HUMAN POWERED MILLS /
WATERMILLS - BATTERIES
WATERMILLS - FLOUR /
WATERMILLS - SAWMILLS /
WATERMILLS - OTHER
WINDMILLS - FLOUR /
WINDMILLS - OTHER
WATER - POWERED FLOURMILLS IN AUSTRALIA
New South Wales /
Norfolk Island /
= An image of the mill is available via e-mail.
- ALBURY - Bungowannah Park Station This station near Albury was selected by John DIGHT [1808 - 1867] in 1837 and he built a small water wheel there for himself and neighbours use [probably] post 1861 on a small tributary of the Murray River. This is the same man who built a windmill at Airds near Campbelltown in 1833 which he sold to move to Port Phillip in 1840. There he and his brother Charles Hilton DIGHT [1813 - ] built the Ceres Flour watermill on the Yarra River.
- BATHURST DISTRICT - 'YARROW', 'YARRA', 'YARRAS', 'WINBURNDALE', 'WINBOURNDALE' 'Yarrow' was the name of a 809.4 hectare grant in Roxburgh County in the Bathurst district made to George INNES on the 30th of June 1823, subject to his majesty's approval due to the acreage involved. Permission was evidently forthcoming and George, who was the younger brother of Major Archibald Clunes INNES whose name appears in the NEW SOUTH WALES - PORT MACQUARIE entry under Wind-Powered Flourmills, took possession. Archibald also used the name 'Yarrows' for his own property on the Hastings River on the NSW North Coast. INNES quickly established himself as a member of Bathurst's elite and in 1825 was treasurer of the short lived 'Bathurst Hunt Club'. The water powered corn mill on 'Yarrow' was advised in early October 1825 as ready to commence operations on the 15th of the month with ex convict John OSELAND apparently employed as miller. The same notice stated that INNES would receive offers to rent the mill for a one year term from the 1st of January 1826. Water for its operation was evidently supplied by the Winburndale Rivulet. In March 1826, with the mill then probably rented out, OSELAND was described as a miller, formerly in the employ of George INNES. By 1827 INNES had negotiated a $6,000 loan from Samuel TERRY in return for a lease of "Yarrow" for 1,000 years. This was in effect a conveyance to TERRY who is likely the same individual noted further down this page under the entry for LACHLAN & WATERLOO. By 1830, and now known as "Yarra", addition machinery for a four horse mill was also in readiness on the property. "Yarra" then disappeared from official records, but in 1832 TERRY was still listed as owning a watermill in the Bathurst District on 'Winburndale'. Whether there is some relationship between these two sites is not known. By 1835, the name had changed to "Winbourndale" and a mill continued to operate until at least 1838 under TERRY's ownership. By 1840 it, and or the property was evidently leased by one Gavin RALSTON, but RALSTON's connection appears to have been rather brief. By October 1841, the property, again referred to as "Winburndale", was being offered to Let described as a farm of 809.4 hectares, situated within 9.7 kilometres of Bathurst and containing a two story dwelling-house, detached kitchen, and servants' room, store, and stables; plus, a woollen factory and horse flour mill. It appears that the water-powered flour mill may by this time have been converted into a water-powered woollen or fulling mill. About 60.7 hectares of the property had been cleared and fenced and deemed fit for cultivation, the remainder being reputedly excellent pasture land. It seems very likely that all the property names listed above were the same entity and remained under the control of Samuel TERRY and his trustees until 1861, when notices appeared in the local paper for the sale of land by auction at "Yarrow's Estate," and the residuary estate of the late Samuel TERRY. The property was purchased by Thomas KITE and its name appears to have gradually changed from "Yarrow's/Yarrows" to "Yarras" in the 1860's. Today, , "Yarra" is known as "Yarras," and nearby, the "Winburndale" name has been resurrected as a result of the establishment of a vineyard bearing that name in 1998. "Yarras" is located on Yarras Lane, near to its intersection with Limekilns Road. The Winburndale Rivulet is the only "permanent" water course on "Yarras" and passes quite close to the homestead. It seems probable that the watermill was located in close proximity to the homestead and its outbuildings, although the present main building was only erected in 1863, as a wedding present, when Mowbray FORREST married Elizabeth KITE, one of Thomas KITE's daughters. The date of the watermill's demise has not yet  been established. "Yarras" is privately owned and not open to the public.
- BERRIMA James ATKINSON had a post mill at 'Oldbury' and advertised for a miller in 1827. In 1830 he applied for a neighbouring block with the proposal to build a watermill. The proposal was accepted so he may have built the mill. In March 1837 Geo Bruce BARTON advised the public that the Oldbury Steam Flour Mill was then at work so perhaps the earlier mill had been converted. There are a number of entries for an 'Oldbury' mill dating to 1871 which may refer to one of these mills.
- BRAIDWOOD The Warri water mill became operational from about December 1843. The terms at that time were 15 pence per bushel of wheat for grinding and dressing and an additional 3 pence for smutting if required. The first miller was James NEALE at Manar.
- CAMDEN Henry THOMPSON is alleged to have built the first flour mill in town on the corner of Argyle and Edwards streets, it purportedly having been powered by water. An Advertisement for the Camden Estate and Township in mid-1840 indicated that a watermill was "about to be erected on the Nepean River, immediately adjoining North Camden." The Nepean River then reportedly separated "North Camden" from the estates of the HASSALL family, Charles COWPER and Mr. BLACKMAN. The Camden Steam Flour Mills which were constructed by Joseph THOMPSON & Sons, commenced operation on the 2nd October 1843. It is unclear as to whether this is the same mill or even if the aforementioned watermill was ever built, as to date [AUG 2005], there does not appear to be any solid evidence that the watermill was actually built. The dating of "Camden Estate & Township" advertisement would seem to indicate that if the watermill was built, it could not have been completed before 1841.
- CLARENCE TOWN - BOATFALLS There was a watermill erected at Boatfalls just above Clarence Town in 1831 by the SINGLETON brothers. This was the head of river navigation on the Williams River. This appears to be the area known locally as Mill Flat Falls, Millbrook and other names. The following information is based on the assumption that the mill concerned is the Boatfalls Mill. : -It appears that by early 1830 (there is conflict here between this year and the 1831 construction date - further verification is required) SINGLETON was in financial trouble and owed $300 to RAPSEY and MITCHELL who obtained a legal ruling to sell the mill against the monies owed. It was therefore offered for sale in February 1830. SINGLETON arranged for the Sydney merchants, 'Hughes & Hosking' to bid on the property and rent it back to him for $200 a year and to be returned to him after seven years. The combination of an unannounced change of auction date along with the understanding that the deal with 'Hughes & Hosking' was being done to assist the owner led several bidders to withdraw from the sale or miss it completely. Some of these made depositions that they were prepared to pay up to $1000 for the mill which actually changed hands for $210 to 'Hughes & Hosking'. Some though that it was a ploy to remove competition from the bidding and that 'Hughes & Hosking' bought it for SINGLETON so that he could avoid paying the full amount to his creditors so the case went to court in March 1832 and the sale was put aside. Both Benjamin and James SINGLETON were resident at Boatfalls in 1832. It is of interest to note that in May 1841 'Hughes & Hosking' offered a mill at what appears to this location to be let. This mill was evidently destroyed by flood in 1857. Boatfalls is now known (in 2004) as Mill Dam Falls and serves as a weather recording and flood level monitoring site.
- DUNGOG - CROOK'S PARK A watermill and property known as the Crook's Mill was built on the Williams River at Crook's Park 3.2 kilometres from Dungog. The three story mill was fitted with a pair of 1.1 metre [3ft 8in] diameter millstones which from the use of the term "burrs" to describe them can be assumed to be French Burr millstones. Other equipment included a dressing machine and smutting machine. The mill was being leased to Mr EASTERBROOK for $100 per annum when it was advertised for sale in September 1845.
- EMU PLAINS - Jackson's Mill This mill was located on the Nepean river opposite the property known as 'Collit's or Collet's Farm', which along with the water mill, was advertised for let in October 1842. Present day "Jackson's Falls" evidently mark the site of the water mill. Application to let the mill was to be made to William BOWMAN of Richmond, who from 1833 through to at least the early 1840's, owned and/or operated a horse mill at Richmond.]
- GILMORE This watermill was situated on about 4 hectares of land about eight kilometres from Tumut on the Gilmore Creek. At the time this was on the road to Adelong. The mill had two pairs of stones and other requisite machinery. The property included a roomy Inn, slabbed and shingled, with detached kitchen which was noted as recently completed in November 1858 along with a stockyard and garden. There was also a part completed residence there at that date. The entire enterprise was offered for auction in November 1858 subject to a $600 mortgage to be cleared at the option of the buyer.
- GUNDERMAN - LAYBURY'S CREEK - SINGLETON, James James SINGLETON established a water mill on Laybury's Creek in 1833-34. In August 1841 an auction notice appeared listing amongst various lots, two water mills at what then was referred to as "Singleton's Valley, on the Hawkesbury." There appears strong reason to suspect that Benjamin and perhaps also James Singleton were involved in the construction of these two watermills, both of which were tide mills. Lot 5 which was a special grant of 2.02 hectares, was one of five lots described as being on a lower property, all of these being either on, or in close proximity to Gunderman Creek, which is a located a little upstream on the Hawkesbury River estuary from the town of Gunderman. The water mill being referred to in this case was that, which by 1842, had become known as the Gunderman Mill. The water mill was capable of storing two thousand bushels of grain and was equipped with an undershot wheel which at the time was driving a pair of French Burr millstones of 1.37 metre diameter with another pair of 1.22 metre diameter waiting to be set. Also listed were dressing and smut machines. It had an estimated output of eight to ten bushels an hour which it could maintain for about half the time, but it was suggested that improvements to the mill could double this performance. The weatherboard and shingled house which came with the mill had a verandah, three front rooms, and two at the rear. Both the house and mill stood on rock foundations.
- HAWKESBURY RIVER - MILL CREEK This mill was built by late 1820, apparently by Benjamin and James SINGLETON, and was by August 1825, owned by James, then described as a miller, of Dillon's Creek. In August 1841 an auction notice appeared listing a water mill on the 20.2 hectare Lot six which was on Dillons or Myrtle Creek, now known as Mill Creek. For Location see Lot 5 description for the Gunderman Mill. The mill was similar to the one on Lot 5 and was equipped with two pair of 1.22 metre diameter French Burr millstones although at the time only one pair was at work. Also listed were dressing machines. It had an estimated rate of six to eight bushels an hour which it could maintain about half the time but it was suggested that improvements could double this performance. The house which came with the mill was built of cut stone on a solid stone foundation. It included three front rooms and two rear, one chamber, three sleeping places for servants above stairs and a spacious loft in the roof. There was a cellar under the house which opened to the wharf alongside. There was also a blacksmiths shop on the property. The watermill was occupied by a Mr T. SAWKINS when it was advertised to let in 1846.
- INVERELL - ROSS, Colin Colin and Rosana ROSS established a store near a popular crossing on the McIntyre River in 1853 to cater for early settlers and the teamsters heading north to the Darling Downs. Soon after they added a water driven flour mill and an inn and in 1855 people in the area petitioned for a town to be developed there which blossomed into the present Inverell.
- KURRAJONG - CURRY[G]JONG MILL [KURRY JUNG MILL] - SINGLETON, Benjamin This mill, commonly referred to as SINGLETON's Mill, was constructed by early 1816 on "Winney Creek" (today Little Wheeney Creek), at the "Currajong Brush" in the Richmond district about 1.5 kilometres to the north of the present village of Kurrajong. The mill's former presence is signalled today by Mill Road, which crosses and runs alongside Little Wheeney Creek. Apparently constructed by Benjamin Singleton and capable of grinding 40 bushels per day, the overshot water mill with 40.47 hectares attached and four bullocks, was put up for sale by SINGLETON in March 1816, but a buyer could not be found. SINGLETON also developed pastoral and milling interests on the St. Patrick's Plains in the 1820's and the town of Singleton is named after him. By late 1821 SINGLETON was referring to this mill as the Kurry Jung Mill. In late February 1823, the Provost Marshal's Office advised that as a result of the case ROWE v. SINGLETON, the latter's water mill and appurtenances would be sold by auction, but SINGLETON evidently beat everybody to the jump, with new owner and baker William LEVERTON (see Lachlan & Waterloo Water Mills) having advertised the mill for let, a fortnight earlier. With LEVERTON's death by mid 1824, as part of his estate, the Curryjong Mill with now 101.15 hectares attached, was in July that year again put up for auction, it being up to that time rented by Mr TOWN for $500 per year. With the mill was also a weatherboard house. The mill at this time was in good repair and equipped with a single pair of French burr millstones. Eight working bullocks and two carts also belonging to the mill, were auctioned separately. From at least 1829, and throughout the 1830's, the mill was owned by John TOWN (senior). The degree of corroboration from another source in 1842 that refers to the Lower Curragong Water Mill, indicates that it is almost certain that this was the same operation being referred to, with the owner John TOWN (senior) of Richmond offering to sell the mill by private contract. The early 1842 description was for a mill with a single pair of 1.37 metre diameter French burr millstones, a smutting machine and a dressing machine, but with now only 4.07 hectares attached. The house was described as weatherboard and shingled. The local Kurrajong Historical Society has the millstones from what is assumed to be this mill as its logo. The millstones were initially dumped in the creek circa 1860, retrieved and used as a war memorial (1920), discarded during road widening (1945), recovered but then forgotten about again and recovered again in 1988 and are now on display at the Kurrajong shopping centre. It has now been established with reasonable certainty that only one watermill was ever constructed at, or in the vicinity of, Kurrajong, and that seeming references to the existence of two watermills in this area circa the 1830's, simply reflect a clerical error that was perpetuated in official statisitics concerning the area's mills, over at least a ten year period. Members of the SINGLETON family were involved in the construction and operation of two further water powered mills on the Hawkesbury below Richmond, but these were both tidal mills.
- LAGGAN There is some suggestion that there was an early water powered mill on the site when Donald McPHERSON purchased land at Laggan from the Crown in 1838 but little support exists for this.
- LITHGOW Scotsman Andrew BROWN [1797 - 1894] while working as an overseer crossed the Blue Mountains in early 1824 with his employer James WALKER who took up the "Wallerawang" estate one of the first land grants in the Lithgow district. WALKER built a watermill there sometime in the period 1825 - 1825 and BROWN may have been the supervisor at this mill during its construction. BROWN himself received a 80.94 hectare grant near the site of the future town of Lithgow on Cooerwull Brook. With the arrival of Andrew's younger brother William in 1836 he followed the example of his former employer and had William erect a flourmill in 1837 on the Cooerwull Brook (now Farmers Creek), on his 'Cooerwull' estate. (see watermills - Wallerawang) The Cooerwull Mill primarily ground grain for local distribution. The "newly erected" Cooerwull Mill was leased by neighbour and fellow prominent Lithgow pioneer Thomas BROWN, for a two year period from about September 1838. The watermill was converted to steam operations in 1851. It is not certain whether or not the two systems were used alongside each other or not. The mill was converted to a woollen mill by 1857.
- LIVERPOOL - HOLSWORTHY - BRISBANE MILL - LUCAS, John The mill at Holsworthy, which is now an outer suburb of Liverpool, was on land granted to Thomas ROWLEY. His neighbour John LUCAS, a son of Nathaniel LUCAS, built the mill on the Harris Creek over six months in 1822. Convict mechanics and labourers were assigned to assist him to build this mill by June 1822 and he appears to have obtained the millstones by October that year in exchange for flour from his mill. This was the first flour mill constructed by him, and was also the first mill built after the arrival of Governor BRISBANE; who gave permission to call the mill the Brisbane Mill or the Brisbane Water Mill. In October 1824 he appears as a defaulter in payment for assigned convict tradesman. It may have been known as the Harris Creek Mill for a period before this as from varying sources it was built on the Harris Creek or on the west bank of the Williams Creek. The answer to this conundrum is probably related to the fact that these two creeks have a common junction. Originally the mill was powered by an undershot wheel but a drought of the period had caused the mill to stand still for want of water. It was decided to increase the water supply for the mill and in circa 1824 Governor BRISBANE authorised a grant of 60.7 hectares of land which is presumed to cover the site of the dam. This was completed by March 1824 and with the increased supply and fall a change to one of the five more powerful standard drive modes was possible but at this time the choice is not known. In 1824 the capacity of this mill was stated as 1000 bushels of grain a week. During these years the mill was operated by John LUCAS, who was locally known as John the Miller. It appears that the mill dam was badly damaged in a flood that appears to have occurred late in 1824. This and other factors led to LUCAS's bankruptcy despite an apparent attempt to bail him out financially by a merchant named LEVEY. This is presumably Solomon LEVEY, the brother of Barnett LEVEY, the owner of the Colchester Mill in Sydney. Following LUCAS's bankruptcy circa 1828, the mill evidently passed into the ownership of the firm of 'Cooper and Levey' whose principals were Daniel COOPER and Solomon LEVEY. This same firm had by the 16th of February 1825 purchased all Right, Title and Interest in the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills , and by mid-December that same year commenced steam powered milling at its Waterloo Warehouse in Sydney. The Brisbane Mill along with 60.7 hectares of land in the parish of Holsworthy, was advertised to let in March 1845 with applications to be forwarded to the Waterloo Warehouse.
- LUCAS HEIGHTS - WORONORA RIVER - LUCAS, John After building his first mill at Harris Creek in 1822, John LUCAS the second son of Nathaniel LUCAS, wanted to build a second mill but found the Harris Creek property unsuitable so, in 1825 he applied for additional land. This request was at first refused because he was thought to already own enough land but 202.3 hectares of this actually belonged to his father so he applied again with more success and the backing of William MOORE for land at the head of the tidal waters of a then unnamed river. This was later named the Woronora River and the new mill was built adjacent to the old ford on a block surveyed in 1826. The machinery in this mill had a capacity of 1000 bushels a week and was according to some sources erected to grind wheat grown by Illawarra farmers. This would presumably be more specifically from the "Five Islands" area in the modern day Port Kembla, Lake Illawarra district and the grain itself was likely being transported by shallow draft boats to the Woronora Mill for processing. The Woronora river is one of the more out of the way locations one could have imagined for a flour mill around Sydney at that time, and there could be an entirely more fascinating reason behind the erection of this mill beyond a mere commercial enterprise which deserves further research. It is quite possible that the compensation for the difficulty of access was that the Woronora Mill was set up specifically to evade paying Customs and wharfage duties which were levied at Sydney Cove. With the advent of the new mill, wheat growers from the Five Islands area and elsewhere could sail shallow draft boats into Botany Bay and up the Georges River into the lower Woronora to have their grain ground there to avoid these charges as there was at that time evidently no customs presence at Botany Bay. The refined products were then taken into Sydney Harbour duty free. It is also interesting to note that despite the presence of several windmills in the Illawarra District from the early 1830's, the Woronora Mill apparently continued to prosper, which seems to suggest that significant quantities of wheat from another source such as perhaps Tasmania, were also finding its way to the mill. Following LUCAS's bankruptcy Ca.1828, the mill evidently passed into the ownership of the firm of 'COOPER and LEVEY'. The principal's of this interesting company were Daniel COOPER and Solomon LEVEY and they were already well involved with the milling trade. By the end of 1825 they had control of the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills which are discussed elsewhere, and operated a steam powered mill at their Waterloo Warehouse in Sydney. Some time in the late 1830's fire destroyed the mill but by then the mill may have been deemed unviable as a customs presence had been established in the area. Perhaps the fire that destroyed the mill actually followed the establishment of a customs presence in Botany Bay? The mill estate of 68.8 hectares was offered for sale in 1843 but failed to sell. In 1845 the estate was offered "To Let", but with still no takers, it was abandoned. On both occasions, applications were to forwarded to the Waterloo Warehouse. N.B. John LUCAS was also known as John the Miller and is probably the person after whom Lucas Heights is named.
- O'CONNELL PLAINS - ROBERTS, David O'Connell Plains was near Bathurst in the County of Westmoreland, and may well be an older name for O'Connell. From about 1835 David ROBERTS maintained a commercial watermill there. In 1845 he is reported to have generally improved the mill with provision for an additional pair of stones and a more powerful wheel, along with the addition of a smutting machine.
- PARRAMATTA Erected by the Government in 1803-4, under the direction of convict Alexander Dollis, who prior to his Parramatta appointment in late 1803, was a superintendent on Norfolk Island. It suffered from an intermittent water supply.
- PARRAMATTA - HOWELL - see wind-powered flourmills.
- PATTERSON This mill with its dam was on the Patterson River about three kilometres from the town. In 1842 it was part of a large holding of about 4,000 acres known as Gostwick occupied by William BURNETT and Thomas HECTOR.
- PENRITH There was a mill ,possibly a water mill, operating on the Nepean River about 1.5 kilometres from Penrith. This had dressing and smutting machines and in 1847, when it was advertised to let it, was tenanted by Mr S. COOPER.
- PENRITH One of the earliest water mills in the Penrith district was under construction in March 1830 on John McHENRY's "Chapman's Farm". This was on the banks of the Nepean River a short distance below the present day Nepean weir and just upstream from Jackson's Mill. By 1834 John McHENRY had died and the following year, the mill was owned by his widow Sarah. After John McHENRY's death, the mill was evidently operated by a Mr. BELL, then by the ALLEN family until it was demolished in 1872.
- POMEROY The Pomeroy Mill was built by Lieutenant Thomas WOORE, R.N. in 1870. A substantial stone two storey building, it provided for both water and steam power operation. The mill was completed in 1870. It was operated primarily by steam power. When the mill was in use, the main road to the planned village of Pomeroy crossed the river about 50 metres downstream, which rendered the mill most accessible. It is known that the mill did not operate for a long period, mainly due to the lack of local grain. In 2005 the structure was reported as being in danger of partial or complete collapse with large holes appearing in the masonry. image
- QUEANBEYAN - MOON , Henry There was a water-mill, on Captain A.T. FAUNCE's 'Dodsworth Estate'. These mills were operated by Henry MOON. The watermill was replaced by a steam-powered unit several years after its construction and was destroyed by fire on 21st March, 1881.
- ROWLANDS (ROLLANDS) PLAINS There was a dam mill there in 1830 which had probably been constructed in 1827 to serve the plantation established as an agricultural oupost of the Port Macquarie penal settlement. The mill was constructed from wood and was used to crush wheat and also sugar cane from the government plantation. It was from all reports not very successful and was destroyed by floods in the very early 1830's. There is some slight possibility it was rebuilt.
- ROWLANDS [ROLLANDS] PLAINS - WALLABY HILL This was a marriage grant to Major INNES' wife Margaret. The property was originally called 'Tilbuster'. Although there is some information from 1841 that suggests a windmill was built on the farm and that it was constructed by Robert PEEBLES it is more likely that this was a watermill. There was a dam built on the nearby Wilson River which would support this theory.
- ROWLANDS [ROLLANDS] PLAINS - WILLESBRO' FARM In about 1837 it is believed that a Mr GORHAM and a Mr FREEMAN erected a waterpowered corn mill on a 354 hectare lock of land owned by Mr C. JENKINS near Wallaby Hill. GORHAM was a relative of JENKINS and FREEMAN's property abutted JENKIN's land. The mill was definitely in existence by 1841 and apparently made Willesbro' the chief corn mart in the 'county'.
- SINGLETON - SINGLETON, Benjamin Benjamin SINGLETON erected a flour mill on a bank of the Hunter River in Singleton in 1829. Although not confirmed as a watermill, SINGLETON's record both before and after this date make this a strong possibility. It appears probable that this was the same mill that he was operating as the 'Phoenix Flour Mill' from 1830 to 1835. The mill was still operating in 1888 but apparently then as a steam mill and the buildings were finally destroyed in a major flood in 1955.
- SYDNEY - BARCOM GLEN The mill was probably erected near the corner of Boundary and Dillon Streets and its dam was about 40 metres upstream near the bottom of Liverpool ST, on the old creek coming from Woollahra. Thomas WEST, the builder, had arrived as a convict on the 'Earl Cornwallis' in 1801. The mill which was probably the first water mill constructed in Sydney was operating by mid January 1812 and the official opening was conducted by Governor MACQUARIE. WEST was granted a conditional pardon in late 1813 along with the donation of a cow from the government herd, evidently as reward for his work on the watermill. Details for the machinery in the mill list a 5.5.metre diameter wheel reported as being capable of grinding upwards of four and a half bushels of wheat an hour. WEST's son and later historian, Obed [1807 -1881] who took over the mill, added an orchard, dairy and quarry, but the mill had ceased to operate by 1832. Obed reported that the mill had a 7.3 metre overshot wheel directly driving a single set of stones. Either the wheel was changed or the measuring was not too exact. All remnants of the mill had disappeared by 1903 except two millstones which were moved to the Sydney Museum of Applied Arts and Sciences, now the Powerhouse Museum. These are listed as 1.22 metres in diameter and constructed of basalt.
- SYDNEY - BOTANY - EASTLAKES - LACHLAN MILL This flour mill, was operated in conjunction with the nearby Waterloo mill for most of its existence. The Lachlan Mill was located at the edge of the Botany or Lachlan swamps 5.6 kilometres from Sydney. It was evidently sited on 230.8 hectares of land granted to Samuel TERRY, on the condition that he employ five convicts and construct a 12hp mill. In November 1819, TERRY was advertising the completion of a water mill apparently located on his grant. The inference from the advertisement is that there was then a single owner. However, in early January 1821, the one third share in the Lachlan Mills previously held by John HUTCHISON who had died the previous year, was being advertised for sale by auction, but the sale was evidently deferred until March 1821. HUTCHISON had some years earlier been involved with Simeon LORD's attempts to establish his watermill powered "woollen factory" at Mud-bank, Botany. In a move evidently related to obtaining a government contract for grinding grain, by early April 1821, Samuel TERRY and Tom White Melville WINDER the two remaining partners in the Lachlan Mills, decided to merge their operation with the Waterloo Mills of William HUTCHINSON, Daniel COOPER, George WILLIAMS and William LEVERTON. This resulted in the formation of the Lachlan & Waterloo Mills concern, which operated as 'HUTCHINSON, TERRY, and Company'. WINDER, a close friend of TERRY's had evidently also received a 168.9 hectare grant in the same area, for a watermill, but it is not clear how, or if, the required construction of a mill by WINDER was addressed. In advertising the formation of the new partnership, it was stressed that it was purely a marriage of convenience, with the partnership being confined to the grinding, buying and selling of wheat and corn. In mid-April 1821 HUTCHINSON, TERRY and Co., advertised that its warehouse at the corner of George and King streets Sydney was open for the sale of wheat, flour and bran and the purchase of wheat, but only a month later, the firm moved the "Lachlan and Waterloo Warehouse" to the corner of George and Market Street. In December 1821 the firm announced the construction of a large and substantial warehouse at that address, and by late 1822 had moved its offices into those premises. By May 1824 the line up of shareholders was reduced to four because William LEVERTON, who also briefly owned the Currag[j]ong Brush water mill had died and one other (WINDER), had departed in February 1823 to establish himself as a merchant. George WILLIAMS, a former business partner of Simeon LORD, evidently withdrew from the partnership between 17 June 1824 and 21 January 1825 (inclusive). Next, Samuel TERRY abruptly announced his departure on 22 January 1825 and only three and a half weeks later, it was announced that the firm of HUTCHINSON, TERRY, and Company had been dissolved, and that all right, title and interest in the Lachlan and Waterloo Mills purchased by the sole surviving partner Daniel COOPER, and Solomon LEVEY. By December, in addition to the firms Lachlan and Waterloo watermills, the "new" owners had installed and were operating a steam powered mill at the "Waterloo Warehouse". The Lachlan watermill was "out of repair" in 1831-2.
- SYDNEY - BOTANY - WATERLOO MILL This flour mill entry is linked to that for the Lachlan mill and much of the detail is in that description. The Waterloo mill was located at the edge of the Botany swamps apparently on a 567 hectare grant made to William HUTCHINSON to the west of the Lachlan Mill and adjacent to Botany Road. The 12hp watermill of the Waterloo Mill on Botany Road, was still in operation in 1831-2.
- TARANA - St. Boswells The 494.5 hectare property of 'St. Boswells' was near Tarana in the County of Westmoreland. It was initially purchased by Alexander KINGHORNE (senior) in February 1836. The watermill on the property was built by noted millwright Alexander KINGHORNE (junior) about 1834-35, and owned or operated by an Alexander KINGHORNE through to at least 1840. However the property itself seems likely to have been owned at that time by Thomas RAINE in conjunction with an adjacent property 'Raineville', although the windmill's operation was very probably conducted by KINGHORNE. RAINE had