish his watermill powered "woollen factory" at Mud-bank, Botany. In a move evidently related to obtaining a government contract for grinding grain, by early April 1821, Samuel TERRY and Tom White Melville WINDER the two remaining partners in the Lachlan Mills, decided to merge their operation with the Waterloo Mills of William HUTCHINSON, Daniel COOPER, George WILLIAMS and William LEVERTON. This resulted in the formation of the Lachlan & Waterloo Mills concern, which operated as 'HUTCHINSON, TERRY, and Company'. WINDER, a close friend of TERRY's had evidently also received a 168.9 hectare grant in the same area, for a watermill, but it is not clear how, or if, the required construction of a mill by WINDER was addressed. In advertising the formation of the new partnership, it was stressed that it was purely a marriage of convenience, with the partnership being confined to the grinding, buying and selling of wheat and corn. In mid-April 1821 HUTCHINSON, TERRY and Co., advertised that its warehouse at the corner of George and King streets Sydney was open for the sale of wheat, flour and bran and the purchase of wheat, but only a month later, the firm moved the "Lachlan and Waterloo Warehouse" to the corner of George and Market Street. In December 1821 the firm announced the construction of a large and substantial warehouse at that address, and by late 1822 had moved its offices into those premises. By May 1824 the line up of shareholders was reduced to four because William LEVERTON, who also briefly owned the Currag[j]ong Brush water mill had died and one other (WINDER), had departed in February 1823 to establish himself as a merchant. George WILLIAMS, a former business partner of Simeon LORD, evidently withdrew from the partnership between 17 June 1824 and 21 January 1825 (inclusive). Next, Samuel TERRY abruptly announced his departure on 22 January 1825 and only three and a half weeks later, it was announced that the firm of HUTCHINSON, TERRY, and Company had been dissolved, and that all right, title and interest in the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills purchased by the sole surviving partner Daniel COOPER, and Solomon LEVEY. By December, in addition to the firms Lachlan and Waterloo watermills, the "new" owners had installed and were operating a steam powered mill at the "Waterloo Warehouse". The Lachlan watermill was "out of repair" in 1831-2.
- SYDNEY - BOTANY - WATERLOO MILL This flour mill entry is linked to that for the Lachlan mill and much of the detail is in that description. The Waterloo mill was located at the edge of the Botany swamps apparently on a 567 hectare grant made to William HUTCHINSON to the west of the Lachlan Mill and adjacent to Botany Road. The 12hp watermill of the Waterloo Mill on Botany Road, was still in operation in 1831-2.
- TARANA - St. Boswells The 494.5 hectare property of 'St. Boswells' was near Tarana in the County of Westmoreland. It was initially purchased by Alexander KINGHORNE (senior) in February 1836. The watermill on the property was built by noted millwright Alexander KINGHORNE (junior) about 1834-35, and owned or operated by an Alexander KINGHORNE through to at least 1840. However the property itself seems likely to have been owned at that time by Thomas RAINE in conjunction with an adjacent property 'Raineville', although the windmill's operation was very probably conducted by KINGHORNE. RAINE had been granted the 809.4 hectare 'Raineville' in the Sidmouth Valley , east of O'Connell and east of 'St Boswells' in 1823. He retired from the position as captain of the transport ship 'Surry' that same year after completing three return trips between England and Australia. Later he entered an initially successful partnership with Dr RAMSAY as the Sydney merchant 'RAINE & RAMSAY'. In 1828 RAINE took over the Darling steam Mills and Stores near Parramatta from his brother John who at about the same time was in dispute with George HOWELL over the latter's dam at Parramatta. Thomas also started a short lived whaling venture at Twofold Bay. In 1829 Thomas RAINE was insolvent and in 1830 the Darling Mills were put up for auction at the behest of the Supreme Court. In September 1837, KINGHORNE's wife Jane (nee LAMBERT of Bathurst) died at 'Raineville'. In May 1838 a "newly constructed" watermill on 'St. Boswells' , was advertised for sale as part of the "St. Boswell's" estate, along with the adjacent "Raineville" property. At that time only about 12.2 hectares of 'St Boswells was under cultivation. Both estates abutted the southern bank of the Fish River and it is assumed that it was there that the watermill was established, although the Sidmouth Valley Creek also flows through 'St. Boswells'. The mill was apparently operated by KINGHORNE through to at least 1840 when it appears to have been offered for sale again.
- TOOMA This water powered flourmill was set up by MAIR and GARLAND on the Tumbarumba Creek [Little River] in the 1850's. In 1856 George MAIR was caught by the wheel and crushed under it, where he was held all night until help came. It was still operating in 1865. The mill was bought by John SMEATON and transferred to Corryong in c1879.
- TUMUT There were plans to construct a water mill on the Tumut River in February 1847. Those involved seem to be a George SHELLEY, Francis WATKINS and Robert BOURNE & Co.
- TUMUT - MOON A Mr MOON had a small water powered flour mill in operation at Tumut in October 1857. This may be the Henry MOON involved with the 'Union waterwheel battery at Adelong in 1859. This may be the 'Victoria Water Flour Mill'.
- TUMUT - Victoria Water Flour Mill The Victoria Water Mill was leased by the HAYES Bros in December 1858. They advertised that they had lately imported machinery similar to the equipment in their Gundagai mill which they intended fitting and that they would be prepared to accept wheat for grinding from January 1st 1859. The HAYES Bros were still operating the mill in August of 1859. Mill. See also water powered batteries ADELONG - Union Water Mill.
- WALLACIA - BLAXLAND, John John BLAXLAND was born in Luddenham, Kent and came to the colony of New South Wales in 1807 on a chartered ship bringing with him capital amounting to $12,000, an entourage of seven servants and high expectations. He proceeded to lead a pretty tumultuous life, becoming involved in the January 1808 deposition of Governor BLIGH. BLIGH got some revenge by having BAXLAND arrested in South Africa on his way back to England to complain about his treatment, but after three years BLAXLAND returned under more favourable conditions and started back in business. He received a 2,717.5 hectare grant of land along South Creek in November 1813 which he called 'Luddenham' and which covered much of present day Luddenham, Wallacia and parts of Badgerys Creek. The section of his property in the Wallacia area near the Nepean River was used for his business enterprises and the rest remained as grazing property. He had set up a dam on the River for his flour mill which was newly in operation by June 1819 using millstones cut in colony. By the late 1830's he also had a brewery there and his mill, brewery, machinery and livestock were valued at nearly $60,000. It was also claimed that the estate at that time provided work for upward of 300 people. By 1841 he had mortgaged the whole estate and died shortly after in 1845.
- WALLERAWANG - WALKER, James James WALKER [1785 - 1856], the son of a wealthy Perth, Scotland merchant was an artillery officer in the Royal Marine and served in the Napoleonic wars before retiring in 1822. He sailed in May 1823 on the Brutus, for the colony of New South Wales and with his overseer and fellow Scot, Andrew BROWN crossed the Blue Mountains in early 1824 to take up the first land grants in the Lithgow district. He was granted the 809.4 hectares which became known as the "Wallerawang" estate on the Cox River and in circa 1825 - 1829, erected a water mill there. The town of Wallerawang was later named after the estate. The mill turned a pair of small 18 inch stones and evidently remained in use through to 1832, but appears to have ceased operations circa 1833. The site of the mill is yet to be determined. His overseer BROWN, received a 80.94 hectare grant near the site of the future town of Lithgow on Cooerwull Brook. It seems quite possible that BROWN may have been overseer when the mill was constructed. (see - watermills - Lithgow)
- YARRAMUNDI - HOWELL, George George HOWELL had a watermill here. In 2004 this is all that remains of some of the equipment. Photos courtesy of the HOWELL family. wooden gear wooden shaft
- Built in 1795 under the direction of Nathaniel LUCAS for the fee of three ewes. He was a convict and had been transported to Sydney, Australia on the vessel Scarborough in the First Fleet in 1788. He was transferred to Norfolk Island on the HMS Supply in March 1788. The mill had an undershot wheel (another source states that it was overshot) and was built on the stream at Arthur's Vale. Forty men took 3 months to complete it. The mill had a capacity to grind and dress 18 bushels of flour a day. By 1796 the height of the dam had been raised about a metre. By 1833 it was reported as being inefficient and a replacement mill was desired.
- Structural work began in 1828 and continued into 1829. An underground vaulted head race and shallow tailrace were constructed for the overshot wheel on the eastern side of the building to which water was delivered by a raised wooden trough. When fully operational, 111 bushells of wheat and 36 bushells of corn could be handled per day. The dam, which was the original watermill dam from the 1795 mill, was lined on its south side with limestone masonry in 1837. One hundred prisoners were employed for a month to work on the dam and the mill. The lining was not totally successful and 2 years later the dam was still a problem. A second reservoir was constructed upstream and several of the contributory streams were diverted to run in the one channel instead of into a chain of small swamps.
- ADELAIDE - ATHELSTONE This 3 storey mill was the property of Charles and Bill DINHAM and was built on the Torrens River just down the hill from their house. It was declared open for business in 1845, but only lasted for 10 years. Floods damaged the tin and canvas flumes from the dam which was some distance from the mill.
- ADELAIDE - BURNSIDE Erected on First Creek, at the foot of the hills. By August of 1840 a Mr CANNAN had erected a water powered sawmill there. It had a 17 foot diameter wheel running off a 200 yard long viaduct running the water from a dam (near the location of the current Catholic Church). Boyle Travers FINNISS purchased this sawmill and three cottages on Section 269 on First Creek at the end of 1840 and converted it into a flour mill, making it a four-storey building and fitting it with machinery and mill stones. The mill was in operation again in April 1842 and worked satisfactorily for some months but later bad seasons made the supply of water insufficient for a profitably operating mill. There is still a remnant of evidence of the race behind the church car park [c1998]. Boyle FINNISS came to South Australia on the Cygnet as a surveyor on Colonel Light's staff in 1836, and was the first Premier of the Province after the Constitution Act of 1856. FINNISS lived on the property until 1858 when it was sold to George SOWARD.
- BRIDGEWATER Erected in 1852 by John DUNN senior. There is some confusion with the previous date because other information has a William WALES in 1855 completing the building there, of a three storey steam mill , known as the Lion Steam Mill, Coxes Creek. Due to ill health this was leased to John DUNN in 1857, and he erected a water mill attached to the original mill. Other water use in the area gradually reduced the flow and the water mill closed in 1895. For a further dose of confusion another source has the mill erected in 1860, with an 11 metre diameter wheel constructed in Glasgow, Scotland which was supplied by a dam in Cox's Creek built in 1859. Are there 2 watermills?1872 image 1894 image 1869 image
- BRIDGEWATER view image
- HAHNDORF In 1842 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm WITTWER built a watermill at the junction of Cock's Creek and the Onkaparinga River just outside Hahndorf's boundaries. The mill was later damaged by floods and burned down.
- ONE TREE HILL This 2 storey mill was in a deep valley of Smith's Creek adjacent to Uley road, where the hills met the plains of Smithfield [now Craigmore]. Water supply was a problem despite a series of dams and eventually a steam engine was installed. The establishment of larger mills in Salisbury and Gawler eventually led to its closure.
- SALISBURY HEIGHTS This image shows the remains of a water powered flourmill in Stanford Rd. view image
- BARTON A corn mill built in 1825 was sited on the Isis River at Barton, near Cressy but was moved, block by block, to its current site at the Penny Royal Watermill Motel in 1973.
- BOTHWELL - NICHOLAS's MILL Edward NICHOLAS arrived at Hobart Town in 1821 on board the Grace with his wife and family, workmen, machinery and seeds. He was granted 1800 acres on the Fat Doe River, and named his property Nant. After building a small stone cottage he erected a water powered flour mill. The mill was rebuilt in 1857, with an iron wheel replacing the original wooden one, of coursed rubble with massive quoins, and incorporated the original three storey homestead. The mill last ground grain in the 1890's but until 1953 it pumped water for domestic use to the main house.
- BOTHWELL - THORPE MILL Thomas AXFORD swapped his grant on the Jordan River with John BISBEE, the Hobart Town goaler whose grant was at Thorpe on the Clyde River. He settled there in 1822 and erected the brick flour mill with its undershot wheel in 1823. The mill produced stone ground flour for the settlers by 1825. It is located near Nantes Cottage. The mill stopped being commercially operated in 1917 (another source says 1906) but was restored by the BIGNELL's the then owners in 1977. The family has since turned it into a tourist attraction  [NB. AXFORD was murdered by the bushranger Rocky WHELAN on Constitution Hill in 1855].
- CARRICK The first mill (presumed to be a watermill) was erected in 1828. The later three-storey, bluestone (basalt) mill was constructed in 1843 on the Liffey River. It was originally a conventional water wheel powered operation with three pairs of French burrs. Thomas Wilkes MONDS who began his career as an apprentice to millwright and miller John GUILLAN in 1843, acquired the Carrick mill at auction for 2100 pounds in December 1867 following the death in Ireland of the former owner, William BRYAN. A silk dresser replaced a wire machine in 1868 and a Ransome's rotary corn screen was installed in 1871. An oatmeal mill was installed and operational by March 1872. In early 1887 the mill was refitted with six pairs of millstones and improved dressing equipment, including purifiers in conjunction with reduction rolls, all powered by a Victor turbine which replaced the water wheel. This mill was one of the first in Tasmania to be converted to roller milling in 1889 with machinery from Robinson's, including 5 break rolls (9 inches x 24 inches) and 9 reduction rolls (9inches x 18 inches) with a capacity of 6 sacks per hour. Despite extensions to the rear of the mill building and raising of the roof to provide an additional floor, interior photographs dated 1902 reveal the cramped working conditions on the milling and dressing floors. Robinson's supplied a compound horizontal steam engine of their own manufacture. MONDS & AFFLECK sold the Carrick mill in 1947, but it was not confirmed when the machinery was removed. 1850 image
- DELORAINE - BOWERBANK MILL The Bowerbank flourmill was originally powered by a waterwheel in 1853. It was a three storey Georgian stone building with a slate roof and windows set in arched openings. It ceased operation in the 1930's.
- DEVIOT Supposed to be the first water driven flour mill in Tasmania. Built in 1825 by Andrew CHARLTON on the Supply River and closed in 1888.
- HOBART The purpose of this watermill is not known but it is possible that is is one of the next two mills listed. 1833 image
- HOBART - GOVERNMENT CORN MILL Built in 1818. It was built at the end of the Government garden. The watermill commenced grinding on 28th May 1818. Edward YATES who was appointed to the position of superintendent of the mill in December 1818, received a conditional pardon at about that date. YATES held this position for 2 years and 9 months.
- HOBART - LIVERPOOL STREET Edward YATES in partnership with James TEDDER, announced the opening of a watermill there on September 20 1820. The millstones were from a local quarry and are the first recorded use of local millstones in Tasmania. The partnership was dissolved in May 1821 and TEDDER bought out YATES.
- LAUNCESTON - CATARACT The flour mill had been erected at the mouth of the Cataract Gorge in 1836, with the costs split between John WALKER and millwright Andrew SIBBALD. It was of wooden construction and powered by a waterwheel during WALKER's ownership, with a milldam constructed at the First Basin in the Gorge. Water was conveyed to the mill by an 1100 metres long wooden launder positioned along the south eastern side of the gorge and supported by trestles and iron brackets. Following the death of John WALKER in 1874 and his son in September 1876, the Cataract Mill was auctioned and subsequently purchased by David RITCHIE for 2,800 British pounds. The first integrated roller plant in Tasmania was established in 1889 when David RITCHIE rebuilt the Cataract Mill. The Cataract mill also had some Ganz roller mills. image 1 image 2
- LAUNCESTON - NORTH ESK RIVER A watermill built on the North Esk River, on his own land by Edward YATES, began production there in 1822. He ground flour for the government for 5 years. In 1828 there was a dispute with a James BRUMBY over ownership of the mill. The exact result of this dispute is not known but the YATES family remained there until the early 1840's. Edward YATES died on September 7 1829. The mill was pulled down sometime c1846.
- LAUNCESTON - Ritchies Mill view image
- LONGFORD Thomas RITCHIE, a retired naval captain, erected a water-powered flour mill on the Scone Estate at Longford in 1831. This mill was expanded in 1848 when machinery "to work six additional pairs of stones" arrived from England, making it the largest operation in the north of the state. Following Thomas RITCHIE's death in 1851, the mill continued to be run by three of his sons with one brother David [1829 - ] eventually taking on the lease in 1861 at the age of 31. The Scone Mills were largely destroyed (apart from an iron waterwheel) by fire in February 1870. Ownership passing out of the RITCHIE family several years earlier. 1837 image
- MARIA ISLAND There was a weir built to turn a small watermill.
- NEW TOWN - Nash's Mill There was a watermill there attached to a 2 to 3 storey building that was built around 1816 on the edge of the New Town Creek. It was still standing in 1900. The Sydney Gazette of Saturday 24 March 1819, carried a report from "HOBART TOWN" dated the 19 March 1819. It advised that a Mr Robert NASH of that colony had died on 18 March 1819. Mr Nash had established several flour mills in that colony and he then had only lately erected a windmill on his farm at Pittwater. It is assumed that Nash's Mill is one of his mills but has not been confirmed. image 1 image 2 image 3
- OUSE On the junction of the Ouse and Derwent Rivers. The Millbrook water mill off Victoria Valley Road dates back to 1843 .
- PENNY ROYAL MILL This was originally sited on the Isis River at Barton, near Cressy, 54 kilometres from Launceston and was moved, block by block, to its current site at the Penny Royal Watermill Motel in 1973.
- BALLAN By 1865 there was a steam and water mill there owned by James YOUNG of Bacchus Marsh. It was presumably built on the Werribee River. The mill was operated by Nathaniel YOUNG and Walter DUNCAN in 1866 and YOUNG became sole owner in 1873. The ownership appears to have transferred to a Mr WHITE by 1883 and in 1909 W E WHITE's 'Werribee Flour Mills' were completely destroyed by fire.
- BATESFORD This was a bluestone steam and water powered flour mill built by brothers and partners Robert C, George and James HOPE, on the western bank of the Moorabool River downstream from Batesford, on land purchased by James in 1856. The two storey building, with its large water wheel seems to have been built about 1857. During 1866/7 the mill was run by the SHAW brothers. In 1868 the mill is described as using a steam engine to drive 3 pairs of millstones. Also listed are a smutter, a silk dressing machine and an elevator. Steam power was apparently only used for three months of the year. In 1880 the river burst its banks and the mill was completely destroyed.
- BEECHWORTH Louis CHEVALIER built a water powered sawmill at the head of the Newtown Falls on Spring Creek in 1855 and added flour milling equipment later. This included French burr millstones. 'Newtown Flour Mills' was purchased by GRAHAM and WILSON c1868. By this time steam power was at least being introduced to the mill. Bought by John BURROWS [ - 1904] in 1875. In 1880 a tunnel was built under the town diverting the water away from the mill. The mill closed down in the 1880's, its large wheel constantly under the sludge from gold mining activities upstream. By that time it was being powered by steam. The mill was sold in 1890. The wheel was sold to the Harrietville Deep Lead Mining Company.
- BLOWHARD - FRY's MILL Fry's Mill was a flour mill located at Blowhard (sometimes also referred to by the district of Ascot or Learmonth) near Ballarat during the 1850's/1860's. It was located on a farm (La Rose) at Blowhard. The State Library of Victoria have a photo of Fry's Mill (accession number H2073) in 1861 showing a very fine five story building with a clock tower on it. It was subsequently dismantled, the bluestone sold and resurrected as a woolshed on a nearby property at Ascot.
- BRIDGEWATER 'Water Mill Company Loddon Ltd' was established in 1873 with the main shareholders being 'PRATT, HAYES & Company'. G. H. HAYES [ - 1912] seems to be the principal. Construction on crown land of the 3 storey bluestone mill began in 1874 and the mill was operational by December that year. The wheel is described as a crude undershot design and was powered by water from the Loddon River with a natural fall of 9.5 metres to the .8 kilometre and directed through a race cut in solid rock. This description may be unkind because another source has two Francis 200hp American type turbines being used as the original setup in conjunction with a steam engine. In 1877 a third turbine is said to have been added, and another in 1879. By this time the race had been further deepened twice. 1879 was also a drought with the Loddon mostly dry and water having to be pumped to the steam engine at the mill by another portable engine bought for the purpose. 1883/4 saw the installation of a roller mill installed alongside the stones and a confusing entry for a second American turbine. [It appears that the turbine situation needs a little clarification or the mill will end up with a swag of them. The mill licence limited the water use to an equivalent of 320hp - editor]. From c1880 to 1887 H.G. WISE was the manager. In 1888 the company name changed to the 'Water & Kerang United Roller Mills Ltd'. In 1892 a fire destroyed all the buildings and gave the company to rebuild a modern mill from the ground up. The new mill began operations in 1893. Once again in 1897/8 drought severely effected water supply to the mill and steam power had to be used. Another 100hp turbine was ordered in 1898 and the mill race was extended in 1904. The steam plant was replaced with a diesel in 1925, another drought year. In 1934 fire again struck the mill and business recommenced in 1935 after a redesign and rebuild. That design had 3 turbines. The company was renamed to 'Water Wheel Flour Mills Ltd' in 1934 before becoming a public company in 1959 as the 'Water Wheel Holdings Ltd'.
- BROADFORD In 1862 James MAXFIELD built this flour mill on Sunday Creek at Broadford. A weir was built. By 1879 the mill had long ceased operations.
- CORRYONG The mill was bought and transferred from Tooma, New South Wales by John SMEATON about 1879 and erected on the Thougla Creek. The mill was operational by 1880 and used by local farmers.
- DAYLESFORD Built on James ROBERTSON's property 'Mill Springs Farm' at Shepherds Flat near Daylesford. The water came from springs running into Jim Crowe Creek, which were harnessed with a contoured race around the hillside by an early miller. The mill was at the bottom of the hill near Jim Crowe Creek. There a 4.9 metre diameter wheel powered millstones cut from quartz rock. In 1875 Battista MINOTTI is listed as a miller there. The mill ground wheat for farmers for many years before being burnt down.
- DEDERANG - HAIG, John John HAIG with his sons John and Thomas, erected a 4 storey, brick, water powered flourmill in the 1880's on the Glen Creek between Yackandandah and Dederang. It was equipped with both saw and flour milling machinery. Power came from a 31hp 25cm turbine wheel at 90 ft pressure of water. The miller at least in 1892/3 was J MATTHEWS. No later dates are known for the mill.
- DEDERANG - HOBBS, James Joseph James Joseph HOBBS had a 3 storey wooden water wheel flour mill building prior to 1877 when it was shifted to Yackandandah. It may have been on the Glen Creek.
- GEELONG - HIGHETT, J. The Barrabool Water Mill was built about 1851 on the south bank of the Barwon River above Buckley's Falls. No date has been discovered for the construction of the weir. J. HIGHETT was the owner. Frederick C. MORRIS seems to be the first manager of the mill. The original building tender talked of a 5 storey bluestone construction. Floods in 1852 carried away the wheel and part of the building. The damage may have been very substantial because in 1854 HIGHETT is again noted as building a mill at the site. This building was 5 stories high at the lower end and built with bluestone, with .9 metre thick walls. The mill base was 30.5 metres by 12 metres. An undershot wheel was used. It is not known how long the mill continued to produce flour. After a period of disuse the 'Fyansford Starch Factory' using rice as its raw material took over the mill in 1887/8 and continued using water power. They appear to have had a new race constructed. A wheel of 43 feet is mentioned but it is not known if this is from the flour mill. The old bluestone building was apparently demolished in 1908.
- HAMILTON - HUTCHESON, G. This was really a steam mill but had a small water wheel to assist in the milling when possible. Erected on the property of local farmers George and John HUTCHESON, who came from a milling family in Perth, Scotland. The mill was sited on the south side of the creek and was a four storey bluestone building. Machinery was obtained from Melbourne and received in 1854. Milling however did not commence until late 1855 or early 1856. George appears to have been in charge initially but when he was killed by a horse a few years later, the rest of the family must have taken over. The small mill was sold to Charles PIVEN by John's widow in 1877 and she in turn purchased his Commercial Hotel in Hamilton. The 'Hamilton and Co-Operative Milling Company' was floated in 1882 but this was not successful and in 1883 Mrs HUTCHESON leased back the mill to be operated by her son David. The mill closed soon after and was sold to Carl HARWICH who is not known to have worked the mill.
- HAMILTON - LEARMONTH, Peter 'Grange Burn Mill' was a water assisted steam mill built on Peter LEARMONTH's [c1821 - 1893]'Prestonholme' run about 5 kilometres east of Hamilton on the north side of the Grange Burn. This four storied bluestone building with an attached bluestone and iron storage capable of holding 58,000 bushels of grain began operations in 1859. Machinery included a 14 horsepower engine, 2 pairs of French Burr millstones, a Boddington improved silk dresser, 2 smutters etc. It seems to have closed about 1892 and was standing almost intact in 1990.
- LILYDALE It was built near the centre of Lilydale in the early 1850's by Hugh KEEN and taken over by James CASHIN [ - 1873] in about 1854. At that time it was prosperous and had a shingle roofed 2 storey bluestone building. The large water wheel was operated from a race running from the Olinda Creek. When James died his sons James and William carried on the business. By 1875 the mill was listed as both a flour and sawmill. The family left the area in about 1880.
- MALMSBURY The 'Coliban Water and Steam Mill' began operations in 1856 and was built north of Malmsbury by Joseph W ELLIS in partnership with HUTCHINSON. The mill had three stories and was built of bluestone. There was a timber mill race directing water to an overshot wheel. In c1857 a steam engine was added to supplement the poor summer river flow. The mill was burnt out in the late 1860's. ELLIS sold his share to Mr MAISBECK.
- MARKWOOD A watermill was built in the 1860's on Tea Garden Creek at the site of the present town by J. T. BELL.
- MELBOURNE - AITKEN, GILLESPIE & SCOTT Alex GILLESPIE in partnership with AITKEN and SCOTT built at or near the site of DIGHT's mill. The mill was completed in 1888 and included a grain shed, a stable and smut house and brickwork for the turbine penstock . No details are known of the turbine installed by Austral-Otis. The partners sold out to a syndicate in 1889 or 1890. It changed hands again in 1891 and was registered as the 'Melbourne Flour Milling Company' headed by James BELL. Sometime in this period , and at least by 1895 when the river was only being used for power about 5 months a year, a steam engine was installed. The mill was bought by John DARLING & Son in 1909. Only 5 months later in May 1909 the mill was destroyed by fire. It appears that the turbines were being used up to this time and that at that stage there were two of them rated at 350hp.
- MELBOURNE - ABBOTSFORD John DIGHT was an experienced millwright who in 1838 purchased the 26 acre Lot 88, Parish of Jika Jika, County of Bourke and now in the suburb of Abbotsford. The land was on the Yarra River and included Gardner's [now Dight's] Falls. This appears to be the same man who had a mill in Campbelltown known as the Ceres. He left there in 1840 to move to the new site at Abbotsford. Here he, in partnership with his brother Charles Hilton DIGHT, built the 'Ceres' flourmill which was completed by 1841 and may have started construction as far back as early 1840. However the delay in gaining permission to build a dam on the Yarra meant that the mill did not open until 1843. There was a bluestone lined race from the dam to the mill. Floods were a major problem and floods in 1844 submerged the mill up to its second floor. By 1847 only Charles appears to be involved with the mill. Floods also occurred in 1848, 1849 and 1858. In addition to that, the river could run too low to run the mill at full power. The original building was made with brick brought from Launceston. An undershot wheel was used. A fire c1856 gutted the building according to some authorities. It was rebuilt circa 1857 by the architect Francis Moloney WHITE. At this time a bluestone extension doubled the size of the building to 12.8 metres by 19.5 metres. In 1864 Thomas KENNY leased the mill and used it to produce paper. By 1869 the buildings appear to have been deserted and only the bluestone section of the mill remained. The wheel and all of the original building appear to have been destroyed. There is conjecture that DIGHT later imported a steam engine which was lost at sea. Another engine was supposed to have been ordered and used at the mill. image 1 image 2 image 3
- MORANG - CAROME The 'Carome' mill was built on the Plenty River in the parish of Morang in 1841 by Arthur SERGENTSON. This mill used one pair of millstones and had a capacity of up to 5 bushels of wheat per hour. In 1843 he leased the mill to Samuel ANDERSON [ - 1863] of ANDERSON & MASSIE and probably worked by Arthur's brother Hugh [c1808 - 1898] who moved to the area in that year. The lease was terminated in 1850 and in 1851 the mill was leased by Robert CHARLES. A few years after this the mill passed to LAWRIE, a friend of SERGENTSON. The mill fell into disrepair and in 1857 was sold at auction to Abraham WILLIS. WILLIS then employed Robert FULTON to install a new overshot water wheel, add a second pair of millstones and a wooden flume from the Plenty River. This increased the fall to 5.5 metres. It was probably at that time that a second storey was added to the original stone mill. WILLIS leased the mill to DICKENSON & TURNER for some time and then to TURNER alone when the partnership broke up. The completion of the Yan Yean reservoir for Melbourne around 1858 severely depleted many operations along the Plenty River. An act passed in 1865 gave the Government authority to use all the waters of the Plenty and this was the death knell for any watermills. The mill burnt down in 1868 amid controversy.
- MORANG - JANEFIELD Built by George COULSTOCK [presumably on the Plenty River] about 1842. The breast shot wheel for this 2 storey bluestone mill was 4.9 metres in diameter. The mill was apparently able to grist 8 bushels of wheat per hour. The business and land were bought by BROCK in 1847 and leased in 1848 to Peter HURLESTONE & Sons. The mill, which had been performing poorly, was refitted by the HURLESTONE's in 1848 and Alfred HURLESTONE managed the mill from 1848 until 1855. Much of its equipment was bought by Alfred and went to the HURLSTONE steam flour mill in Preston. Some authorities have the mill closing in 1862 which would pose some questions as to what machinery was used.
- MORANG? - THOMAS, Moses After an attempt in 1854 to build a mill was foiled when that site was made inconvenient to get to because of pipeline to the Yan Yean reservoir, the biggest flour mill on the Plenty River was completed at 'Marsh Farm' in 1855 by Moses THOMAS [1825 - ]. It had a bluestone double storey building and was said to be able to process 3 tons an hour. Originally driven by a 6 or 7hp steam engine. The mill was converted to water power in 1857 when he installed a 7.3 metre diameter cast iron Pelton type wheel. The next year he had a masonry wall built to dam the flow of the river. Even this water supply was apparently not completely satisfactory. This dam was swept away in 1863 and this was the end of the mill. His attempts to gain compensation make interesting reading.
- RIDDLES CREEK This flour mill may date to the 1860's when a G. MILLER was supposed to have built or owned it. However it is recorded that the three storey brick and bluestone mill powered by a large water wheel was operated and perhaps updated by J. F. McKENZIE & Co in the 1880's. It did well for a while before falling into disuse and being destroyed by fire. It was later purchased and rebuilt as a flock mill by William CORRIE. It is not known if the water wheel was used for this operation. It was again damaged by fire and lay unused for several years. Otto J MULLER [1862 - ] purchased it in 1899 and restored it as a flour mill, calling it the 'Mount Macedon Flourmill'. After working for the 'Excelsior' mill in Collins Street, Melbourne until it closed in 1908, he returned to Riddles Creek and operated his own mill until 1918.
- SMEATON - ANDERSON BROS. This was built by the ANDERSON brothers John [1822 - 1895], William and James, shortly after the death of John HEPBURN, when local disatisfaction with the new operators of his mill indicated an opening for a new mill. Construction of the 'Silver Stream' mill commenced in 1861 and it was operational within 6 months and was ready for the 1861/2 harvest with the oat section ready for the following year. John ANDERSON the designer, was a trained millwright from Scotland. The site was further down the Bullarook Creek than the HEPBURN mill. Another source has the mill on Birch's Creek. Equipment for the 5 storey bluestone building was purchased from Scotland, with the exception of the water wheel which was cast in Ballarat. The iron 25 ton, 8.5 metre diametre and 2.1 metre wide wheel is itself a thing of contoversy because in some works it is given as overshot and in others as a breast shot wheel. There was some problem with water supply because after a very short period a portable steam engine was acquired. Water was sourced from Hepburn Lagoon about 5 kilometres away, then released into Birch Creek, before being channelled into the water race to turn the wheel. The release gates to control the mill were at Hepburn Lagoon and were opened to varying amounts depending on the grain to grind that shift. John ANDERSON appears to have run the mill, and after his death in 1895, his nephew David took over. A roller mill was installed by 1896. Also by 1896 the mill was dependent on water power with the 60hp motor not having been used for years. Water at this time came from Birch's Creek [possibly a new name for the Bullarook Creek] and was delivered from a bluestone weir of 270 acres [by 1908] about 1.6 kilometres from the mill. A surface channel brought it to within about 80 metres of the mill and from there it was delivered in a wrought iron flume to the wheel. A Leffel turbine was ordered in 1898 but was used to supply electricity instead of for working the mill. David ran the mill until his death in 1929 and his widow carried on until her son was able to take over after WWII . It operated on and off until closing in 1959. The State purchased it in 1987.view image
- SMEATON - HEPBURN, John John HEPBURN [ - 1860] erected and operated the first flourmill [the 'Captain's Mill'] on his farm 'Smeaton Hill' in the Ballarat area in 1841. It was presumably on the Bullarook Creek. He had earlier c1840 built a pool with an overflow channel cut into the rock. The mill building was constructed in brick and the mill ran a small pair of burr millstones. Originally he ground for himself and neighbours. The mill was later extended and by 1860 it was a 3 storey building of brick and stone with an overshot wheel running 2 pair of millstones with a third pair on order. After John's death in 1860 his son George as trustee leased the mill to BAIRD & BROWN of Ballarat. The mill was later bought by the ANDERSON brothers and closed down by 1882.
- STAGHORN FLAT - REID, David David REID [1820 - 1906] with advice from the miller George LYALL built a watermill on the Yackandandah Creek on his squatting run, "Yackandandah No. 2" estate below Yackandandah on the Staghorn Flat road in c1844. Later it became known as "Reid's Mill", "Mill End" and "Mill Park". The mill was built with locally hewn timber and used French Burr millstones bought with a complete windmill from Launceston, Tasmania. The stones weighed 18 and 22 cwt respectively. Gold was discovered while the water race was being dug. But REID dismissed the find as mica. Gold mining further upstream on the Yackandandah Creek, especially "paddocking" and sluicing, interfered with the mill's working. This forced a changeover to steam power, at which time a saw mill was also installed. Mining sludge and silt eventually filled the building to a height of 1-2 metres. The creek was dammed but the dam was washed away in the first flood and a further 2 times until they filled the creek bed with stone and constructed stone abutments either side of the dam which had a 35 foot bluegum log placed on them across the creek with sliding boards attached to control the water flow. A 5.2 metre diameter, 1.4 metre wide undershot wheel was used. In 1853 the REID's sold the mill to G.E.McKAY who continued working it for several years. The mill was kept busy in its early life gristing for farmers as far away as Tarcutta and Benalla. The mill ceased operating during the 1870s after passing through the hands of various operators. The present owners of "Mill Park" say there are still pieces of the mill stone(s) on the property. Visit Staghorn Flat History to see an historic photo of REID'S MILL.
- STRADBROKE Matthew SCOTT took up a run on the Merriman creek at Erin Vale near Stradbroke and a water mill was constructed to provide flour probably for the workers etc. Disused by 1853.
- STRATFORD A watermill flour mill was built there on the Avon River by David H. WEIR, but it was washed away in the 1860's when the river flooded.
- SUNBURY John EADIE a miller from Perthshire, Scotland built a bluestone walled mill on the banks of Jackson's Creek [Macedon River] on his property 'Glen Eadie' just south east of the town in about 1861. The equipment was purchased from Scotland and he brought out George STRAUGHAN from Berwick-on-Tweed, England to operate it. There was an adequate weir and race to power the mill. The weir was rebuilt twice in its lifetime after being washed away by severe floods. The iron waterwheel weighed 20 tons. The mill is said to have operated into the twentieth century. Scrap iron drives for WWI claimed the roof and water wheel in 1914 but the ruins of the mill were still standing in 1990.
- TARRAVILLE John CARPENTER [1814 - ] is supposed to have built his first mill at Tarraville and Yarram. It is not established whether we are talking of 1 or 2 mills. Both sites are on the Tarra River and both sites were supposed to have had an early mill and both were apparently taken over by Abraham BLAND. There is a record for both watermills in 1856.
- TONGIO A horse powered flour mill was built by G. WALTHERSON at Junction Creek, about 4 miles east of Tongio on the Bindi road. It was converted to water power c1883. It continued to operate until about 1900.
- TYLDON There was a water powered corn mill built there in 1841 on the Coliban River. Originally known as 'Willoughby's Cornmill', this was a timber building with an all timber water wheel. This mill is known to have still been operational in 1882. There were probably several changes to it over the years.
- WANGARATTA The 3 storey brick mill erected by William CLARK and David EVANS on the King River between Eley street and Merriwa Park in 1861 may have originally been powered by water, but by 1865 it was at least partially a steam powered mill. CLARK left the partnership in 1862 and was replaced by Daniel Hugh EVANS. After a varied history the mill was moved in 1952.
- WAREEK This mill may be referred to as the Norwood mill. Alfred JOYCE had a windmill with sails nine feet across being used to power a mill. He also built an undershot watermill on the Bet Bet Creek near his home near Wareek. The windmill was used in summer when the creek was low. In 1864 he added a 14 hp engine and another set of millstones. The operation was quite substantial and it appears that about 30,000 and 50,000 bushels of grain were ground in that year. The plant was dismantled and sold to the 'Korong Flour Company' in 1879.
- WOODFORD A watermill was built here beside the Merri River about 10 kilometres from Warrnambool by Alexander STRUTH about 1850. It had a stone building and a large waterwheel. The mill ceased operating in 1875 when it was bought by the 'Warrnambool Woolen Mills'. They however did not use it and it was destroyed by fire in 1882.
- WOOLAMAI A water powered flourmill was built on the Bass River at Woolamai. Original construction date not known but it was in use in 1860. view image.
- STRADBROKE Matthew SCOTT took up a run on the Merriman creek at Erin Vale near Stradbroke and a water mill was constructed to provide flour probably for the workers etc. Disused by 1853.
- YACKANDANDAH - HOBBS, James Joseph In 1878 J.J.HOBBS moved his Dedarang 3 storey waterwheel flourmill to Yackandandah, 2 to 3 chain down from the stone bridge where the hospital stands . The mill never really worked and it was converted to steam power. The mill operated until at least 1884/5. It was eventualy closed down and dismantled about 1890.
- YARRAM - CARPENTER, John John CARPENTER [1814 - ] is supposed to have built his first mill at Tarraville and Yarram. It is not established whether we are talking of 1 or 2 mills. Both sites are on the Tarra river and both sites were supposed to have had an early mill. There is a record for both watermills in 1856. The mill may date back to 1854 and could have been first used as a sawmill. He sold this first property to William MOORE in 1854. He then built another saw and flour watermill on the Yarram river near Yarram which he operated until 1864 when it was leased to Abraham BLAND who remained at the mill until the 1880's. There was a fire recorded at the mill in 1884. The notice for this also identified it as a sawmill.
- YARRAM - LUCAS, Charles Charles LUCAS settled on the Tarra River and established a watermill flour mill , probably in the early 1850's. The property was later acquired by the TURNBULL brothers. LUCAS appears to have ceased milling in 1862 and a fire was recorded there in 1870.
- ARMADALE Advertised by Joseph BATT to be operational at AU$0.05 per bushel by December 1850. Located at 'Narroging', on Canning Location 34 on the Neerigen Brook about 3 kilometres S/E of Armadale. Known as the 'Paradise Water Mill'. The house and possibly the mill were burnt down.
- BALINGUP The mill was near the Blackwood River at 'Southampton' on Nelson Location 48 about 14 kilometres south of Balingup on Southampton road. Owned by Richard JONES [1796 - 1876]. The mill was known to be working in 1867. In 1882 the property including the watermill was listed for sale. A painting of the mill shows a waterfall coming off some tall hills to a 2 storey weatherboard mill with the wheel on one side.
- BINDOON Trowbridge William HAZELWOOD on Swan location 98 [Bindoon] partly dammed the Brockman River just north of the lot with a barrage. Financial problems forced him to sell the property to ROE and KNIGHT who leased it to THOMPSON who intended to set up a mill in c1850. It was not until a new owner, Joseph PURSER [c1819 - 1866] who bought the property in 1852, used the barrage to create an approximately 180 metre mill leat, that the first flour mill in the Chittering area was built on the west bank of the river in 1857. [PURSER may have bought direct from HAZELWOOD with the others being lessees] The mill building was made of mud and straw and the millstones may have been granite. Joseph PURSER died in July 1866 from tetanus contracted after an accident to his hand at the mill. James ATKINSON, who had married PURSER's widow in 1868 operated the 'Bindoon' mill until the early 1870's. He discontinued milling after taking up a mail contract in 1872. The millstones and machinery were probably removed by Samuel STEPHENS, a later owner, and sent to the WA Museum in the 1920's. No trace of them is now in the museum records.
- BROOKTON Built alongside the east bank of the Avon River by, or for, John SEABROOK of 'Brookton House', which was 3 kilometres east of Brookton on the Corrigin road.The property is now known as 'Koorrnong'. He ground flour for his neighbours as well as for his own use for many years. It was set up to operate by water power in winter and two horse power in summer. Most of the mill machinery was made from bush timber. One of the French Burr millstones was built into a massive white gum frame. Seems to have been in a rectangular red stone building with brick corners. There was a loft. The mill may have been converted to steam by 1873.
- BYFORD - LAZENBY The property 'Cardup' on Cockburn Sound Locations 22 and 24 was owned by the LAZENBY family. It was on the south side of Cardup Brook, off Kiln road east of the South West Highway and about 3 kilometres south south east of Byford. A brook was dammed and a mill built according to some information. The only dam on the brook seems to date from c1903.
- BYFORD - MEAD, Henry This mill if it exists was on 'Whitby Falls Farm' about 8 kilometres south of Byford on Cockburn Sound Location 23 on Manjedal Brook and was owned by Henry MEAD [1820 - 1903]. Little is known beyond an application for a mill dam in 1872 and a comment in the application, that the mill was part built. There are some dams above Whitby Falls.
- BYFORD - MEAD, Henry This watermill is about 2 kilometres south east of Byford. Situated on 'Millrace Farm', Cockburn Sound Location 216 on the south side of the Beenyup Brook and north of Nettleton road. The owner Henry MEAD [1820 - 1903] moved to this farm from 'Whitby Falls' sometime about 1870. However dates for this event are unknown. The only date so far available is that in 1888 he advertised for a millwright. The wheel itself was about 6.1 metres in diameter and was used to grind corn and other grains for the family. The Beenyup Brook was not dammed and instead was diverted down a drain to an elevated race which took it to the overshot wheel and then on further for irrigation. 78 cm diameter millstones which possibly came from this mill were collected by the 'Guildford Mechanics Institute Museum'. In about 1932 Henry's son George made or used for the farm, a smaller over shot wheel from Bowdens, Waterwheel road, Armadale. This had an iron frame and jarrah buckets which were 2.8cms by 61cms and drove a chaffcutter and a milking machine. This continued to be used by L. LANDELL in the dairy after he bought the farm c1950. It was apparently still working just prior to 1963 when he tried to donate it to the National Park Board and the Kings Park and Botanic Garden.
- CAPEL Known as the 'Mt Pleasant' mill. This was a considerable business and was commenced when George Robert PAYNE [1817 - 1892] with his step son Fred HAWKINS and probably assisted by hired convicts erected the 2 storey, shingle roofed mill sometime c1854 on Wellington Location 72. It was built on the opposite of the Capel River to the house and had large timber studs let into a solid ironstone outcrop and cemented for strength. He also built a bridge across the Capel for access and a road which allowed acess to the top storey of the mill. It had originally been set up for an overshot wheel but when the height could not be obtained in the dam, the wheel was modified to operate on the undershot principle. In 1868 the mill temporarily stopped working when the river bank collapsed, damaging the building. The mill was offered for sale c1886 and included a dressing and smut machine, threshing machine, winnowing machine, circular saw and lathe turned by the mill. In 1891 the mill was noted to have an approximately 5.4 metre wheel operated by two flood gates and the water was carried over the Capel River along a raised wooden race. The working cogs were made of jarrah [or tuart according to another source]. An enterprising man, he also built a 50 ton schooner on site which he dismantled to get to the sea. The mill building toppled over in 1961. The remains were railed to Perth by Brisbane & Wunderlich but nothing was done to restore it and they were lost.
- CLAISEBROOK Solomon COOK, the builder of the York windmill, applied for land at Claisebrook in 1854 to build a watermill on the north bank of the Claise Brook. He also applied for permission to use equipment from the now defunct KINGSFORD's mill. He had started work by 1855, but little more is known. The mill, if built, adjoined the abattoir. There is a mill drawn in PWD plan 49. There had been land reserved for a watermill at the mouth of Claisebrook in 1848.
- DANDARAGAN This mill was owned by Walter PADBURY [1820 - 1907] and was located at 'Yatheroo' on Melbourne Location 5, 11.5 kilometres south of Dandaragan on the Reagan's Ford - Dandaragan road on Yatheroo Brook. It took about 6 months to construct and was finished in 1861. A two storey building with a steep sloping shingle roof housed the mill works. PAYNE had a sawmill and forge which supplied such things as nails and timber for the construction. There was a staircase inside the mill. The mill was used both for the farm community and many of the neighbours. The water came from Yatheroo Spring which was dammed up, then diverted west along a stone lined race which was about .5 metres wide and deep. The dam, millrace and mill were enclosed by long stone walls on either side. Surplus water was carried away in an elaborate sluice running along the base of the stone wall. This was presumably a reaction to severe rain storm damage in 1872 which completely destroyed the earthworks for the water race. James LOCKYER, the millwright used local stone and timber with bricks and mortar which was also made on site. The approximately 2.4 metre wooden water wheel seems to have been the one made by LOCKYER & Son about 50 years previously for REVELEY, and the millstones also came from Perth. The miller, J. CARRUTHERS, died of consumption in 1878. Although there were problems with water supply in summer, the watermill continued to be used for about 20 years before being replaced by a 6 H.P. Ransome & Sims engine in 1883.
- ELLENSBROOK Built on Swan Location 1. The property was owned by George LEAKE [1785 - 1849] an absentee landlord, and Henry BULL. It is a kilometre upstream from the Ellensbrook bridge on West Swan road. The mill buildings appear to have had some changes through the years. In 1846 it is depicted as a tall weatherboard building, probably with a covered waterwheel and a shingle roof. It may have been as much as 3 stories high and built down the slope to provide grain loading at a high point in the mill. The mill building was apparently a rectangular shape with the partly enclosed wheel on the long side facing north east. Later images show a two storey building. The closest road is Corona Way. The physical site is a headland between the mill creek and another small creek. A small creek running from swampland was dammed up to provide the water just before it reached Ellensbrook. From the dam, the mill race ran down the west side of the creek to the mill. It was on the same farm as BULL's horse mill. Henry BULL and George LEAKE dissolved their partnership in 1836 and the property was divided into two parts. LEAKE appears to have leased his part to one of BULL's servants, William CRUZE [CRUISE] who had operated the horse mill. Construction of the mill began in 1836 and the mill was in working condition by early 1837. Alfred CARSON [noted elsewhere] appears to have had a part in its construction. Some fairly major repairs were carried out in 1854. A smut machine was imported in 1860. In 1869 CRUZE closed the premises and the mill was advertised to be let. Advertising in 1870 and 1871 indicate it was continuing business under the control of Edward MIDDLETON. The property may however have been controlled by Thomas MIDDLETON because there is an estate sale in 1878 after his death in 1877 and the sole executor is G W LEAKE. Thomas FERGUSON [1826 - 1892] took over as manager in 1878. References occur for FERGUSON's mill in 1889 and may have operated until his death in 1892 when the mill was sold to SHOLL, HOOLEY and WAYLEN. It is thought to have burnt down about 1900. The mill was a strong commercial venture through much of its life.
- GINGIN - CHARLTON, Joseph This mill was on Lennards Brook on Swan Location 528, 5 kilometres south of Gingin and west of Cockram road. The owner was Joseph CHARLTON [c1811 - c1896]. By 1880 the mill was in the charge of A CHARLTON. Research by R. Roe gives the active period for this mill as from the late 1860's to 1886 when he sold the land to the Reverend G. SADLER. Apparently a commercial enterprise.
- GINGIN - BROCKMAN, William Locke# The 'Cheriton Watermill' was built by William Locke BROCKMAN [1802 - 1872]. In 1836 or 1837 he had discovered the Gingin Brook and arranged to take up Swan Location 101 on which he built the mill. The dam was on Swan Location 126. The mill itself was established by at least 1852. At that time the mill may have been just run off the race because although it could have been earlier, the earliest known date for the dam is 1860. Alfred CARSON was the miller at 'Cheriton' from 1854 to 1860. In 1862 the mill, barn and contents were destroyed by fire. The irrigation system was installed at this time and may have necessitated a thorough reconstruction of the water system along with the mill itself. There was a further fire at 'Cheriton' in 1868 which damaged stables and outhouses etc. but there is no mention of damage to the watermill. Henry BROCKMAN [1845 - 1916] appears to have inherited the property after his father's death in 1872 and is talking about "his new mill" in 1880. The mill was working up to at least 1887 and possibly to 1891 when the Midland rail line was completed to Gingin. By 1889 the property was for sale and was bought by W.D.MOORE with the exception of 200 acres around the mill and house where Henry remained until 1902. The last mill building was a two storey limestone construction with an adjoining barn constructed of clay bricks. Both buildings had thatched roofs. The mill was originally driven by one of Alfred CARSON's turbines but this appears to have been replaced about 1856 by a waterwheel. A description of the wheel in 1885 gives a diameter of 3.5 metres and indicates an overshot system but another description lists a 4.3 metre wheel. The dam was apparently about 200 metres above the mill and from it a smaller channel was cut to the mill which allowed the remainder to carry on down the large race for irrigation. The wheel drove one pair of stones and could be connected to a thresher. Analysis in 1973 proved the stones to be French Burr stones from the Paris basin. The manager for Henry BROCKMAN was Charlie A. GLOVER [1836 - 1921], who at one time was thought to spend week about between 'Cheriton' and the 'Bindoon Mill'. He lived in the cottage at the mill. The mill was a commercial operation and in its time sold flour as well as gristed for the neighbours. There was a further fire at the mill in 1938.
- JARRAHDALE [These two entries appear to be the same and the'Chestnuts' name may have only been used by BATT]. (1) Built by Joseph BATT on Gooralong Brook about 1850 on his lease'The Chesnuts', at the site of the present Gooralong Park . Local settlers used the mill. (2) John GIBLETT [1809 - 1882] had Cockburn Sound Location 68 on Gooralong Brook about 1.5 kilometres south west of Jarrahdale. The mill had been built by 1858 when he asked for protection of his dam which had been built on public land. GIBLETT left the area in 1860 and in 1861 it was leased as 'Gowalong' mill by Joseph BATT. By 1867 it was being leased by LONGBOTTOM who had a reserved right to attach sawmilling equipment to the mill. David GAFFIN owned the land from 1896 to 1926 but appears to have been at least in the area from 1883 when he could have been the miller. There were 2 buildings with one being 2 storied, although only measuring 4.6 metres by 3.6 metres. The water wheel had an iron hub. A dam was built and in places where it was necessary, the channel, which was in gravelly ground, was sealed with clay and at one point where a depression had to be navigated, an elevated wooden flume of approximately 30 metres length was erected. The site is now the Cooralong Picnic Ground.
- KING RIVER On Plantagenet location 397, Lot 281 on the south side of the Millbrook bridge on Mill Brook, a tributary of the King River. Built c1875 and then leased by Edgar METCALFE who worked for the owner Horace EGERTON-WARBURTON. METCALFE died in 1878 from gangrene, a few weeks after a mill accident which almost removed his knee cap. In 1883 the owner is shown as the mill proprietor. There was a timber lined dam with a mill race at least 200 metres long.
- LANCELIN - WHITFIELD, George M. George M WHITFIELD [1815 - 1891] had a flourmill on the Moore River at 'Cowalla' on Swan Location 136, east of Lancelin , 50 kilometres north west of Gingin and east of the Cowella road bridge. Maps show the drain, pool, millrace and position of the mill in c1852 and confirmation exists in an 1855 reference. He sold the block in 1858 to Robert De BURG. In 1862 the mill was washed away in floods.
- MANJIMUP - BALBARRUP This mill was built in c1864 on Nelson Location 32 about 6 kilometres east north east of Manjimup at the junction of Pudding, Perup and Balbarrup roads. The farm was called 'Balbarrup' and was owned by John GIBLETT [ - 1882]. The mill was apparently only used in winter as the brook dried up in summer. Water was from a small dam on the Balbarrup Brook and was delivered via a straight covered millrace to the waterwheel. The millstones were one piece homemade stones measuring about 48 cm in diameter and 23 cm deep. The mill itself was a timber building with a shingle roof and an undershot wheel about 3.6 metres in diameter, which was covered by a similar adjoining building. See Manjimup - Channybearup Mill.
- MANJIMUP - CHANNYBEARUP This was owned by John GIBLETT of the BALBARRUP mill. Located on Nelson Location 76 on Lefroy Brook [Channybearup River is also given as the site - this may be the same waterway] about 14 kilometres south west of Manjimup on Channybearup road south of the junction of Ridge road. Said to have been built in 1869 and recorded in 1870 [recorded then as a turbine although other records show a water wheel]. A small stone cottage was also erected on the site to be used while the mill was operating. Water was delivered to the overshot timber wheel via an elevated timber flume. The water wheel was under a roof with the lower roofed actual mill next door. This mill was still working c1900 when presumably it was owned by his daughter Gemima. GIBLETT carried out work at the mill free of charge to encourage wheat growing in the area. Later the mill was destroyed by fire [probably before 1938].
- MOUNT BARKER - EGERTON-WARBURTON, George There was a watermill at 'St Werburghs' on Plantagenet Location 20 on the west side of the Hay River about 10 kilometres south west of Mt. Barker. This was erected in c1849 by an American and the pale granite millstones which came from Albany were made and fitted by Edgar METCALFE who, although American, wasn't supposed to be in the area until 1851, which leads to the possibility that Solomon COOK was involved or that METCALFE arrived earlier than recorded. Millstones found on site were 77cm in diameter by 15cm deep. The property at the time was owned by George EGERTON-WARBURTON [1819 - 1889].
- MOUNT BARKER - HASSELL, John John HASSELL the owner of 'Yeolup', later called 'Eulup' on Plantagenet Location 32 on the north side of the Hay River about 14 kilometres west of Mount Barker, leased his land to John HERBERT [ARBER] [1809 - 1851]. A watermill using equipment imported from Scotland was built there probably by HERBERT. This was a seasonal watermill and was erected at a pool in the Hay River probably post 1842. When the water flow was not sufficient, various farm animals were used to turn the mill. In 1851 HERBERT [ARBER} was killed instantly when he was drawn into the workings of the mill.
- NORTHAMPTON - GWALLA MINE Joseph Lucas HORROCKS [1805 - 1865] an expiree opened up the Gwalla copper mine c1859. It was sited approximately 3 kilometres N/W of the junction of the roads to Port Gregory, the mine and the Bay and is now about 2 kilometres south east of Northampton on the east side of the Northwest Coastal Highway. The Gwalla was pumped 24 hours a day to keep the workings dry and HORROCKS is believed to have built a flour mill powered by the discharge. Alternative ideas list direct coupling to the motor. A description of the mill suggests the works were locally made. There is no confirmation either way.
- ORANGE GROVE It was erected on Jabez WHITE's [1823 - 1899] 'Canning Dale' farm in 1876 on Canning Location 50, on the north east side of White road. The mill was then completed in 1877. The mill was a two storey jarrah weatherboard building on the Bickley Brook near where it emerged from the Darling escarpment. A 2.1 to 2.4 metre diameter, and .9 to 1.1.metre wide jarrah overshot waterwheel on a wandoo hub, turned a wooden pulley wheel which drove through belts to an iron crown wheel and pinion beneath the millstones. On the upper floor was the hopper and inclined flour dresser. Local granite millstones were cut by the owner and were 81 cm in diameter and 127 to 203 millimetres deep. He built a large dam on the Bickley Brook with a mill race. The dam was also used for irrigation. The mill operated for many years but in 1891 the Victoria Reservoir on Munday Brook was completed, and this reduced the water flow to the degree that it would not operate correctly. A bushfire in 1951 reduced the mill to ashes. During its lifetime it would appear to have had semi commercial application with flour being sold and gristing carried out for locals.In 2004 the millstones for this mill were located and donated to the City of Gosnells Museum-Wilkinson Homestead by the Gosnells Historical Society.
- PERTH - MILL ST Erected with residence in 1833 by and operated by an experienced miller Samuel KINGSFORD [1782 - 1840] on Lot 20.5 served with a water channel on lots H20 and V21 and river frontage with a jetty and warehouses on lot 69. He used water drained under perpetual rights from Lakes Henderson, Kingsford, Irwin and Sutherland north of Perth. He also had options on Monger's and Great [Herdsmans] Lake. The water was conveyed to the mill in open trenches which were in places apparently 20 ft deep. Closer to the mill it appears that some other system may have been used to carry the water. In 1835 it was offered for auction but had no bidders. The mill was advertising as 'Perth Mills' in 1839. He died in July 1840 and in September 1840 William SHENTON was offering flour from this mill and may have been leasing it. In 1847 John SMITH took up the lease of the mill from Mrs KINGSFORD. He continued to operate until the end of 1852. The opening of the Claisebrook Channel in 1854 and the work preceding that had gradually reduced the flow of water to the mill. [The lakes were drained and are now built over]. Mrs KINGSFORD was granted 800 pounds in Government debentures at 7% for compensation. In March 1856 Henry BURGESS, who advertised a steam powered flour mill in South Perth, moved his equipment to the site and advertised for work. The mill was rented by William COUSINS from late 1856 to 1857 when it was again for let. BURGESS seems to have worked it until May 1859 when he was scalded in an accident and died of his injuries. The site is now occupied by the Perth Parmelia Hotel. 
- PERTH - ST GEORGES TERRACE # Corn mill built in 1832 by Henry Willey REVELEY [c1789 - 1815] on his property between St Georges Terrace and Bazaar Terrace on lots 15 assigned to him in 1829, and 16 purchased in 1832. An unusual feature of this mill was that it was designed to use soakage and spring water which was run down via a drain from above the lots to a mill pond dug across their top end. From the pond a wooden race of about a foot square brought water down 60 to 70 yards into a copper tube 2.5 inches in diameter and hence to the wheel at the bottom of the property. From there the water exited via a drain to the river flats. The original plan was for a vertical wheel but finances dictated a horizontal wheel with the millstones placed directly above it. He was allowed to charge twenty cents per bushel for grinding but as only half the government loan he asked for construction was granted he was not able to fully develop his idea. In the first few months the mill ran for about two to three days a week. The business opened in February 1833 but was unsuccessful because the dam and the race leaked and the water supply actually slowed down. A puddle bank was constructed which stopped the leak and work was commenced on more drains to increase the water supply. Then work stopped and it is assumed that his water sources were interfering with the water rights of Samuel KINGSFORD. [see - Perth - Mill St]. The mill operated through 1834 and 1835. After a short period he closed it down. He commenced work on enlarging and redesigning the machinery and the buildings but as far as is known, by 1838 when he left the colony it was not operational. The mill was transferred to SUTHERLAND. The later building was of stone and brick and the earlier one may have been the same. The millstones were cut from local rock near Red Hill and were four foot in diameter by ten inches deep.
- PICTON Known as the 'Leschenault Mill'. Built by William FORREST in c1850, probably with the help of Joe STINTON. He abandoned his windmill on the Leschenault Inlet in late 1849 to operate the new mill. It was about 5 kilometres up the Preston River at the junction of the Ferguson River. There is once again some controversy about this mill. Version one says he created a timber diversion dam between the two rivers and a 3.6 metre wide by about .8 kilometres long timber mill race running into a mill pond to power his new mill which opened in March 1851. Another source has him building a small rock barrage across the Preston River, which still allowed the river to flow, and then by using an interlocking series of small wooden troughs and clay water ways controlled by small floodgates at regular spacings, he obtained running water from the side of the barrage to carry it over the Ferguson River on an elevated bridge, then for 0.4 kilometres across an acute bend in the Preston to re-enter it further downstream. There it operated an overshot water wheel on a two storey wooden mill which measured 30.5 metres by 12 metres. Whatever the detail, the mill was apparently an immediate success and ground a ton of flour a day. His price at the time was 9 pence a bushel, payment to be made quarterly in cash, wheat or flour. In later years he installed a horizontal wheel onto which the water fell 3 to 4 metres. Still later the milling was done with the aid of a steam engine. From its beginning the mill had also powered a saw. It was still operating in 1863 when his young son Augustus wandered off and drowned in the mill race. On the night of the 28th of September 1867 the mill house was struck by lightning and most of it was lost to fire. There was no insurance and the owner's share of the loss was about $6,000. About 3,600 bushels of wheat and flour were destroyed or damaged as well as all the silk dressing machinery in the building. The mill was apparently then being operated by a steam engine but a new water turbine wheel was saved. William was obliged to mortgage all the many blocks of land he had bought over the years to rebuild the mill. In 1868 the mill is referred to as a steam mill. From its inception the mill had also been used as a sawmill. [An image of William FORREST is available]
- SERPENTINE This watermill was built by Stephen LONGBOTTOM [1818 - 1902] on Cockburn Sound Location 79 on 'Carralong' Brook just south of where it enters the Serpentine River and about 1.75 kilometres upstream of the Serpentine Falls. At the time of construction the land had not been surveyed. The mill was in operation in 1857 when John GIBLETT [1808 - 1882] purchased the block. To prevent dissent the title was transferred to LONGBOTTOM in 1858. Joshua SPENCER [1833 - 1913] purchased the land and mill in 1860.
- TOODYAY In 1851 there is a mention of a hand mill previously being converted to a watermill by G & E WHITFIELD who at the time owned 'Knockdomimie'on Avon Location U2. Some opinion has it that the mill was moved to the family's 'Cowella' property. Local information has a watermill being tried out for 3 or 4 years and a sluice made probably on or near Avon Location V on the other side of the river to the WHITFIELD's property on 'Nardie' owned by the LLOYD family.