Ancient Zodiacs, Star Names, and Constellations: Essays and Annotated Bibliographies

Compiled by Gary D. Thompson

Copyright © 2001-2020 by Gary D. Thompson

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Antoniadi. Eugène. (1934; Reprinted 2003). L'Astronomie Egyptienne. [Note: Based on (late) Greek texts and somewhat unreliable, especially regarding the identification of Egyptian constellations. An English-language translation by (Sir) Patrick Moore (his full name is Alfred Patrick Caldwell-Moore) remains unpublished. See the Correspondence in The Observatory "Egyptian Astronomy" comprising a letter by Eugène Antoniadi (Volume 63, 1940, Pages 13-14), and a reply by Herbert Chatley (Volume 63, 1940, Pages 14-15). See the (English-language) biographical entry by Giorgio Abetti in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Gillispie, Volume 1, Page 17; and the "Historical Note" by Reginald Marriott in Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 101, Number 3, June, 1991, Page 195. Life dates: 1870-1944.]

Belmonte, Juan Antonio. (2000). "The Decans and Ancient Egyptian Skylore: An Astronomer's Approach." (Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana, Volume 73, Special Number 1. Pages 43-?). [Note: Conference paper in: The Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena III, Palermo, 31 December 2000 - 6 January 2001. Edited by Salvatore Serio. Abstract: Conference abstract: "To attempt to go further in the determination of the decans is not only of very little interest but would necessarily imply ascribing to our texts an astronomical accuracy which they were never intended to have" O. Neugebauer (The Exact Sciences in Antiquity, 1957). This over pessimistic sentence was written more than four decades ago by one of the most important historians of ancient astronomy so far. Despite his merits in the field, statements like this have severely handicapped any advance in ancient Egyptian skylore specially when focused from an actual astronomical point of view. It is the intention of this work to convince scholars and the general public that we not only can go further but also that we must do it. This work deals with the ancient Egyptian decans and constellations of various epochs since the Star Clocks painted inside the coffins of the 1st Intermediate period (c. 2100 BC) until the monumental "zodiacs" of the Ptolemaic temples including the marvellous representations on the ceilings of the New Kingdom tombs. We have studied these marvellous works of art interdisciplinary from the artistic, symbolic, linguistic and astronomical point of view, reaching interesting discoveries and conclusions. For example, we propose sensible translations for most of the decans and speculate with the translation of the most difficult terms. Also, inspired by Kurt Locher's claim about the identification of Sah, we propose that originally Spd (later Spdt) was not a single star (Sirius) but rather an asterism represented in some coffins that can be easily recognized in the Heavens. Beside, we propose, following V. L. Davis that the Milky Way would have been the frontier between the northern and the southern skies of ancient Egypt, mentioned in the hieroglyphic texts, simplifying the process of identification. We have used the Gotto Planetarium of the Science and Cosmos Museum in Tenerife and several computer programs to perform the astronomical approach to the problem. Stars and asterisms rising in ten day intervals were first selected and later the dates of their heliacal risings verified for several epochs and latitudes. As a matter of fact, we believe that several decans can be identified with a certain degree of confidence and for others good omens can be proposed. From our results, we might even propose that Egyptian skylore, referenced for the first time in written sources in the Pyramid Texts (c. 2350), inspired the creation of the decanal system somewhere in the Middle Egypt around the year 2200 BC, perhaps during the poorly known period of rule of the Heracleopolitan dynasties." Article abstract: "In this work, a hypothetical identification of the ancient Egyptian decan stars or, simply, decans is presented. This is based on an astronomical analysis of the original 36 decans of the diagonal clocks located inside the coffin lids of the 1st Intermediate Period (Dyn. IX to XI; c. 2100 BC). Besides, we also present sensible translation for most of the terms according to their identification. The results are compared with later representations of the decans in the New Kingdom and Greco-Roman times. Previous proposals are also reviewed."]

Belmonte Avilés, Juan. (2003). "The Ramesside star clocks and the ancient Egyptian constellations." In: Blomberg, Mary., Blomberg, Peter., and Henriksson, Göran. (Editors). Calendars, Symbols, and Orientations: Legacies of Astronomy in Culture. (Pages 57-65). [Note: Proceedings of the 9th annual meeting of the European Society for Astronomy in Culture (SEAC), Stockholm, 27-30 August 2001. The author is a Spanish astronomer at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. He is currently (2004) engaged in a long-term archaeoastronomy project in Egypt in collaboration with Egyptian scholars. The author chooses to write his name as either Juan Antonio Belmonte or Juan Antonio Belmonte Avilés. In Spain naming conventions are quite different to those in non-Spanish-speaking countries. A Spanish name typically consists of four parts: a first given name, a second given name, the father's surname, and the mother's surname. (It is due to Arabic influence that a Spanish person typically has two surnames (i.e., two family names).) The first surname, which is the father's surname (i.e., family name), gained from his father, is primary; and the second surname, which is the mother's surname (i.e., family name), gained from her father, is subordinate. (Thus the two surnames are formed by the first part of the father's surname and the first part of the mother's surname.) Spanish names are therefore indexed by the father's surname. The author chooses to variously use Belmonte (one surname) and Belmonte Avilés (two surnames).]

Belmonte Avilés, Juan. (2003). "A Celestial Map of the Ancient Egyptian Firmament." In: BAR International Series. (1154, Pages 31-36). [Note: Paper presented at the European Association of Archaeologists eighth annual meeting, in Thessaloniki, 2002. BAR = British Archaeological Reports. Attempts a reconstruction of the Egyptian constellations and their locations in the sky.]

Belmonte, Juan. and Shaltout, Mosalam. (2007). "The Astronomical Ceiling of Senenmut: a Dream of Mystery and Imagination." In: Zedda, Mauro. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors).  Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy. (Pages 145-154). [Notes: Proceedings of the SEAC 2005, Isili, Sardinia, 28 June to 3 July. SEAC = European Society for Astronomy in Culture. The authors critique and reject the ideas of Ove von Spaneth and also Christian Leitz that the ceiling depicts an astronomical scenario that can be precisely dated. Juan Antonio Belmonte: Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Spain; and Mosalam Shaltout: Minufiya University, Egypt.]

Belmonte, Juan. and Shaltout, Mosalam. (2009, Reprinted 2010). (Editors). In Search of Cosmic Order: Selected Essays on Egyptian Archaeoastronomy. [Note: A collection of studies by specialists in Egyptology and astronomy. Among the subjects examined are the constellations of ancient Egypt, the Egyptian calendar, and landscape and symbolism, especially how they relate to the orientation of temples and royal tombs. Juan Antonio Belmonte is project coordinator of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife, Spain. Mosalam Shaltout is professor of solar physics at the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Egypt.]

Ben-Dov, Jonathan. (2013(2014?)). "A Jewish Parapegma? Reading 1 Enoch 82 in Roman Egypt." In: Stern, Sacha. and Burnett, Charles. (Editors). Time, Astronomy, and Calendars in the Jewish Tradition. (Pages 1-26). [Note: Excellent. See the (English-language) book review by ? in Aleph, Volume 15, Number 1, 2015, Pages 177-198.]

Berio, Alessandro. (December 2014). The Celestial River: Identifying the Ancient Egyptian Constellations. (Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 253). [Note: 58 pages. Speculative and unreliable. The author concludes the nome emblems represented the original Egyptian constellations. Only 10 out of the 48 classical constellations are without probable Egyptian parallels. Also, at least half of the classical zodiacal constellations existed in early Egypt.]

von Bomhard, Anne-Sophie. (2008). The Naos of the Decades. From Observation of the Sky to Mythology and Astrology. [Note: Title also appears as: The Naos of the Decades: Underwater Archaeology in the Canopic region in Egypt. Publisher's blurb: "This monograph presents the almost completely reconstituted Naos of the Decades with an excellent set of photographic images. The four additional fragments, recovered in East Canopus during the excavations of the European Institute of Underwater Archaeology, are examined with the two original fragments from the Louvre and Greco Roman Museum (Egypt). The largest of the new fragments consists of a cosmogony of over 20 columns with no known parallel, disproving the order of the decades as it was initially assumed and suggesting a far older tradition of Egyptian astrology."]

Bradshaw, Joseph. (1990). The Imperishable Stars of the Northern Sky in the Pyramid Texts. [Note: The 38-page pamphlet was privately printed and published by the author. See the (English-language) book review by J[?]. Griffiths in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 80, 1994, Pages 231-232.]

Bradshaw, Joseph. (1997). The Night Sky in Egyptian Mythology. [Note: The 182-page book was privately printed and published by the author. The author holds that the Egyptians believed the circumpolar region of the sky (holding stars that never disappeared from the sky) was the holiest region of the heavens. See the (English-language) book review by Vincent Tobin in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Volume 55, 1998, Pages 400-404.]

Brugsch, Heinrich. (1883; republished 1968). Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum. (Volume 1). [Note: The volume basically deals with astronomical inscriptions and iconography. The author was a pioneer of the discipline of Egyptology and the leading 19th-century German Egyptologist. Life dates: 1827-1894. Volume 2 of "Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum" was published in 1891 (and republished in 1968) and deals with calendars.]

Brugsch, Heinrich. (1978). Astronomical and Astrological Inscriptions on Ancient Egyptian Monuments. [Note: The book is a translation by George Chamberlain of "Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum," (Volume 1, 1883), by Heinrich Brugsch. The translation was originally published as a series of 18 articles (from April 1978 through January 1980) in the monthly journal the Griffith Observer (published by the Griffith Observatory). As the title indicates the book does not deal with issues of astronomical alignments in monumental architecture. Volume 2 of "Thesaurus Inscriptionum Aegyptiacarum" deals with calendars (and has never been translated into English).]

Buchwald, Jed. and Josefowicz, Diane. (2010). The Zodiac of Paris. [Note: Principally deals with the Dendera zodiac, and the early controversy it provoked regarding dating. Jed Buchwald (2010) is the Doris and Henry Dreyfuss Professor of History at the California Institute of Technology. Diane Josefowicz (2010) teaches in the writing program at Boston University. See the (English-language) book review by Owen Gingerich in Journal for the History of Astronomy, June, 2017, Pages 418-419).]

Budge, Ernest. (1904, Reprinted 1969). The Gods of the Egyptians. (2 Volumes). [Note: Unreliable regarding the identification of Egyptian decans. Ernest Budge was a leading Egyptologist and Keeper of the Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities in the British Museum. Life dates: 1857-1934.]

Campion, Nicholas. (2008). The Dawn of Astrology: A Cultural history of Western Astrology. Volume 1: The Ancient and Classical Worlds. [Note: See: 7. The Stars and the Soul. Pages 99-108.]

Cauville, Sylvie. (1997). Le zodiaque d'Osiris. [Note: The author is a noted French Egyptologist. In this 81-page booklet (published in Belgium) the author is mainly concerned with the constellations as shown in the Denderah zodiac and gives a popular explanatory overview of the Denderah zodiac. She also briefly discusses how these constellations were represented over various periods.]

Clagett, Marshall. (1995). Ancient Egyptian Science. Volume II. Calendars, Clocks, and Astronomy. [Note: See the (English-language) book reviews by James Allen in Isis, Volume 87, Number 2, June, 1996, Pages 343-344; by Anthony Spalinger in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Volume 54, 1997, Pages 677-684; and by Leo Depuydt in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 118, Number 1, January-March, 1998, Pages 75-76. See the obituary by John Murdoch in Aestimatio, Volume 3, 2006, 18 December, Pages 14-18. Life dates: 1916-2005. Also, see the (English-language) book review by Rolf Krauss in The British Journal for the History of Science, Volume 31, Issue 1, 1998, Pages 70-72.]

Conman, Joanne. (2013). Ancient Egyptian Skylore: Rethinking the Conventional Wisdom. [Note: Egyptology is a hobby for Joanne Conman. From the cover (1): "This book presents an illuminating in-depth investigation which demonstrates that the deep-rooted, fervently defended belief in ancient Egyptian astronomy is false, that it is a myth disseminated by scholars who have failed to make sense of the evidence in the archaeological record. The author's meticulous detective work has led to a breakthrough that reveals the reality of the sky for the ancient Egyptians. Beginning where Egyptology first went wrong, with the Greco-Roman-era temple zodiacs and the Enlightenment-era scholars, the book provides a comprehensive review of the material that has been offered as support for the identifications of Orion and the Big Dipper for the last two centuries, convincingly demonstrating how it fails. The author reveals artistic and textual evidence that challenges the prevailing dogma and uncovers the roots of astrology in ancient Egyptian religion." From the cover (2): "About the Author: Joanne Conman is an anthropologist whose research discovered the correct understanding of the ancient Egyptian system of decan stars. She has been researching and writing about ancient Egypt and the stars for over fifteen years. She has published several papers in scholarly journals and has been a presenter at learned society conferences in Egyptology." [From Joanne Conman's website ( “Joanne Conman is an independent scholar, trained as an anthropologist, who discovered how the ancient Egyptian decan zodiac actually worked. She has been researching and writing about ancient Egypt and the decan stars for over fifteen years and has published several papers in scholarly journals, as well as authoring several general interest articles. Her book, Ancient Egyptian Sky Lore: Rethinking the Conventional Wisdom, explores the misidentification of the planets in ancient Egypt."] Book review by Graphis posted on 14 Mar 2014 at of Ancient Egyptian Skylore by Joanne Conman (2013): "I bought this book with some interest, having been studying Egyptian art and religion for nearly 30 years. I've read published articles by Ms Conman before, and found them to erudite and well-researched. But this book turned out to be deeply disappointing. Ms Conman starts off well, but gradually gets bogged down in the very same errors she accuses Egyptologists of making, and eventually becomes hopelessly muddled and lost when trying to challenge the identification of Meskhetiu with the Big Dipper/Plough. To be fair, some Egyptologists have made the same mistake, which is to confuse the sign Khepesh with Meskhetiu, and assume they both refer to the same constellation: they don't. Digging herself even deeper into a hole, Ms Conman then goes on to challenge the identification of Sah with Orion. She bases her entire arguments on the fact that the paintings of the deities concerned don't resemble the constellations. But whoever said they had to? The paintings of Egyptian deities show them in a variety of positions, doing different things; all those different poses bear no relation to constellation shapes, which always remain the same. One also doesn't challenge academic convention by insulting academics; it's no wonder that academics have not exactly welcomed Ms Conman with open arms as the great saviour of Egyptology. The book is peppered with rude remarks, calling previous eminent and respected scholars "bigoted", "intolerant", "boastful" (Otto Neugebauer), a "crackpot" (G. A. Wainwright), a "patronizing mangler" (Alan H. Gardiner), and so on, while their work is dismissed as "nonsensical" and "gibberish". This is a perfect textbook on how NOT to write a non-fiction book. Ms Conman has clearly read a lot of scholarly books, but the conclusions she has drawn are hopelessly wrong; the fact this book is self-published should be a big enough clue that no respected publisher even considered her ideas worth publishing. A complete waste of money. Before reading this book, and on the basis that Ms Conman had published articles in respected academic journals before, I had assumed she too was a serious scholar. But after reading this, a quick Google showed me that she is in fact an astrologer and jewellery designer. My advice to her would be to stick to what you know best." Article extracts from “A Challenge to Academic Egyptology.” by Karen Vachon in The Portland Sun (online, but a published free daily newspaper), Wednesday, 27 February 2013: "… Coming out in early spring, her book will examine Egyptology's Astronomical Fantasies. It will explain how ancient Egyptians used and understood the stars, what they believed about astrology, and how academics got things so wrong. …  What she's referring to is the controversial stir that she's created in the academic world. Conman is an outsider to the world of academia. "Everybody in academia has these ideas about what they already believe, so this book is going to challenge them." … She received her undergraduate degree in anthropology from Hofstra University [circa 1973].  … "It is important to know our history, and how our beliefs and practices evolved," says Conman. Egyptology is her passion; and a labor of love. Though she only has a bachelor's degree; her study of anthropology and Egyptology never ended. She's also fed her passion making and selling jewelry for the past 30 years. This has been an integral link to where she is today and her soon to be released book. Through her jewelry, she made an amazing discovery. … "I never realized that no one had figured out which stars were associated with which Egyptian zodiac sign," said Conman, who had thought mathematician and historian of science, Otto Neugebauer, had it all figured out in the 1940s. … Conman suddenly saw the problem one day: "Neugebauer had gone wrong in his understanding of the texts," said Conman, "Neugebauer had guessed at what one word meant. I realized that simply following the ancient scribe's instructions for finding the stars offered a better, much easier solution to locate the stars that the Egyptians used. It is all based on counting the number of days between the pre-dawn rising of the star Sirius, which marked the ancient Egyptian New Year, and the sunset rising of that same star." … Although my model for the stars is demonstrable, provable, and has even been acclaimed by some astronomers, Egyptologists continue to resist my research." Suspicion, even hostility, and a closing of ranks by a disappointingly large number in the academic communities sought to intimidate Conman, who nevertheless managed to find the support of some open-minded and interested people. … "I've been able to demonstrate links between Egyptian texts and later astrology that are thousands — not hundreds — of years older than people have thought till now." … Her book is written for a general audience. She knows some of her ideas are going to be shocking for the academic community, but she believes that discoveries can be made by anyone who researches thoroughly; ideas must be judged on their soundness alone. She believes she's onto something and is eager to defend her discoveries." A few additional comments: I have not seen any anthropological papers published by Conman. Likely her claim to be an anthropologist is based solely on obtaining her undergraduate degree in anthropology (without further work). What have been the attempts to intimidate Conman? Refusal to have an astrology reading? Refusal to purchase jewelry? Perhaps simply setting out a case against here ideas.]

Daressy, Georges. (1915). "L'Égypte Céleste." (Bulletin de L'Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire, numéro 12, Pages 1-34). [Note: A discussion of late Egyptian celestial geography. For a short English-language discussion of the article see "Egyptian Astronomy and the Zodiac," by Joseph Clifford (Nature, Volume XCVIII, September 1916 to February 1917, Number 2445, September 7, Pages 7-8).]

Depuydt, Leo. (1998). "Ancient Egyptian Stars Clocks and Their Theory." (Bibliotheca Orientalis, Volume LV, Numbers 1/2, Pages 5-44).

Depuydt, Leo. (2010). "Ancient Egyptian star tables: A reinterpretation of their fundamental structure." In: Imhausen, Annette. and Pommerening, Tanja. (Editors). Writings of Early Scholars in the Ancient Near East, Egypt, Rome, and Greece. (Pages 241-276).

Dieleman, Jacco. (2003). "Stars and the Egyptian Priesthood in the Graeco-Roman Period." In: Noegel, S., Walker, J., and Wheeler, B. (Editors). Prayer, Magic, and the Stars in the Ancient and Late Antique World. (Pages 137-153).

Gadre, Karine. (2008). Conception d'un modèle de visibilité d'étoile à l'oeil nu. Application à l'identification des décans égyptiens. [Note: Lengthy unpublished doctorial thesis. Deals with the modern identification of the Egyptian decans.]

Gensler, Friedrich. (1872). Die Thebanischen Tafeln Stündlicher Sternaufgänge. [Note: Approximately 100 pages.]

Giedion, Sigfried. (1964; Reprinted 1981). The Eternal Present: The Beginnings of Architecture. [Note: Includes a brief discussion of Egyptian constellations and astral concepts. See the (English-language) book review by André Leroi-Gourhan in American Anthropologist, Volume 65, 1963, Pages 1180-1181.]

Gillispie, Charles. and Dewachter, Michel. (1987). (Editors). The Monuments of Egypt: The Napoleonic Edition. [Note: Contains many illustrations (made during the period of Napoleon's Egyptian expedition) of astronomical ceilings involving constellations, stars, and late zodiacs.]

Goebs, Katja. (2008). Crowns in Egyptian Funerary Literature: Royalty, Rebirth, and Destruction. [Note: An excellent thesis on ancient Egyptian stellar cults. The author is with the University of Toronto. Kindly brought to my attention by Aurélien Rolland.]

Gundel, Wilhelm. (1936; Reprinted 1969). Dekane und Dekansternbilder ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Sternbilder der Kulturvölker. [Note: Largely concerned with late astrological texts. See the (German-language) book review by Willy Hartner in Isis, Volume XXVII, Number 2, August, 1937, Pages 344-348; and the (English-language) book reviews by D. W. T. in Nature, Volume 140, October 23, 1937, Pages 701-702; and by John Griffiths in The Classical Review, New Series, Volume 21, Number 2, June, 1971, Pages 306-307. See also the (German-language) book review by Albert Schott in: Neugebauer, O. and Toeplitz, O. (Editors). Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik, Astronomie und Physik, Band 4, Zweites Heft, 12 November 1938, Pages 170-178.]

Hawass, Zari. (2006). The Royal Tombs of Egypt. [Note: Contains an excellent chapter, with superb colour photographs, on the astronomical ceilings and walls of Seti I, etc. The author is a prominent Egyptian archaeologist.]

Jasmien, Anne. and De Gussem, Gaston. (2004). Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Celestial Deification, Time Measurement and Astronomical Observations. [Note: 109 pages. Published by University of Birmingham, Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity,]

Jones, Alexander. (2009). "Mathematics, Science, and Medicine in the Papyri." In: Bagnell, Roger. (Editor). The Oxford Handbook of Papyrology. (Pages 338-357).

Kelley, David. and Milone, Gene. (2005). Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. [Note: See the sections "The Calendars," Pages 263-267; and "Egyptian Asterisms," Pages 269-271. A problem with the book in general is its reliance on secondary sources. At times the sources used are unreliable and as a result numerous topics covered lack reliability.]

Krauss, Rolf. (1997). Astronomische Konzepte und Jenseitsvorstellungen in den Pyramidentexten. [Note: Rolf Krauss, Ph.D. (1981) in Egyptology, Free University of Berlin, teaches (at least circa 2012) at Humboldt University, Berlin. He has published extensively on Egyptian chronology and astronomy. See the (English-language) book review by Kurt Locher in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 30, 1999, Pages 75-76.]

Krupp, Ed. (1977; 1984). "Astronomers, Pyramids, and Priests." In: Krupp, Ed. (Editor). In Search of Ancient Astronomies. (Pages 203-239 (1977 edition); Pages 186-218 (1984 edition)). [Note: The paper is Chapter 5. See the (English language) book review by Rolf Krauss in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 75, Issues: 298-[?], 1989.]

Leitz, Christian. (1991). Studien zur Ägyptischen Astronomie. [Note: Controversial. An attempt to rebut Otto Neugebauer's remarks concerning the absence of a scientific astronomy in Egypt. See the critical (English-language) book review by Anthony Spalinger in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Siebenundachtzigster Jahrgang, Number 1, Columns 23-26.]

Leitz, Christian. (1995). Altägyptische Sternuhren. [Note: The author is a PhD. A rather controversial (eccentric) study of Egyptian decans/constellations. Contains 4 folded star charts. See the (German-language) book review by Jürgen von Beckerath in Orientalia, Volume 66, 1997, Pages 99-102; and the (English-language) book review by Leo Depuydt in Bibliotheca Orientalis, Volume 55, 1998, Pages 5-44.]

von Lieven, Alexandra. (2000). Der Himmel über Esna. Eine Fallstudie zur Religiösen Astronomie in Ägypten am Beispiel der kosmologischen Decken- und Architravinschriften im Tempel von Esna. [Note: The book is a study of later Egyptian cosmology and religious astronomy based on an examination of the hieroglyphs and artworks of the Roman-Egyptian temple of Esna. The author is an Egyptologist.]

von Lieven, Alexandra. (2007). Grundis  des Laufes der Sterne. [Note: The book contains a complete re-edition and translation and study of the "Book of Nut" (the more accurate Egyptian title is "Fundamentals of the Course of the Stars"). The focus is on the hitherto neglected religious aspects of the text. The standard edition appeared in Egyptian Astronomical Texts, Volume 1. by Otto Neugebauer and Richard Parker (1960).]

von Lieven, Alexandra. (2010). "Translating the Fundamentals of the Course of the Stars." In: Imhausen, Annette. and Pommerening, Tanja. (Editors). Writings of Early Scholars in the Ancient Near East, Egypt, and Greece. (Pages 139-151). [Note: Excellent discussion/examination. Focuses on a Demotic translation and commentary of the first 2 chapters of the Egyptian astronomical text, the Book of Nut. The book is a proceedings volume for a symposium of the same name. The author (PhD) is Privatdozentin for Egyptology, Free University Berlin. She studied Egyptology and Comparative Religious Studies as well as Ancient Near Eastern Studies and Archaeology, Classical Archaeology and Indology in Tübingen. Life dates: 1974- .]

von Lieven, Alexandra (2012). "Astronomical ceilings, Egypt." In: Bagnall, Roger. et. al. (Editors). The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. [Note: A multi-volume work. The article is likely in Volume 1.]

Locher, Kurt. (1992-1993). "New arguments for the celestial location of the decanal belt and for the origin of the s3h-hieroglyph." In: Congresso internazionale di egittologia. (Editor). Atti di sesto congresso internazionale di egittologia. (2 Volumes). [Note: See Volume 2, pages 279-284.]

Locher, Kurt. (2003). "The Archetypal Symbolism of the Most Ancient Constellations: A Comparison Egypt/China." In: BAR International Series. (1154, Pages 3-6). [Note: Paper presented at the European Association of Archaeologists eighth annual meeting, in Thessaloniki, 2002. BAR = British Archaeological Reports. The author has published numerous quality papers on the identification of Egyptian constellations.]

Locher, Kurt. (2003). "The Decans of Ancient Egypt: Timekeepers for Worship, or Worshiped Beyond Time." In: Fountain, John. and Sinclair, Rolf. (Editors). Current Studies in Archaeoastronomy: Conversations Across Time and Space. (Pages 429-434). [Note: Selected papers from the 5th Oxford international conference on archaeoastronomy held at Santa Fe in 1996.]

Lockyer, Joseph. (1894; Reprinted 1964). The Dawn of Astronomy. [Note: Unreliable. See the (English-language) book reviews by M. W. H. in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volume VI, Number 35, March 31, 1894, Pages 126-132 (Reproduced from the New York Sun, March 11, 1894); by Robert Brown Junior, in The Academy, March 31, 1894, Number 1143, Pages 271-272; and by Allen Marquand in American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Volume 9, Number 1, January-March, 1894, Pages 68-70. See also the "Preface to this Edition" by Giorgio de Santillana in the 1964 reprint, pages vii-ix. Life dates: 1836-1920.]

Lull, José. (2004). La Astronomía del Antiguo Egipto. [Note: Excellent Spanish-language book on Egyptian astronomy. See the (English-language) book review by Juan Belmonte in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 37, Part 3, August, 2006, Number 128, Pages 356-359.]

Lull, José. and Belmonte, Antonio. (2009). "The constellations of ancient Egypt." In: Belmonte, Juan. and Shaltout, Mosalam. (Editors). In Search of Cosmic Order: Selected Essays on Egyptian Archaeoastronomy. (Pages 155-194). [Note: Includes a table setting out the likely identification of of the Egyptian constellations. An extensive set of references is listed at the end of the article.]

Maravelia, Amanda-Alice. (2003). "Illumination of the Sacrarium in the Great Temple at Abu Simbel, its Astronomical Explanation, and some Hints on the Possible Stellar Orientation of the Small Temple." In: BAR International Series. (1154, Pages 7-29). [Note: Paper presented at the European Association of Archaeologists eighth annual meeting, in Thessaloniki, 2002. BAR = British Archaeological Reports. The author is an Egyptologist and Independent Scholar, and has published some six papers on aspects of Egyptian astronomy. Graduated from the University of Thessaloniki, Hellas, in 1988 with a BSc in Physics.]

Maravelia, Amanda-Alice. (2004). Les Astres dans les Textes Religieux en Égypte Antique et dans les Hymnes Orphiques. [The Celestial Bodies in the Religious Texts of ancient Egypt and in the Hellenic Orphic Hymns.] [Note: PhD thesis, present at the University of Limoges, Centre des Recherches en Sciences de l'Antiquité. Examines the development of astronomical thought in Egypt and Greece. Published in 2006 by BAR = British Archaeological Reports. Volume 1527 of the BAR International Series. (Based on author's (2nd) PhD.)  Maravelia obtained her first PhD in Astronomy from the University of Athens, Department of Physics, Section of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Hellas, in 1997, specializing in Extragalactic Astrophysics, given unanimously the highest possible grade ( arista ). She was unanimously given the highest possible grade ( très honorable et avec félicitations) for her 2nd PhD. Abstract: "This work examines the evolution of astronomical thought, as well as the various astronomical and cosmovisional ideas in pharaonic Egypt (c. 2800 -1200 BCE), after the most important religious texts (primarily Pyramid Texts and Cofn Texts, and secondarily Book of the Dead). More specically, the author examines the astronomical conceptions of the ancient Egyptians concerning the stars, the Sun, the Moon and the Planets, as they are revealed in these funerary texts; a statistical analysis and a global comparative study of the corpora of PT and CT are presented here for the rst time. The textual study of the Orphic Hymns and the funerary texts of the Egyptians is conducted within the interdisciplinary framework of both Egyptology and Archæoastronomy. The contents of this volume include: Chapter I, develops the theme and the scope of study, and the methodology, and the tools used to analyze the textual material in our comparative study. Chapter II is intended to be viewed as a concise introduction to the modern concepts of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Chapter III is the nucleus of the study, where conceptions of ancient Egyptians in relation to the celestial bodies —as they are revealed in their funerary texts— are examined. Chapter IV is dedicated to the Hellenic Orphic Hymns, the textual archæoastronomical dating of their astronomical and cosmovisional notions from c. 1300 BCE (an era coinciding with the NK, viz the early Ramesside period), and the study of the astronomical conceptions that the Orphics had about the celestial bodies (stars, Sun, Moon and Planets). Chapter V is a concise comparative study between the ancient Egyptian and the modern astronomical ideas on the celestial bodies. Chapter VI is the focal point of convergence of the main conclusions and ideas of the work, with a review of the conclusions. The work ends with a series of Tables and the Indexes, presenting readers with a review of various modern and ancient astronomical conceptions, as well as with egyptological notions dealt with in the study (classied and categorized in appropriate sections). Written in French with extensive summaries in French, English, Greek and German." In French, with summaries in English, Greek and German. See the (English-language) book review by Juan Antonio Belmonte in Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, Volume 21, 2007-2008, Page ?-?). See also the (English-language?) book review by the Egyptologist Tracey Musacchio in Antiguo Oriente (circa 2007).]

Murdock, D. and S, Acharya. (2009). Christ in Egypt: The Horus-Jesus Connection. [Note: Acharya S is a pen name for D. M. Murdock and she recycles old (19th-century and early 20th-century freethought) myth-theory material of Christian origins. In this book she has a small section discussing the Dendera zodiac and uses long outdated references/sources to claim it likely dates to circa 10,000 BCE (and that Egyptian astronomy was likely this old). Acharya S aka D. M. Murdock is completely unreliable and seems incapable (or unwilling) to engage in a scholarly approach. In all her books (most self published) she uses mostly only outdated and unreliable references/sources and seems to be having a joke at the expense of her readers. Her attempts to defend her claims/sources is equally outrageous and seems intent on extending the joke. The author can not distinguish the American freemason Robert Hewitt Brown, author of "Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy" (1882), from the English solicitor Robert Brown Junior, author of "Researches into the Origin of the Primitive Constellations of Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans," (2 Volumes, 1899-1900). In one of her books she incorrectly identifies Robert Brown Junior as the author of "Stellar Theology and Masonic Astronomy."]

Neugebauer, Otto. (1943). "Demotic Horoscopes." (Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 63, Pages 115-126 + 2 Plates). [Note: Contains some discussion of certain Greek and Roman constellations.]

Neugebauer, Otto. (1951; 2nd edition 1957, 1969). The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. [Note: Contains an excellent explanation of the Egyptian system of decan stars.]

Neugebauer, Otto. and Parker, Richard. (1960-1969). Egyptian Astronomical Texts. (3 Volumes [plus a volume of plates accompany the text of volume 3]). [Note: A monumental study and likely to remain the standard work. The definitive reference for diagonal star clocks. Does not deal with issues of astronomical alignments in monumental architecture, or astral themes in mythology. For Volume 1: See the (English-language) book reviews by Olaf Schmidt in Centaurus, Volume 9, 1963-1964, Pages 57-60; C[?]. Spaull in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 48, 1962, Pages 166-168; by Evert Bruins in Isis, Volume 53, 1962, Pages 523-525; by Asger Aaboe in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Volume XVII, 1962, Pages 204-205; and the (German-language) book reviews by Siegfried Schott in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Siebenundfünfzigster Jahrgang, 1962, Nummer 11/12, Columns 592-598; and by Kurt Vogel in Archiv für Orientforschung, Einundzwanzigster Band, 1966, Pages 109-111. For Volume 2: See the (English-language) book reviews by C[Cyril?/Černý?] Spaull in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 51, December 1965, Pages 217-218; by David Pingree in Isis, Volume 57, 1966, Pages 136-137; and the (German-language) book reviews by Erich Lüddeckens in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Band 116, 1966, Pages 181-182; by Kurt Vogel in Archiv für Orientforschung, Einundzwanzigster Band, 1966, Pages 109-111; and Siegfried Schott in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Volume 62, 1967, Nummer 5/6, Columns 244-247. For Volume 3: See the (English-language) book reviews by C[?]. Spaull in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 57, 1971, Pages 215-217; by Asger Aaboe in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Volume XVII, 1962, Pages 106-107; by Owen Gingerich in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 3, 1972, Page 217; and the (German-language) book review by Philippe Derchain in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Volume 66, 1971, Nummer 1/2, Columns 22-24. Otto Neugebauer (1899-1990) was a pioneer of studies of ancient mathematical astronomy. For 30 years he was Professor of the History of Mathematics at Brown University. See the Eloge by David Pingree in Isis, Volume 82, Number 1, 1991, Pages 87-88; and the biographical entry by Lewis Pyenson in American National Biography, General editors, John Garraty and Mark Carnes, Volume 16, 1999, Pages 302-303. Richard Parker headed the Department of Egyptology at Brown University from 1949-1972.]

Parker, Richard. (1974). "Ancient Egyptian Astronomy." In: Hodson, Frank. (Editor). The Place of Astronomy in the Ancient World. (Pages 51-65). [Note: Abstract: "The early astronomy of ancient Egypt is known to us from its practical application to time measurement, in the large sense of a calendar year and in the smaller of the 24 h day. The earliest calendar year was lunar, kept in place in the natural year by the star Sirius. From this lunistellar year evolved the well-known calendar year of 365 days (three seasons of four 30-day months and 5 days added at the end). The division of the 30 day month into three 10-day 'weeks', combined with the observation of stars called decans rising at nightfall, eventually resulted in our 24 h day of fixed length. Constellations, except for decanal stars, and planets figured only in mythology. The zodiac was introduced into Egypt apparently in the Ptolemaic period and the decans finally became merely names for thirds of a zodiacal sign. In this latest period true astronomical texts also appear but they cannot be counted Egyptian in origin." The papers comprising the volume originated from a joint symposium on ancient astronomy held by The Royal Society and The British Academy. They were also published in the "Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London," Volume 276 A, Number 1257. See the (English-language) books reviews by Colin Renfrew in Archaeology, Volume 26, Number 1, January, 1973, Pages 222-223; and by A[lexis?]. Brookes in The Classical Review, New Series Volume XXVII, (Volume XCI of the Continuous Series), 1977, Pages 95-96. Parker's appointment at Brown University was enabled when Brown University received $750,000 from the estate of Theodora Wilbour to establish and maintain a department of Egyptology in memory of her father Charles Wilbour. Parker became the first Wilbour Professor of Egyptology at Brown University.]

Petrie, William. (1908). Athribis. [Note: Report of results of archaeological work at the site of Athribis. Contains a description and photographs/drawings of 'The Zodiac Tomb.' William Petrie was a pioneering archaeologist and pioneering Egyptologist. Life dates: 1853-1942.]

Petrie, William. (1940). Wisdom of the Egyptians. [Note: The discussion of Egyptian constellations is not reliable. The charts of Egyptian constellations are interesting.]

Polo, Miguel Ángel Molinero. (2014). "A Bright Night Sky over Karakhamun: The Astronomical Ceiling of the Main Burial Chamber in TT 223." In: Pischikova, Elena. (Editor). Tombs of the South Asasif Necropolis: Thebes, Karakhamun (TT 223), and Karabasken (TT 391) in the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. (Pages 201-238).

Quack, Joachim. (2003). Contributions on the Egyptian Decans and their Reception in the Graeco-Latin World. [Note: Unpublished Habilitation. Completed when he was a research associate in the Department of Egyptology at the Free University of Berlin, from 1997 to 2002. Joachim Quack is recognised as an outstanding Egyptologist.]

Roberson, Joshua. (2007). The Book of the Earth: A Study of Ancient Egyptian Symbol-Systems and the Evolution of New Kingdom Cosmographic Models. [PhD Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. Later published as a book. Abstract: "The Book of the Earth belongs to the genre of ancient Egyptian compositions known as "Underworld Books," depicting the locales and beings encountered by the sun god during his nightly travels. The Book of the Earth was employed exclusively in royal burial chambers during Egypt's Ramessid Period (Dynasties 19-20). Following the dissolution of the New Kingdom (c. 1081 BC), elements from the book began to appear in private contexts, continuing in use through Greco-Roman Period, with the latest known exemplar dating to the first century of the Common Era. The present study represents the first comprehensive treatment of all currently known texts and images associated with the Book of the Earth and includes examinations of the book's architectural contexts, iconography, orthography, and grammar, in addition to the complete transcription, transliteration, and translation of all related texts. An examination of the architectural context and iconography of the primary New Kingdom corpus has revealed a series of criteria by which the Book of the Earth appears originally to have been differentiated from other Underworld compositions. The distribution of this material suggests that the supposed "book" actually consisted of a series of modular tableaux selected on a more or less ad hoc basis, organized consistently into a bi-partite composition. This composition, in conjunction with certain celestial representations, was intended to transform the sarcophagus chamber into a functional model of the Egyptian akhet, the locus of solar rebirth from which the deceased hoped to affect his or her own perpetual resurrection. As the book made the transition from royal to private burial contexts, various abbreviated arrangements suitable for use upon a single wall surface, papyrus, etc., came to replace the more elaborate arrangements found earlier in the New Kingdom. In these later recensions, the directionality of the composition and its association with the horizon, etc., were preserved in the prominence given to images of the double lion Aker and other centrally placed, symmetrical tableaux."

Schott, Siegfried. (1936). "Die Altägyptischen Dekane." In: Gundel, Wilhelm. (1936; Reprinted 1969). Dekane und Dekansternbilder ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Sternbilder der Kulturvölker. (Pages 1-26). [Note: The essay, which is included as "Erster Teil," has been criticized for its lapses.]

von Spaeth, Ove. (2012). Star Knowledge from Ancient Egypt. [Note: e-book, online. 92 pages, profusely illustrated. Freely downloadable from the internet. The book needs to be used with some caution as the author holds several controversial ideas.]

Stewart, Devon. (2010). Conservation and Innovation: The Zodiac in Egyptian Art. [Note: Short MA thesis, Emory University. Excellent. Freely downloadable from the internet.]

Symons, Sarah. (1999). Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Timekeeping and Cosmography in the New Kingdom. [Note: Unpublished doctoral thesis. Abstract: "The first part of this study analyses and discusses astronomical timekeeping methods used in the New Kingdom. Diagonal star clocks are examined first, looking at classification of sources, decan lists, and the updating of the tables over time. The date list in the Osireion at Abydos is discussed, and issues concerning its place in the history of astronomical timekeeping are raised. The final stellar timekeeping method, the Ramesside star clock, is then examined. The conventional interpretation of the observational method behind the tables is challenged by a new theory, and a system of analysing the tables is introduced. The conclusions of the previous sections are then gathered together in a discussion of the development of stellar timekeeping methods. The small instruments known as shadow clocks, and their later relatives the sloping sundials, are also examined. The established hypothesis that the shadow clock was completed by the addition of a crossbar is challenged and refuted. The second part of this study is based on New Kingdom representations of the sky. Two major texts and several celestial diagrams are discussed in detail, beginning with the Book of Nut, which describes the motions of the sun and stars. New translations of the vignette and dramatic text are presented and discussed. Portions of the Book of the Day describing the behaviour of the sun and circumpolar group of stars are analysed. Finally, celestial diagrams dating from the New Kingdom are described. Their composition and significance is discussed and the conceptual framework behind the diagrams is recreated. By introducing new theories and analysis methods, and using a modem but sympathetic approach to the original sources, this study attempts to update and extend our knowledge of these areas of ancient astronomy."]

Symons, Sarah. (2007). "A Star's Year: The Annual Cycle in the Ancient Egyptian Sky." In: Steele, John. (Editor). Calendar and Years: Astronomy and Time in the Ancient Near East. (Pages 1-33). [Note: Discusses the decans in the diagonal star calendars. The author is an Egyptologist.]

Symons, Sarah. (2014). "Contexts and elements of decanal star lists in Ancient Egypt." In: Bawanypeck, Daliah. and Imhausen, Annette. (Editors). Traditions of Written Knowledge in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. (Pages 91-122). [Note: Excellent.]

Tetley, M[?]. Christine. (2014). A Reconstructed Chronology of the Egyptian Kings. (2 Volume). [Note: Privately printed. See: Volume 1, Chapter 6. Pondering Egyptian Calendar Depictions (Pages 85-102). Christine Tetley died on 19 July 2013. She was the first female graduate of New Zealand's Laidlaw College to be awarded a Doctorate in Theology. It was awarded by the Australian College of Theology, again the first awarded to a woman by thesis (others had been honoris causa). Her thesis was published in 2005 by Eisenbrauns entitled, The Reconstructed Chronology of the Divided Kingdom.]

van der Waerden, Bartel. (1974). Science Awakening II: The Birth of Astronomy. [Note: Contains a brief discussion of Egyptian decans/constellations based largely on Egyptian Astronomical Texts (3 Volumes, 1960-1969) by Otto Neugebauer and Richard Parker.]

von Bomhard, Anne-Sophie. (1999). The Egyptian Calendar: A Work for Eternity. [Note: An excellent book which includes frequent discussions of the decans. See the book review by Kurt Locher in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 31, Part 4, 2000, Page 349.]

Waitkus, Wolfgang. (2003). "Zur möglichen Identifizierung einer weiteren Konstellation des nördlichen altägyptischen Sternhimmels." In: Kloth, Nicole. et al. (Editors). Es werde niedergelegt als Schriftstück: Festschrift für Hartwig Altenmüller. (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Beiheft 9, Pages 453-470). [Note: Brought to my attention by Donald Etz.]

Wainwright, G. A. (1932). "A Pair of Constellations." In: Studies Presented to F. L. Griffith.

Wells, Ronald. (2001). "Astronomy." In: Redford, Donald. (Editor). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. (Pages 145-151).


Allen, David. (1977). "An Astronomer's Impression of Ancient Egyptian Constellations." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 54, Pages 15-19). [Note: The author was a permanent staff astronomer at the Anglo-Australian observatory. Life dates: ?-1994.]

Allen, Troy., Beatty, Mario., Carr, Greg. and Watkins, Valethia. (1995-1996). "The Celestial Sphere in ancient Egypt." (ANKH, Numbers 4/5, Pages 214-221).

Anonymous. (1937). "The Circular Zodiac of Denderah." (Griffith Observer, Number 10 (October), Pages ?-?).

Aubourg, Éric. (1995). "La date de conception du zodiaque du temple d'Hathor à Dendérah." (Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, numéro 95, Pages 1-10). [Note: The author is a French astrophysicist with a passion for Egyptian archaeoastronomy.]

Barta, Winfried. (1980). "Funktion und Lokalisierung der Zirkumpolarsterne in den Pyramidentexten." (Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Band 107, Heft 1, Pages 1-4).

Barthel, Thomas. (1968). "Götter, Sterne, Pyramiden." (Paideuma, Volume 14, Pages 45-92). [Note: The journal is not to be confused with the journal of the same name issued by the University of Maine and devoted to Ezra Pond scholarship.]

Belmonte, Juan. (2002). "The Decans and the Ancient Egyptian Skylore: An Astronomical Approach." (Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana, Volume 73 (Special Volume 1), Pages ?-?). [Note: Brought to my attention my Donald Etz. The pages given for the article were 43-57. However, Laurence Crossen informs me that pages 43-57 is incorrect for the article. However, I have the article and Belmonte's own references to it. Originally presented as a keynote presentation (January 2nd, 2001) at "The Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena III" Conference, 31st December 2000 - 6th January 2001, Palermo, Sicily.]

Blackwell, Patricia., Talcott, Gary. and Talcott, Richard. (2010). "Stargazing in ancient Egypt." (Astronomy Magazine, Number 6, June, Pages 64-66). [Note: Among the subjects discussed is the visibility of the zodiacal light as a triangular glow.]

Böker, Robert. (1984). "Über Namen und Identifizierung der ägyptischen Dekane." (Centaurus, Volume 27, Pages 189-217).

Borger, Riekele/Rykle. (1965) "Ausstrahlungen des Zweistromlandes*)". (Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux, Number 18, 1964, Pages 317-330). [Note: Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society "Ex Oriente Lux." Jaarbericht van het Vooraziatisch-Egyptisch Genootschap "Ex Oriente Lux" = Annuaire de la Société Orientale "Ex Oriente Lux." Riekele or Rykle Borger was a notable Dutch Assyriologist educated in the German tradition. He was the protegé of Wolfram Von Soden, and served out his life as Professor Ordenarius in the Seminar für Keilschriftforschung at the University of Göttingen, Germany. Life dates: 1929-2010.]

Brunner, Hellmut. (1973). "Zeichendeutung aus Sternen und Winden in Ägypten." In: Gese, H., and Rüger, H. (Editors). Wort und Geschichte. Festschrift für Karl Elliger zum 70. Geburstag. (Pages 25-30).

Buchwald, Jed. (2003). "Egyptian Stars Under Paris Skies." (Engineering & Science, Volume LXVI, Number 4, Pages 20-31). [Note: Excellent detailed account of the French discovery of the Denderah zodiac, its removal to France, and the controversy of its astronomical dating. The author is a noted historian of science.]

Bull, Ludlow. (1923). "An Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Ceiling-Decoration." (Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume 18, Number 12, Part 1, November, Pages 283-286). [Note: The source title also appears as The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Some sources give December instead of November. Ludlow Bull was an Egyptologist and curator of the Egyptian collections at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and at Yale University. Life dates: 1886-1954.]

Chatley, Herbert. (1939). "Notes on Ancient Egyptian Astronomy." (The Observatory, Volume 62, Number 779, Pages 100-104). [Note: Herbert Chatley, DSc, was a British historian (of science). Life dates: 1895-1947.]

Chatley, Herbert. (1940). "Sirius and the Constellation of the Bow." (Nature, Volume 145, 27 April, Page 670). [Note: A short study of Sirius and the constellation of the bow in Babylonia, China, and Egypt.]

Chatley, Herbert. (1940). "The lunar mansions in Egypt." (Isis, Volume XXXI, Number 2, April, Pages 394-397). [Note: The author finds no evidence for a system of 28 "lunar mansions" in ancient Egypt.]

Chatley, Herbert. (1940). "The Egyptian Celestial Diagram." (The Observatory, Volume 63, Number 790, Pages 68-72).

Chatley, Herbert. (1940). "Egyptian Astronomy." (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 26, Pages 120-126). [Note: A discussion of Egyptian constellations.]

Chatley, Herbert. (1943). "Ancient Egyptian Star Tables and the Decans." (The Observatory, Volume 65, Number 817, Pages 121-125). [Note: See also the Correspondence in The Observatory "Ancient Egyptian Star Tables and the Decans." comprising a letter by Herbert Chatley (Volume 65, 1944, Pages 144-145), and a letter reply by Duncan MacNaughton (Volume 65, 1944, Pages 145-146), and a reply by Herbert Chatley (Volume 65, 1944, Page 146).]

Christiansen, H[?]. (1992). "Decanal Star Tables for Lunar Houses in Egypt?" (Centaurus, Volume 35, Pages 1-27).

Conman, Joanne. (2003). "It's About Time: Ancient Egyptian Cosmology." (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Band 31, Pages 33-71). [Note: An extensive study of the Egyptian decan system by an amateur Egyptologist who rejects Otto Neugebauer's ideas on such. See also: Symons, Sarah. (1999). Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Timekeeping and Cosmography in the New Kingdom, an unpublished doctoral thesis. On the topic of the Egyptian decans, Conman seems to have an obsessive dislike for Otto Neugebauer. However, in her posts to forums on Egyptology - for example her series of posts to Glyphdoctors in 2005 – it is evident Conman has a Neugebauer approach to Egyptian astronomy. Unfortunately Conman is not always reliable on the topic of ancient astronomy. Conman's biographical information posted at the Kepler College website (where she is an instructor for a computer-based course on Egyptian astrology, as part of Kepler's astrological education program) includes: She holds an anthropology degree (gained 1973) from Hofstra University (a private college on Long Island, New York), and completed a year (1984) of graduate work in psychology at CUNY, Queens College. Interestingly, Conman has an early connection with astrology. At the Kepler College website she posts: "... she studied astrology [= paid for astrology lessons] for a couple of years with Zoltan Mason [1906-2002] in New York City. Eventually, a later interest in botany and herbs led her to medieval medical astrology, which rekindled her interest in studying astrology again, but with a focus on ancient astrology for the source of the ideas. For the last 15 years, as an independent scholar, her concentration has been on the Egyptian decans and the Egyptian roots of Hellenistic astrology." In her Signs of the Times website article "Splitting Realities" Laura Knight-Jadczyk writes: "... a man I later learned was a total psychopath (Zoltan Mason)." Conman  has not clarified whether or not she is an astrologer. In her 2010 article "Origins of Astrology." posted online at Kepler College website she ambiguously writes: "It’s not so much that academics do not understand, though some don’t; the fact is that many will not understand. They simply refuse. They tend to cringe at the mention of astrology. Beliefs incorporated in it are generally not considered worthy of study and are not recognized as having arisen in ancient religion. The few scholars who have written anything on ancient astrology seem to feel compelled to defend their interest in the subject, while proclaiming as loudly as possible that astrology is silly or superstitious because it is not science. They go to great pains to reassure readers that they are far too intelligent to believe astrology themselves. When they do explore ancient astrology, their bias tends to lead them to focus on what is easy to dismiss as irrational, e.g., omen reading." Similar to Lester Ness, Conman seemingly fails to recognise that a person can be critical of astrology yet take it seriously as a subject for historical study. Conman is convinced she has discovered the correct working of the Egyptian decan system. Conman claims: "My model proves that "enclosed by the Duat" is linked to the late night rising of decan stars and the Egyptian beliefs about the rejuvenation of the sun, very likely linked to the setting of Venus." However, in a short exchange with the Egyptologist Sarah Symons in 2005 her ideas were criticised on a number of points. Described by José Lull and Juan Antonio Belmonte (2006) as "a new, revolutionary and probably wrong approach to explain the operation of the decans in the "Cosmology of Nut"." Conman is openly bitter that her ideas have not been accepted by professional Egyptologists and astronomers.]

Conman, Joanne. (2007). "Speculation on Special Sunlight and the Origin of the wSAw Hour." (Apuntes de Egiptologia, Volume 3, Pages ?-?). [Note: Originally a paper presented by the author at the American Research Centre in Egypt annual meeting in Boston, April, 2005. Conman, in typical fashion in a private communication (January 2011), stated the information is slightly incorrect but did not explain why, and she did not inform me of the page numbers. Slightly incorrect perhaps because I had wSAw, not wSAw, in the title, perhaps because I had Number 3, not Volume 3, or perhaps because I had 'conference' instead of 'annual meeting.' Also, her article likely comprises the entire issue. Abstract: "The ancient Egyptian decan star system that is explained in the Carlsberg papyri has been misunderstood for over a half century. In Otto Neugebauer's theory, the 70-day period that stars are said to be Sn dwAt is understood to mean that those stars are invisible following their heliacal setting. That hypothesis has been demonstrated to be false because it posits a pattern that no stars fit. In any given decade of days, the Sn dwAt star rises late at night, marking the wSAw hour, and thus indicating the time that the sun is Sn dwAt. This paper deals with the implications of this new understanding of the meaning of Sn dwAt, conjectures a parallel between winter solstice and the wSAw hour in Egyptian thought, and explores the implied belief that sunlight during Prt season was imbued with special regenerative powers. Capturing the sunlight at the appropriate magical time is hypothesized as the purpose for both the shafts in Great Pyramid at Giza and the illumination of the statue of Ramses II at Abu Simbel."]

Conman, Joanne. (2007). "Understanding the Decans: How the Ancient Egyptians Saw the Sky." (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 58th Annual Meeting of the American Research Center in Egypt, Wyndham Toledo Hotel, Toledo, Ohio, Apr 20, 2007). [Note: Abstract: "The author of the Carlsberg papyrus I and Ia left a great gift to future generations that has been misunderstood for decades. It is easy to establish that stars actually do behave exactly as the Egyptian texts say that they behave, but this can be done only after the decanal belt theory of Otto Neugebauer is rejected. The solution I have discovered confirms a pattern that is in agreement with the Book of Nut texts and the interpretation of those texts given in the Carlsberg Papyri. The pattern I found incorporates the decan lists of the Asyut coffins, which can now be demonstrated to be part of the same system as the later texts. This paper delves into the precise information written by the Egyptians concerning the decans and contrasts that with what Neugebauer and certain other modern scholars have conjectured. A new understanding of the decan system offers to open the way to a better understanding of Egyptian cosmology, religion, and language."]

Daressy, Georges. (1900). "Une ancienne liste des décans égyptiens." (Annales du service des antiquités de l'Égypte, Volume 1, Pages 79-90). [Note: The first attempt to interpret the diagonal star clock/astronomical decoration on the inner surface of the lid of the coffin of Msahiti (IXth or Xth dynasty). Georges Daressy was a French Egyptologist. Life dates: 1864-1938.]

Daressy, Georges. (1915 [sometimes given as 1916]). "L'Egypte Celeste." (Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale du Caire, Volume XII, Pages 1-34). [Note: Deals with ancient Egyptian constellations. Argues for a correlation between the 22 nomes of Upper Egypt and the zodiac. Dated and unreliable.]

Davis, Virginia. (1983?). "Identification of the Ancient Egyptian Constellations." (Archaeoastronomy, Volume 6, Numbers 1-4, Page 8).

Davis, Virginia. (1985). "Identifying Ancient Egyptian Constellations." (Archaeoastronomy, Number 9, Pages S102-S104; Supplement to the Journal of the History of Astronomy, Volume 16). [Note: The author is an Egyptologist.]

Degreef, John. (2001). "Three Archaic Egyptian Constellations used as Seasonal Markers." (?). [Note: I have only sighted this article on the internet and have no publication details. It would appear that the author is an archaeologist (and amateur Egyptologist?). The ideas in the article would appear to be based on the acceptance of the (erroneous) ideas presented in Willy Hartner's 1965 article "The Earliest Constellations ...." It would appear that the same author translated from German the 1865 publication by Richard Lepsius "The Ancient Egyptian Cubit and Its Subdivision." It is published by The Museum Bookshop (specialising in ancient near eastern archaeology) which has no connection with the The British Museum. John Degreef, PhD, lives in Liège, Belgium.]

Desroches-Nobelcourt, Christiane. (1993). "Le Zodiaque de Pharaon." (Archéologia, Number 292, July, Pages 20-45). [Note: The publication is a French Revue. The author of the article is a French Egyptologist and considered to be an outstanding authority on ancient Egypt. She was Chief Curator of Egyptian Antiquities in the Louvre Museum for 50 years. Life dates: 1913-2011.]

Dodd, William. (2011). "Decans, Djed Pillars, and Seasonal Hours in Egypt." (Journal of The Royal Society of Canada, Volume 105, Number 5, October, Pages 187-?). [Note: Has been referenced as Number 4, August. The author is a member of the Toronto Centre of the RASC. Hastro-L discussion indicates it needs to be used with caution.]

Eisler, Robert. (1935). "Das Astrologische Bilderbuch." (Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Volume XXXVIII, 1935, Number 11, Columns 665-667.) [Note: The author argues for the Babylonian origin of the Egyptian constellation the "Bull's Leg."]

Eisler, Robert. and Chatley, Herbert (1941). "Egyptian Astronomy: Letters from Dr. Eisler and Dr. Chatley." (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 27, Pages 149-152). [Note: A discussion of Babylonian and Greek influences on Egyptian zodiacs.]

Etz, Donald. (1997). "A New Look at the Constellation Figures in the Celestial Diagram." (Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt [JARCE], Volume XXXIV, Pages 143-161). [Note: The speculations of a science writer. The constellation identifications are unreliable.]

Faulkner, Raymond. (1966). "The King and the Star-Religion in the Pyramid Texts." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Page 166). [Note: Dr Raymond Oliver Faulkner, FSA, was an English Egyptologist and philologist of the ancient Egyptian language. Education: University College London, University of London. In 1926 he became a full-time Egyptological assistant to Alan Gardiner. In 1954 he was appointed to a Lectureship in Egyptian Language at University College. Life dates: 1894-1982. See: "Raymond O. Faulkner: An Appreciation." by H. S. Smith, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume, 60, 1974,Pages iii+5-7.]

Gadré, Karine. and Roques, Sylvie. (2007). "Préalable à l'identification des décans égyptiens: constitution d'une base de données archéologiques." (Göttingen Miszellen, Heft ?, Pages ?-?). [Note: Abstract: "In ancient Egypt, the successive risings or transits of stars in the night or twilight sky were used to tell the hours of the night. These stars whose yearly period of invisibility was then close to seventy days are today termed as decanal since their heliacal rising occurred at ten days interval each. Their hieroglyphic names appear on the interior lid of wooden sarcophagi, on the external surface of water clocks, on the ceiling of temples and tombs dating from the First Intermediate Period to the Roman era. Every one of these vestiges makes up an archaeological database whose completion is needed to identify the ninety old Egyptian decanal stars to stars visible with the naked eye."]

Gary, Patricia Blackwell. and Talcott, Richard. (2006). "Spica's Egyptian connection." (Astronomy, April?/June?, Pages ?-?). [Note: Blurb/Abstract: "Although observations of Sirius get most of the attention, Virgo's bright star Spica may also have played a role in the art and lives of ancient Egyptians. ... The importance of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, to the ancient Egyptians would be hard to overstate. Around 3000 B.C., Sirius made its first annual appearance in the eastern sky before dawn near the time of the summer solstice. This so-called heliacal rising marked the rebirth of the star after solar conjunction and was a harbinger of the annual flood of the Nile River — the lifeblood of this ancient civilization. Might there have been other stars whose heliacal risings marked important yearly events?"]

Gary, Patricia Blackwell. and Talcott, Richard. (2006). "Stargazing in ancient Egypt." Astronomy, June, Pages 62-67). [Note: Introduces the concept of the pyramid architecture (shape of the pyramids) being derived from the distinct pyramidal shape of the zodiacal light. Patricia Gary is an Egyptologist at New York University. Richard Talcott is a senior editor of Astronomy magazine.]

Gingerich, Owen. (1983). "Ancient Egyptian Sky Magic." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 65, Number 5, May, Pages 418-420).

Greenbaum, Dorian. (2011). Decans. In: Bagnall, Roger. (General Editor). The Encyclopedia of Ancient History.

Hardy, Patty. (2002-2003). "The Cairo Calendar as a Stellar Almanac." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, Volume XVII, Pages 48-63). [Note: A discussion of many of the stars, asterisms, and constellations in Book II of the Cairo Calendar by an amateur astronomer.]

Hornung, Erik. (1975). "Zur Bedeutung der Ägyptischen Dekangestirne." (Goettinger Miszellen, Heft 17, Pages 35-37). [Note: Brief discussion of the beliefs behind the decoration of the ceilings of the royal tombs of the New Kingdom period with star clocks and other astral motifs.]

Kákosy, László. (1982). "Decans in Late-Egyptian Religion." (Oikumene, Volume 3, Pages 163–191). [Note: The author, along with Joachim Quack, made ground-breaking contributions to a certain prelude to astrology in the decans.]

Kapar, Olaf. (1995). "The astronomical ceiling of Deir el-Haggar in the Dakhlen Oasis." (Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 81, Pages 175-195). [Note: I appreciate Donald Etz pointing out my slip of writing Volume 31.]

Krupp, Ed. (2000). "From Here to Eternity." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 99, Number 2, February, Pages 87-89).

Krupp, Ed. (2001). "The Sphinx Blinks." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 101, Number 3, March, Pages 86-88).

Krupp, Ed. (2001). "Unlimited Ceiling." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 102, Number 4, October, Pages 86-88).

Leitz, Christian. (2002). "Remarks about the Appearance of Mars in the Tomb of Senemut in Western Thebes." (Centaurus, Volume 44, Pages 140-142). [Note: A short and decisive demolition of the article "Dating the Oldest Egyptian Star Map." by Ove von Spaeth in Centaurus, Volume 42, 2000, Pages 159-179.]

Leitz, Christian. (2006). "Die Sternbilder auf dem rechteckigen und runden Tierkreis von Dendara." (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Band. 34, Pages 285-318).

von Lieven, Alexandra. (2000). "Die dritte Reihe der Dekane oder Tradition und Innovation in der spätägypttischen Religion." (Archiv für Religionsgeschichte, Band 2, Pages 21-36).

von Lieven, Alexandra. (2001). "Der Himmel über Esna - Nachtrag zu Esna 451." (Goettinger Miszellen, Heft 184, Pages 111-112).

Locher, Kurt, (1981). "A conjecture concerning the early Egyptian constellation of the Sheep." (Archaeoastronomy, Number 3, Pages S73-S75; Supplement to the Journal of the History of Astronomy, Volume 12). [Note: The author is a Swiss physics lecturer and astronomer. His work (and also Virginia Lee's) on the identification of Egyptian constellations is important.]

Locher, Kurt. (1983). "A further coffin lid with a diagonal star clock from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume XIV, Pages 141-144).

Locher, Kurt. (1985). "Probable Identification of the Ancient Egyptian Circumpolar Constellations." (Archaeoastronomy, Number 9, Pages S152-S153; Supplement to the Journal of the History of Astronomy, Volume 16).

Locher, Kurt. (1990). "The Ancient Egyptian Constellation Group 'The Lion Between Two Crocodiles' and the Bird." (Archaeoastronomy, Number 15, Pages S49-S51; Supplement to the Journal of the History of Astronomy, Volume 21).

Locher, Kurt. (1983). "Two further coffin lids with diagonal star clocks from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume XXIII, Pages 201-207).

Lockyer, Joseph. (1891). "On some points in ancient Egyptian astronomy. I." (Nature, Volume 45, Number 1161, January 28, Pages 296-299).

Lockyer, Joseph. (1892). "On some points in ancient Egyptian astronomy. II." (Nature, Volume 45, Number 1164, February 18, Pages 373-375).

Lockyer, Joseph. (1892). "The Astronomy and Mythology of the Ancient Egyptians." (The Nineteenth Century, Volume XXXII, July-December, Pages 29-51).

Lockyer, Joseph. (1893). "The astronomical history of On and Thebes. I." (Nature, Volume 48, Number 1240, August 3, Pages 318-320).

Lockyer, Joseph. (1893). "The astronomical history of On and Thebes. II." (Nature, Volume 48, Number 1242, August 17, Pages 371-372).

Lull, José. and Belmonte, Juan Antonio. (2006). "A Firmament Above Thebes: Uncovering the Constellations of the Ancient Egyptians." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 37, Part 4, Number 129, Pages 373-392). [Note: An attempt to identify the decan stars. Kindly brought to my attention by Gordon Uber.]

Maravelia, Amanda-Alice. (2003). "Cosmic Space and Archetypal Time: Depictions of the Sky-Goddess Nut in Three Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom and her Relation to the Milky Way." (Göttinger Miszellen, Heft [Volume/Issue] 197, Pages 55-72). [Note: A small part of the author's PhD thesis.]

Müller, Max. (1903). "Zur Geschichte der Tierkreisbilder in Ägypten." (Orientalistische Litteratur-zeitung, Volume 7, Number 1, Columns 8-9).

Nagy, I[?]. (1977). "Remarques sur Quelques Formules Stellaires des Textes Religieux d'Epoque Saïte." (Studia Aegyptiaca, Volume III, Pages 99-117).

Nallino, Carlo. (1918). "Sun, Moon, and Stars (Muhammadan)." In: Hastings, James. (Editor). Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics. Volume X. (Columns 88-101). [Note: Carlo Alfonso Nallino (1872-1938) was an Italian orientalist.]

Neugebauer, Otto. (1955). "The Egyptian "Decans." (Vistas in Astronomy, Volume 1, Pages 47-51).

Novaković, Bojan. (2008). “Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer.” (Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, Number 85, Pages 19-23). [Note: Abstract: "The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut, the chief architect and astronomer during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut."]

Offord, Joseph. (1916). "Egyptian Astronomy and the Zodiac." (Nature, Volume 98, Number 2445, September 7, Pages 7-8). [Note: A discussion of the so-called Daressy zodiac.]

Park, Rosalind. (2008). "The First Decan." In: Griffin, Kenneth. (Editor). Current Research in Egyptology VIII. (Pages 103-112). [Note: This volume was published by Oxbow books.]

Park, Rosalind. and Eccles, Bernard. (2012). "Dating the Dendera zodiac: Egypt's famous Greco-Roman "zodiac"." (ARAM Periodical,  Volume 24, Pages 175-192). [Note: A case of the authors are correct and everybody else is/was incorrect.Paper presented at ARAM Conference, Oriental Institute, Oxford, 8-10 July, 2010. (Based on Park's work for 2004 MA dissertation in Cultural Astronomy and Astrology.) Volume 24 of the ARAM Periodical dealt with "Neo-Aramaic dialects and astrology in the Ancient Near East." Abstract: "The most popular visitor attraction in the Egyptian Antiquities department in the Louvre is the sandstone ceiling with bas-relief of a sky-map from Dendara temple. The 2.5 m X 2.5 m artefact is dated to the 1st century BCE by Neugebauer and Parker (1969) who also claimed, albeit with sketchy discussion on the matter, that the planets shown are merely placements in their zodiacal signs of astrological 'exaltation'. Upon the author's investigation, this postulation is not fully supported. [Eric] Aubourg (1995), who does not comment on the assumption of 'exaltations', interprets two particular symbols as portrayals of a solar and a lunar eclipse in the years 52 and 51 BCE, and hypothesises that the planets are at their last stationary point prior to his derived date in the summer of 51 BCE. However, these portrayals are otherwise unprecedented in sacred art. These conclusions seem dubious, both in historic context and to the received wisdom of the nature of celestial ideology in which Egyptian temple priests were normally steeped; and who incidentally, were the only ones with access to the roof-top sanctuary chamber where the zodiac ceiling was secreted. [Greeks were forbidden.] This paper will attempt to unravel more intrinsic and practical meaning behind the circular zodiac. A re-appraisal of the content shows that the Sun, Moon and five planets provide a viable astronomic date and therefore - a more than likely horoscope -corresponding to a date late in the 40 years reign of the then Pharaoh of Egypt, Caesar Augustus. In his 2nd century CE biography of Augustus, Suetonius tells how the youthful Octavian had consulted with a Greek astrologer Theogenes and been told of his powerful destiny. This serves to remind us how astrology, and particularly, horoscopes of destiny such as the Dendara Zodiac might turn out to be, had taken a hold throughout the Roman Empire of which Egypt was a major player. Full text, forthcoming in Conference Proceedings (hopefully!). "Rosalind Park (Hastro-L, 15-12-2016): " ... On site in Egypt, in the Louvre, & in many dusty Egyptology libraries, I have studied the epigraphy of the Dendera Zodiac for 30 years. ... I ... offer up the salient findings of my final research (awaiting publication)! Given its Hathor temple setting (where the zodiac chapel was banned to Greeks!) I strongly argue it to be a Royal Conception Chart (not your run-of-the-mill horoscope) geniously set within a Spring astronomy constellations planisphere. By identifying every single image & hieroglyphic label where shown, this Egyptian globe uses Hipparchus data for the colures. Only 2 images, Sagittarius & Capricorn, are foreign images. Political satire (the Egyptians loved cartoons & puns) is celebrated with the cruel tyrant Euergetes II depicted as Lupus constellation. The lap-wing plover is how the Egyptians portrayed Lepus from the 1st Dynasty onwards. So, bottom-line: viable planets, a rising sign, a hieroglyph naming the Lunar Node deity (the node being no where near Sun or Moon) means an astronomical dateable artefact. Early work, based on my 2004 MA dissertation in Cultural Astronomy, is to be found in: ARAM Periodical Vol 24 (2012) Park & Eccles "Dating the Dendera Zodiac"."]

Parker, Richard. (1978). "Egyptian Astronomy, Astrology, and Calendrical Reckoning." In: Gillespie, Charles. (Editor in Chief). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Volume XV. Supplement I. (Pages 706-727).

Pierce, Donna. (2005). "Egypt by the Stars." (The Great Western Observer, Volume IV, Number 1, Winter, Pages 20-22). [Note: Unreliable.]

Pogo, Alexander. (1930). "The Astronomical Ceiling-decoration in the Tomb of Senmut (XVIII dynasty)." (Isis, Volume XIV, Number 2, October, Pages 301-325). [Note: Alexander Pogo was a Russian emigre to the USA. He was a professional astronomer and historian of astronomy. In 1928 he was awarded a Degree in Astronomy from the University of Chicago and joined the Yerkes Observatory. In 1929 he was appointed Fellow in the History of Science by the Carnegie Institution and this led to him working at Harvard University (beginning 1930?). At least by the mid-1950s he was working as an astronomer at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories. For several decades he was the (associate) editor for the astronomy section of the journal Isis. Life dates: 1893-19??.]

Pogo, Alexander. (1931). "Zur Problem der Identifikation der nördlichen Sternbilder der alten Aegter."(Isis, Volume XVI, Pages 102-114).

Pogo, Alexander. (1932). "The Astronomical Inscriptions on the Coffins of Heny." (Isis, Volume XVIII, Pages 7-13).

Pogo, Alexander. (1936). "Three unpublished calendars from Asyut." (Osiris, Volume I, Pages 500-509).

Quack, Joachim. (1995) "Decane und Gliedervergottung." (Jahrbuch fur Antike und Christentum, Volume 38, Pages 97–122). [Note: The author, along with László Kákosy, made ground-breaking contributions to a certain prelude to astrology in the decans.]

Quack, Joachim. (1999). "Frühe ägyptische Vorläufer der Paranatellonta?" [Early Egyptian precursor of Paranatellonta?] (Sudhoffs Archiv, Band. 83, Heft 2, Pages 212-223).

Quack, Joachim. (2005). "Constellations (Egypt)." In: Eggler, Jurg. and Uehlinger, Christoph. (Editors). Iconography of Deities and Demons in the Ancient Near East. [Note: A short but highly informative article. The author is an expert on Egyptology.]

Reed, George. (1986). "Ancient Astronomers Along the Nile." (The Science Teacher, Volume 53, Number 6, September, Pages 59-62).

Relke, Joan. and Ernest, Allan. (2002-2003). "Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Ursa Major - Symbol of Rejuvenation." (Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of Astronomy in Culture, Volume XVII, Pages 64-80). [The authors acknowledge the speculative nature of their interesting essay.]

Le Page Renouf, Peter. (1874). "Calendar of Astronomical Observations Found in Royal Tombs of the XXth Dynasty." (Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Volume 3, Pages 400-421). [Note: An early paper on the Ramesside star clocks (i.e., transit decan system). Renouf did not identify or discuss them as star clocks. The author was an Egyptologist and philologist. Life dates: 1822-1897.]

Le Page Renouf, Peter. (1884). "The Bow in the Egyptian Sky." (Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Volume 6, Pages 131-132).

Le Page Renouf, Peter. (1895). "The Bow in the Egyptian Sky (2)." (Proceedings of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Volume 17, Pages 37-38).

Roeder, Günther. (1928). "Eine neue Darstellung des gestirnten Himmels in Ägypten." (Das Weltall, Volume 28, Pages 1-?).

von Spaeth, Ove. (2000). "Dating the Oldest Egyptian Star Map." (Centaurus, Volume 42, Pages 159-179). [Note: A controversial interpretation of the Senmut star map. The Danish author, who describes himself as an "independent scholar," seeks to accomplish considerable chronological revision (as part of his re-interpretation of the biblical figure of Moses). A number of critics on the Hastro-L (History of Astronomy) discussion list (January, 2002) have shown his astronomical interpretation of Senmut's star map to be seriously flawed. Christian Leitz in his 2002 article in Centaurus decisively critiqued this paper. See also: Belmonte, Juan. and Shaltout, Mosalam. (2007). "The Astronomical Ceiling of Senenmut: a Dream of Mystery and Imagination." In: Zedda, Mauro. and Belmonte, Juan. (Editors).  Lights and Shadows in Cultural Astronomy. (Pages 145-154). The authors critique and reject the ideas of Ove von Spaneth and also Christian Leitz that the ceiling depicts an astronomical scenario that can be precisely dated. Ove von Spaneth (, 2007) falsely supposes that I have an agenda in mentioning only critics of his Senmut star map ideas. However, even von Spaneth fails to clearly present the views of persons he claims are 'supporter' of his claims. Von Spaneth is one of a number of people promoting speculative ideas who like to promote the idea that I must be 'even-handed'/'fair-minded' and provide material/comments in a neutral manner, giving both pro and con information. Such an idea is mythical - my stated intention on Page 1 is to point out unsubstantiated speculative ideas.]

Spiegelberg, Wilhelm. (1902). "Ein ägyptisches Verzeichnis der Planeten und Tierkreisbilder." (Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Band 5, Columns 6-9).

Soliman, Rasha. (2012). "Goddess Nut and the Milky Way." (In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of Egyptian Science Through [the] Ages, October 9-11, 2012, Cairo).

Symons, Sarah. (2000). "Accuracy issues in ancient Egyptian stellar timekeeping." In: McDonald, Angela. and Riggs, Christina. (Editors). Current Research in Egyptology I. (Pages 111-114). [Note: This volume was published as BAR International Series 909.]

Symons, Sarah. (2002). "Two Fragments of Diagonal Star Clocks in the British Museum." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 33, Pages 255-260).

Symons, Sarah. (2007). "Astronomical Ceilings." (Egyptian Archaeology, Volume 30, Pages 11-13).

Symons, Sarah. (2012, 13 Volumes). "Astronomy, Egyptian." In: Bagnall, Roger. et al. (Editors). The Encyclopedia of Ancient History. [Note: Excellent.]

Symons, Sarah. and Cockcroft, Robert. (2013). "An ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Calendar Table in Mallawi, Egypt." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 44, Part 4, Number 157, Pages 457-463). [Note: Abstract: "A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology." Both authors (2013) are at Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.]

Symons, Sarah. and Cockcroft, Robert. (2013). "Diagonal Star Tables on Coffins A1C and S2Hil: A New Triangle Decan and a Reversed Table." (PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, Volume 10, Number 3, Pages 1-10). [Note: A web based publication.]

Symons, Sarah. and Cockcroft, Robert. (In Press 2013). "Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Tables: A New Fragment, and Updates for S16C and S1C." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 45, Pages ?-?).

Symons, Sarah. (2014, 3 Volumes). "Egyptian Star Clocks." In: Ruggles, Clive. (Editor). Handbook of Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy. (Volume 3, Part IX, Pages 1495-1500). [Note: Excellent.]

Symons, Sarah. and Tasker, Elizabeth. (2015). "Stars of the Dead." (Scientific American, Volume 313, Number 4, October 1, Pages 70-75). [Note: An important article. Summary: The ancient Egyptians paid close attention to the movement of certain stars in the night time sky. Records of their observations have been found in astronomical tables inside several 4000-year-old coffins. Some researchers believe these charts were used to keep track of time after sunset. Though long thought to serve as a kind of clock for the proper timing of religious rituals at night, these star tables may, recent research suggests, actually have acted more as a map for directing the newly dead to new realms of existence in the afterlife among the stars.]

Symons, Sarah. and Tasker, Elizabeth. (2015). "Decoding the Charts of ancient Egypt." (Scientific American, Volume 313, Issue 4, October 15, Pages ?-?).

Thurston, High. (2001). "Aligning Giza: Astronomical Orientation of the Great Pyramid." (Griffith Observer, Number 9 (September), Pages ?-?).

Wainwright, Gerald. (1936). "Orion and the Great Star." (The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Volume XXII, Number 1, June, Pages 45-46).

Waldron, Richard. (1973). "The Kingdom of Amon-Re: The Egyptian Sky, 3,000-300 B.C." (Griffith Observer, June).

Wells, Ronald. (1993). "Origin of the Hour and the Gates of the Duat." (Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, Band. 20, Pages 305-326). [Note: Topics: Horizon coordinate system, Azimuth, Underworld, Kingdom of Egypt, Bright stars, Priests, Standard deviation, Coffins, Earth rotation. Abstract: Early Egyptians created a means of measuring time by observing stars which led both to the development of a calendar and to a pantheon of religious myths. This paper indicates that the length of time we recognize as the 'hour' unit of the day is the natural consequence of rising star patterns whose distribution also gave rise to the gates of the Duat and subsequent stories related to them.]

Waziry, Ayman. (2016). "Probability Hypothesis and Evidence of Astronomical Observatories in Ancient Egypt." (Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Volume 2, Number 2, Pages 31-50).

Wernick, Nicolas. (2008). "Timekeeping in Ancient Egypt." (Ancient Egypt, Volume 9, Number 3, Issue 51, December 2008/January 2009, Pages 29-32). [Note: Excellent article that includes a brief discussion of the star clocks.]

Zinner, Ernst. (1931). "Die Sternbilder der alten Aegypter." (Isis, Volume XVI, Pages 92-101).

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Adams, Edward. (2008). "Graeco-Roman and Ancient Jewish Cosmology." In: Pennington, Jonathan. and McDonough, Sean. (Editors). Cosmology and New Testament Theology. (Pages 5-27).

Bischoff, Erich. (1907; Reprinted 1998). Babylonisch-astrales im Weltbilde des Thalmud und Midrasch. [Note: Unreliable. Based on the Panbabylonist ideas of Alfred Jeremias. Life dates: 1865-1936.]

Brodetsky, Selig. (1979). Astronomy in the Babylonian Talmud. [Note: The pamphlet is comprised of two journal articles.]

Greenfield, Jonas. (2001). "An Astrological Text from Qumran." In: Greenfield, Jonas. et al. (Editors). Al kanfei Yonah: Collected Studies of Jonas C. Greenfield on Semitic Philology. (2 Volumes, See Volume 1, Pages ?-?). [Note: A discussion of the influence of the Babylonian Mul.Apin series on the Qumran sect.]

Grimme, Hubert. (1907). Das israelitische Pfingstfest und der Plejadenkult. [Note: The author was strongly influenced by the ideas of Panbabylonism.]

Gwynn, David., Bangert, Susanne., and Lavan, Luke. (2010). Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity. [Note: Some discussion of zodiac mosaics in Jewish synagogues.]

Hachlili, Rachel. (2009). Ancient Mosaic Pavements. [Note: Some discussion of zodiac mosaics in Jewish synagogues.]

Hommel, Fritz. (no date). Die Sterne im alten Testament. [Note: Unpublished manuscript. No other information.]

Houtman, Cornelius. (1993). Der Himmel im Alten Testament: Israels Weltbild und Weltanschauung. [Note: A substantial scholarly study of 400 pages. Undoubtedly based on his (Dutch-language but with a summary in English) doctoral thesis De hemel inhet Oude Testament published in 1974. The author lectures at the Protestantse Theologische Universiteit, The Netherlands. Life dates: 1945- .]

Jacobus, Helen. (2014). Zodiac Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Their Reception: Ancient Astronomy and Astrology in Early Judaism.

Lemaire, André. (1999). "Coupe astrale inscrite et astronomie araméenne." In: Avishuir, Y[?]. and Deutsch, R[?]. (Editors). Michael: Historical, Epigraphical and Biblical Studies in Honor of Michael Heltzer. (Pages 195-221).

Lobel, Andrea. (2015). Under a Censored Sky: Astronomy and Rabbinic Authority in the Talmud Bavli and Related Literature. [Note: Unpublished PhD dissertation, Concordia University, Canada. Abstract: "Until the last few decades of the twentieth century, research on Judaism and astronomy and related celestial sciences tended to emphasize the medieval and Second Temple periods. To date, with the exception of analyses of the Jewish calendar and its development, few studies in the history of science have focused upon the rabbinic period, although a growing number of scholars, including Annette Yoshiko Reed, Noah Efron, and Menachem Fisch, have begun to address this gap. The emerging sub-field of the history of rabbinic science ca. 70-750 C.E., spans the fields of both Jewish studies and the history of science. This dissertation represents an original contribution to knowledge, demonstrating both the richness of celestial discourse in the Babylonian Talmud and the nuanced play of differing typologies of rabbinic authority articulated by Avi Sagi, Michael S. Berger, and other scholars, particularly epistemic and deontic authority. These are shown to interact strongly with rabbinic discourses addressing the overlapping celestial concerns of astronomy, astrology, astral magic, astrolatry, and cosmogony. By examining these astronomical topics together in a study of this kind for the first time, I demonstrate a recurrent pattern of tight rabbinic controls over the celestial sciences preserved in the Babylonian Talmud. This is of importance to the trajectory of Jewish scientific thought due to the enduring centrality of the Bavli. I also underscore an idealized portrayal of rabbinic legal deontic authority over these sciences, and a focus upon shows of honour and prestige associated with the rabbinic station itself in the Bavli. Further, I highlight the ways in which these preserved talmudic portrayals also serve to illuminate the self-presentation of the rabbis as inheritors of the interpretive and legislative powers bequeathed to them by God, the cosmic lawgiver, at the time of creation and at the giving of the Torah on Mount Sinai."]

Magness, Jodi. (2003). "Helios and the Zodiac Cycle in Ancient Palestinian Synagogues." In: Dever, William. and Gitin, Seymour. (Editors). Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age Through Roman Palaestina. (Pages 363-389).

Maunder, Edward. (1908). The Astronomy of the Bible. [Note: Needs to be used with some caution. Contains a supportive discussion (Book II, Chapter I, Pages 149-161) of the flawed "void zone" theory of constellation origins. Edward Maunder (1851-1928) was a sun-spot specialist and spectroscophist at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. (This title for the observatory first came into use in 1948.) Edward Maunder had no formal qualification as an astronomer. (Prior to gaining his appointment as Assistant at the Royal Observatory he had worked in a bank in London.) His position of Assistant at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich was a position within the British Civil Service and gained through passing the entry examination. The increase in the number of staff was due to the expansion of the observatory's role in physical astronomy and also it being affected by the greater influence of wider civil service procedures. Maunder held the post of Photographic and Spectroscopic Assistant for 40 years. He was highly competent and recognised as the most knowledgeable solar worker in Great Britain. The vacancy for a photographic and spectroscopic assistant which Edward Maunder filled involved photographing sunspots and measuring their areas and positions. Maunder's routine daily duty comprised photographing the sun and noting the sunspots. He also used data for observatories around the world. (He was also an evangelical Methodist and lay preacher.Maunder is indicated as early believing that the Book of Genesis was set out in the constellations.) At the time of his retirement he was Superintendent of the Solar Department. He was also a respected official observer of solar eclipses. See the (English-language) biographical entry by Deborah Warner in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Gillispie, Volume IX, Pages 183-185; and the (English-language) obituary by H.P.H. in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume LXXXIX, 1929, Pages 313-318.]

MacLean, Charles. (1929). Babylonian Astrology and the Old Testament. [Note: Based on the author's doctoral thesis.]

McKay, John. (1973). Religion in Judah under the Assyrians. [Note: In Chapter VI "Astral Beliefs in Judah and the Ancient World," the author capably discusses the issue of Assyrian astral beliefs in Judah circa 732-609 BCE. The book formed part of his doctorate thesis.]

Mowinckel, Sigmund. (1928). Die Sternnamen im Alten Testament. [Note: Probably the best study to date. The booklet is (described as an off-print, but more accurately is Supplement 5) from the theological journal Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift, Volume 29, 1928. In the same year (? Reprinted 1929?, 1930?) he also published the paper/booklet Eine Studie zur Astrologie des Alten Testaments (Acta Orientalia, Leiden, Volume 8?/Supplement 8?, Pages 1-44). Sigmund Mowinckel is considered one of the most prominent Old Testament researchers of his time.]

Ness, Lester. (1999). Written in the Stars: Ancient Zodiac Mosaics. [Note: The book is based on the authors 1990 doctorate thesis "Astrology and Judaism in Late Antiquity." It is constructed out of secondary sources. Ness began his career in the US Navy as a technician. Ness asserts as recently as 2011 that he is "an ancient historian and archaeologist." His academic employment, at least since 1997, is unrelated to either subject. The publisher of the book claims Ness is "the leading expert in the history of Astrology." Ness claims he is "the main historian of Jewish astrology." The website of the bookseller Eisenbrauns states: "Dr. Lester Ness has devoted his academic career to the study of ancient astrology. He is a leading scholar in his field. The goal of this particular work is to solve why zodiac mosaics appear in Israeli synagogues. More broadly, it explains how and why Hellenic Jews used astrology. This volume explores origins of synagogue mosaics and provides useful information concerning astrology around the world." Since 1997 Lester Ness has been teaching English in China but maintains an interest in ancient astronomy/astrology. Ness confuses the issue of the historical study of astrology by his statements inferring that a person who criticises astrology cannot be (or is not) a serious historian of the topic. Apart from his PhD (which he turned into his book), and periodically updating the web version of the bibliography, it appears he has not published any other/further material. During the early 1990s he began working on an English translation of Auguste Bouché-Leclercq's, L'Astrologie grecque (1899). He has stated he completed this task in 2006. However, Pennsylvania State University Press (Penn State Press) has not yet (March, 2011) published the book. More recent studies of Jewish zodiacs include: "On the program and reception of the synagogue mosaics." by Seth Swartz. In: From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity edited by L[?]. Levine and Z[?]. Wiezz (2000; Pages 165-181); Signs of the Times by Gad Erlanger (2001); Imperialism and Jewish Society. 200 B.C.E. to 640 C.E. by Seth Schwartz (2001; Pages 258-259); "Helios and the zodiac cycle in ancient Palestinian synagogues." by J[?]. Magness. In: Symbiosis, Symbolism and the Power of the Past edited by W[?]. Dever and S[?]. Gitin (2003; Pages 363-389); Art and Judaism in the Greco-Roman World by Steven Fine (2005); The Encyclopedia of Jewish Myth, Magic and Mysticism by Geoffrey Dennis (2007); Ancient Mosaic Pavements by Rachel Hachlili (2009); Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity by David Gwynn, Susanne Bangert, and Luke Lavan (2010). See also Ancient Synagogues - Archaeology and Art: New Discoveries and Current Research by Rachel Hachlili (2013).]

Pennington, Jonathan. and McDonough, Sean. (Editors). (2008). Cosmology and New Testament Theology.

Reed, Annette. (2017). Writing Jewish Astronomy in the Early Hellenistic Age: The Enochic Astronomical Book as Aramaic Wisdom and Archival Impulse. [Note: The author is with the University of Pennsylvania. Pages 1–37 contains an important discussion/section on Aratus.]

Roussin, L[?]. (1997). "The zodiac in synagogue decoration." In: Edwards, D[?}. and McCollough, C[?]. (Editors). Archaeology and the Galilee. (Pages 83-96).

Schiaparelli, Giovanni. (1905). Astronomy in the Old Testament. [Note: A revised and corrected version of the author's lengthy Italian-language essay "L'Astronomia Nell' Antico Testamento" which was first published in 1903 (by Ulrico Hoepli: Milan). The book contains an extensive discussion of constellations and star names in the Old Testament. The author's discussion was not influenced by the ideas of Panbabylonism. See the (English-language) review by Anon of "Astronomy in the Old Testament," in Nature, Volume LXXIV, August 23, 1906, Pages 410-411. The author's original Italian-language essay also appears in Volume 1 (Pages 153-300) of "Scritti Sulla Storia della Astronomia Antica" (3 Volumes, 1925-1927; Reprinted 1997-1998). These volumes contain the collected Italian-language publications of the author on ancient astronomy, basically Babylonian, Greek, and Medieval. The essay "L'Astronomia Nell' Antico Testamento" was quickly translated into both German ("Die Astronomie im Alten Testament", translated and edited by the librarian Willy Lüdte (1904), who added additional notes); and English ("Astronomy in the Old Testament", by Anon (1905)), the latter of which included many corrections and additions by the author. (Spanish-language editions appeared in 1945 and 1969.) All of the author's publications on ancient astronomy remain valuable. Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910) was an Italian astronomer. See the (French-language) book review in Revue Biblique, Nouvelle Série, Deuxième Année, Number 4, Octobre, 1905, Pages 634-635. See the (English-language) book review by Edward Maunder in The Observatory, Volume 29, 1906, March, Pages 120-126. See the (English-language) biographical entry by Giorgio Abetti in Dictionary of Scientific Biography, edited by Charles Gillispie, Volume XII, Pages 159-162; the (English-language) obituary by E.B.K. in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume LXXI, 1911, Pages 282-287; and the (English-language) obituary by Robert Aitken in Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volume XXII, 1910, Pages 164-165.]

Schwartz, Seth. (2000). "On the program and reception of the synagogue mosaics." In: Levine, L[?]. and Weizz, Z[?]. (Editors). From Dura to Sepphoris: Studies in Jewish Art and Society in Late Antiquity. (Pages 165-181). [Note: Some discussion of zodiac mosaics in Jewish synagogues.]

Schwartz, Seth. (2001). Imperialism and Jewish Society. 200 B.C.E. to 640 C.E. [Note: Some discussion of zodiac mosaics in Jewish synagogues.]

Sukenik, Elezear. (1934). Ancient Synagogues in Palestine and Greece. [Note: Includes a discussion of the zodiac in the synagogue of Beth Alpha.]

Um, Hongsuk. (2015). Observation of Celestial Phenomena in the Gospel of Matthew. [Note: Thesis submitted in November 2015 for postgraduate degree, The University of Edinburgh, School of Divinity. Awarded 2016. Very interesting content. Freely downloadable from internet.]


Ben-Dov, Jonathan. (2014). "A Jewish Parapegma? Reading 1 Enoch 82 in Roman Egypt." In: Stern, Sacha. and Burnett, Charles. (Editors). Time, Astronomy, and Calendars in the Jewish Tradition. (Pages 1-26).

Blau, Ludwig. (1901-1906). "Orion." In: Singer, Isidore. (Managing Editor). The Jewish Encyclopedia. (12 Volumes).

Boscawen, William St.[Saint] Chad. (1886). "Gleanings from Clay Commentaries." (The Babylonian & Oriental Record, Volume 1, Number 2, December, Pages 23-25). [Note: Life dates: 1854-1913.]

Cheyne, Thomas. (1898). "Influence of Assyrian in Unexpected Places." (Journal of Biblical Literature, Volume 17, Number 1, Pages 103-107). [Note: Discusses the influence of Assyrian culture on Old Testament star names/constellations. Life dates: 1841-1915.]

Clarke, John. (1883). "Jacob's Zodiac." (The Hebrew Student, Volume 2, Number 5/6, January-February, Pages 155-158). [Note: Unreliable.]

Clements, Ronald. (1974). "kôtāb." In: Botterweck, Gerhart., Ringgren, Helmer., and Fabry, Heinz-Josef. (Editors). Theological dictionary of the Old Testament: Volume VII. (Pages 75-85). [Note: A detailed and comprehensive article on astronomy in the Old Testament. Ronal Clements is a highly respected Old Testament scholar. currently (2004) he is Professor of Old Testament Emeritius at King's College in the University of London. He is an ordained Baptist minister. Life dates for Ronald Clements: 1929- .]

Clerke, Agnes. (1907). "Astronomy in the Bible." In: Herbermann, Charles. et al. (Editors). The Catholic Encyclopedia. (Volume 2).

Cooley, Jeffrey. (2011). "Astral Religion in Ugarit and Ancient Israel." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 70, Number 2, October, Pages 281-287). [Note: Jeffrey Cooley (2012) is Assistant Professor in the Theology Department at Boston College, MA. He joined the theology faculty at Boston College in 2009. Before coming to BC, he was a member of the Classics department at Xavier University, first as an adjunct instructor (2003-2006) and then as a visiting assistant professor (2003-2009). Education: Ph.D., HUC-JIR, M.Phil., Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion BA, Wheaton College. Research interests: Hebrew Bible in its ancient Near Eastern context; calendars; Sabbath; the tabernacle; the intersection of ancient scholarship and literature; divination in the ancient Near East; myth and method; intercultural contact in the ancient Mediterranean.]

Cooley, Jeffrey. (2012). "Celestial Divination in Ugarit and Ancient Israel: A Reassessment." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 71, Number 1, April, Pages 21-30).

Cooper, Theodore. (1910). "The Chamber of the South - Job IX, 9." (The Open Court, Volume XXIV, Number 8, August, Number 651, Pages 500-504).

Driver, Godfrey. (1953). "Two Astronomical Passages in the Old Testament." (Journal of Theological Studies, New Series, Volume 4, Pages 208-222).

Feuchtwang, D. (1915). "Der Tierkreis in der Tradition und im Synagogenritus." (Monatsschrift für Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judentums, Jahrg. 59 (Neue Folge, 23), Heft 10/12, Oktober/Dezember, Pages 241-267).

Foerster, G[?]. (1987). "Representations of the zodiac in ancient synagogues and their iconographic sources." (Eretz-Israel, Volume 18, Pages 165-181). [Note: Eretz-Israel is the journal of the Israel Exploration Society.]

Foerster, G[?]. (1987). "The Zodiac in Ancient Synagogues and its Place in Jewish Thought and Literature." (Eretz-Israel, Volume 19, Pages 225-234).

Foster, R. V. (1885). "Some Astronomy in the Book of Job, Ch. XXXVIII., 31,32." (The Old Testament Student, Volume 4, Number 8, April, Pages 358-363.

Greenfield, J[?]. and Sokoloff, Michael. (1994) "An Astrological Text from Qumran (4Q318) and Reflections on some Zodiacal Names." (Revue de Qumran, Tome 16, Number 64, December, Pages 507-525).

Grund, Alexandra. (2002). "'Auf die ganze Erde geht ihre Messschnur aus' - Die Ordnung des Himmels in Ps 19,5a und der babylonische Sternenkatalog BM 78161." (Biblische Notizen, Volume 110, Pages 66-75).

Hachlili, Rachel. (1977). "The Zodiac in Ancient Jewish Art: Representation and Significance." (Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Number 228, December, Pages 61-77).

Herberger, Charles. (1987). "Samson Strides the Skies." (Griffith Observer, March, Pages ?-?).

Hertz, N[?]. (1913). "The Astral Terms in Job IX 9, and XXXVIII 31-32." (The Journal of Theological Studies, [Old Series] Volume 14, Pages 575-577).

Hess, Jean. (1932). "Die Sternbilder in Hiob 9,9 and 38,31 f." In: [Menzel, Theodor. (Editor)?]. Festschrift, George Jacob zum siebzigsten Geburtstag, 26. Mai 1932. (Pages 94-99). 

Hirsch, Emil. (1901-1906). "Constellations." In: Singer, Isidore. (Managing Editor). The Jewish Encyclopedia. (12 Volumes).

Jastrow Junior, Morris., Jensen, Peter., Jastrow, Marcus., Blau, Ludwig., Gottheil, Richard., and Jacobs, Joseph. (1901-1906). "Astronomy." In: The Jewish Encyclopedia. (12 Volumes).

Lansing, John. (1885). "Pleiades, Orion and Mazzaroth, Job XXXVIII., 31,32." (Hebraica [= The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures], Volume 1, Number 4, April, Pages 236-242).

Lelli, F[?]. (2nd revised edition, 1995). "Stars." In: van der Toorn, K[?]. et al. (Editors). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. (Pages 809-815).

Magness, Jodi. (2005). "Heaven on Earth: Helios and the Zodiac Cycle in Ancient Palestinian Synagogues." (Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Volume 59, Pages 1-52).

Margoliouth, Moses[?]. 1866). "What Did the Ancient Hebrews Know of Astronomy." (The Scattered Nation; Past Present and Future, Volume 1, March 1, Pages 49-53). [Note: The respected scholar Moses Margoliouth was a Jewish Christian and minister in the Church of England. Life dates: 1819-1871. The title of the journal, edited by C. Schwartz is also given as: The Scattered Nation and Jewish Christian Magazine.]

Maunder, Edward. (1912). "The Astronomy of the Apocrypha." (The International Journal of the Apocrypha, July, Pages ?-?). [Note: Also referenced in The Observatory, Volume 35, Pages 325-328. Maunder claims the author of II. Esdras - at least on astronomy - was influenced by the Persian (Zoroastrian) Bundahis.]

Maunder, Edward. (1915; Revised edition 1929, & 1979-1988). "Astronomy." In: Orr, James. (General editor). The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia. Volume 1. (Pages 300-316).

McKay, John. (1970). "Helel and the Dawn-Goddess: A Re-Examination of the Myth in Isaiah XIV 12-15." (Vetus Testamentum, Volume 20, Fascicle 4, October, Pages 451-464).

Mesnard, R./H.? (1952). "Les constellations du Livre de Job." (Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, Volume 30, Numbers 1-2, Pages ?-?).

Milikowsky, Chaim. (1983). ""Kima" and the Flood in "Seder Olam" and B. T. Rosh Ha-Shana Stellar Time-Reckoning and Uranography in Rabbinic Literature." (Proceedings of the American academy for Jewish Research, Volume 50, 1983, Pages 105-132). [Note: The term Kima is generally identified as referring to the Pleiades.]

Pinches, Theophilus. (1906). "The Morning Star in the Gospels." (Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, Volume 38, Pages ?-?).

Quainton, Cecil. (1926). "The Astronomy of the Bible." (The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Volume XX, Number 6, July-August, Whole Number 157, Pages 193-197).

Sela, Shlomo. (2016). "Al-Farghānī on the 48 Ptolemaic Constellations: Newly Discovered Text in Hebrew Translation." (Aleph: Historical Studies in Science and Judaism, Volume 16, Number 2, Pages 249-365). [Note: "Abstract: The present study reports the discovery of a hitherto unknown account of the 48 Ptolemaic constellations, probably by al-Farghānī, or at least from the first phase of the Arabic Ptolemaic astronomical tradition. A Hebrew translation of this account is embedded in the chapter on the fixed stars in Jacob Anatoli's Hebrew translation (ca. 1230–1240) of al-Farghānī's Elements, which this paper studies closely. This chapter is a fundamental text for understanding the Jewish interest in the fixed stars from the twelfth century onward. The Arabic text underlying Anatoli's Hebrew translation was well known in the twelfth century, notably to Abraham Bar Ḥiyya and Abraham Ibn Ezra. Anatoli's Hebrew translation of this chapter had a strong impact on subsequent Hebrew astronomy, beginning in the second half of the thirteenth century." Shlomo Sela is currently professor emeritus in the department of Jewish Though at Bar-Ilan University.]

Sidersky, David. (1931). "La Désignation Biblique de Certaines Constellations." (Journal Asiatique, Volume MDCCCCXXXI, Pages 354-356). [Note: The well-known and respected Jewish chemist and amateur Orientalist and chronologer/science historian (Dr) David Sidersky (1858-circa 1935?), who lived in Paris (at least) during the first half of the 20th-century, was the son of Rabbi Aharon Sidersky of Grodno. Grodno or Hrodna is a city in western Belarus. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland and Lithuania. David Sidersky was French or at least had French citizenship. David Sidersky was a Chemical Engineer (Ingénieur-Chimiste) by profession and wrote several notable books on the subject. His hobby was ancient Oriental chronology, mathematics, and astronomy. He was a member of the Société Asiatique, a French learned society dedicated to the study of Asia (including West Asia = Near East), founded in 1822. He was also a member of the Société Ernest Renan. When quite young he also published some poetry (1874). His early chemical work involved sugary substances in the food industry. Two early books on chemistry: Manuel du chimiste de sucrerie, de raffinerie et de glucoserie (1890), and La fabrication du sucre (1909). Though he could not speak Arabic he nevertheless wrote about Islamic legends (Les origines des légendes musulmanes dans le Coran et dans les vies des prophètes (1924). His publications on chronology include: Astronomical Origin of Jewish Chronology (1913), and Étude sur la chronologie assyro-babylonienne (1916). His Paris address was: avenue Pasteur, 46, à Bécon-ies-Bruyères (Seine).]

Smick, Elmer. (1970). "Mythology and the Book of Job." (Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, Volume 13, Pages 101-108).

Smick, Elmer. (1978). "Another Look at the Mythological Elements in the Book of Job." (Westminster Theological Journal, Volume 40, Number 2, Spring, Pages 213-228).

Smith, W. R. (1875). "The Origin of the Jewish Week." (Nature, Volume 11, Issue 280, March, Pages 363). [Note: "Abstract. Mr. R. A. Proctor's paper on "Saturn and the Sabbath of the Jews,"' in the Contemporary Review of this month, reopens one of the oldest and most interesting questions in the history of astronomy. Unfortunately, the writer is very imperfectly acquainted with the literature of his subject, and in consequence has, I think, imported not a little confusion into the discussion. That the week of seven days is directly connected with the worship of the seven planets known to the ancients, is a theory which has always had many supporters. It is at once suggested by the familiar names of the seven days, and would be absolutely proved if we could show that these names are as old as the division of the lunar month into four weeks. Again, it is also a well-known, though less wide-spread doctrine, that the Jewish Sabbath passed into Mosaism from an earlier planetary religion. Of course, if it can be shown that the Sabbath was originally sacred to Saturn, we have a strong proof of the antiquity of the names of the week-days, and a probability that these names are as old as the seven day week itself. In this way a question in the history of Semitic religions comes to have an important bearing on a question in the history of astronomy. Mr. Proctor reverses the argument. He assumes that we have the clearest possible evidence that all nations that adopted the seven day week named the days after the planets, and did so in that peculiar order which is generally explained by assuming that a new planet presides over every successive hour of the week, and that each day takes the name of the planet of its first hour. It is then argued that Saturn, as the highest planet, was the supreme god of Assyria, and so also of the Egyptians who received their astrological lore from Chaldea. The Egyptians, we are told, certainly consecrated the seventh day of the week to Saturn, and since the Israelites left Egypt observing the Sabbath, while there is no evidence of a Sabbath in patriarchal times, ``it is presumable that this day was a day of rest in Egypt.'' Now, whatever may be the ultimate solution of the problem of the origin and diffusion of the seven-day week, this theory rests partly on uncertain assumptions, partly on undoubted blunders. It is notorious that several Semitic nations, not to speak of the Peruvians, had a seven-day week without planetary names; so that Mr. Proctor's fundamental assumption begs the whole question. Then, again, it is the opinion of so great an authority as Lepsius that the Egyptians had no seven-day week, but divided the month into three decades. The passage of Dion Cassius from which the contrary opinion is drawn is certainly not decisive for ancient Egyptian usage, and Mr. Proctor seems to quote his author at second hand; for he asserts, in flat contradiction to Dion, that when the latter wrote, neither Greeks nor Romans used the week. For the supposition that Saturn was the supreme god of the Egyptians, not a shadow of proof is offered, while what is said of the Assyrian Saturn is directly in the teeth of the most recent researches. If Mr. Proctor had read Schrader's essay on the Babylonian origin of the week, he would have known that Adar or Saturn is quite distinct from the supreme god Asur. Thus, apart from the late and doubtful testimony of Dion, Mr. Proctor has no other evidence for his Egyptian theory of the week than that which he derives from the presumed non-existence of the Sabbath among the Hebrews before they entered Egypt. But the seven-day week appears in the narrative of the flood, which is certainly not an Egyptian legend. I say nothing of numerous minor inaccuracies in Mr. Proctor's paper, but repeat that the point on which new light requires to be thrown is whether it can be made out that the names of the seven days are as old as the week itself. This again seems to depend partly on the question whether the division of the day into twenty-four hours is older than the week, and partly on what can be determined as to early Egyptian and Chaldean subdivisions of the month. The Egyptians had a day of twenty-four hours, but had they a week? The Chaldeans may have had the week, but they seem to have divided the day (including the night) into twelve hours. Perhaps, however, it ought to be borne in mind that Dion gives another way of accounting for the names of the day, depending not on the division of the day into hours, but on the analogy of musical harmony. The Jewish Sabbath can contribute little to the argument unless one is prepared with Lagarde to maintain that Shabbat is a name of Saturn.]

Stieglitz, Robert. (1981). "The Hebrew Names of the Seven Planets." (Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Volume 40, Number 2, April, Pages 135-137).

Talbot, Henry. (1872). "On the Mazzaroth of Job xxxviii. 32." (Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, Volume 1, Pages 339-342).

Weddel, J[?]. "The Heavens of the Hebrew." (The Hebrew Student, Volume 1, Number 4, July, Pages 65-67). [Note: J. W. Weddell was a minister residing in Chicago, Illinois.]

Wolters, Al. (1993). "An Allusion to Libra in Daniel 5." In: Galter, Hannes. and Scholz, Bernhard. (Editors). Die Rolle der Astronomie in den Kulturen Mesopotamiens. (Pages 291-306).

Zatelli, Ida. (1991). "Astrology and the Worship of the Stars in in the Bible." (Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, Band 103, Pages 86-99).

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Abegg, Emil. (1928). Der Messiasglaube in Indien und Iran. [Note: Includes discussion of the astronomical context of these beliefs.]

Assasi, Reza. (2013) "Swastika: The forgotten constellation representing the chariot of Mithras." In: Sprajc, Ivan. and Pehani, Peter. (Editors). Ancient Cosmologies and Modern Prophets. (Pages 407-418). [Note: The author's name is sometimes incorrectly spelled Assaie, or similar. Reza Assasi (2013) is an Archaeoastronomer and a PhD candidate at McGill university in History and Theory of Architecture. For an opposing point of view see: Burillo-Cuadrado, Pilar. and Burillo-Mozota, Francisco. (2014). "The Swastika as Representation of the Sun of Helios and Mithras." (Mediterranean Archaeology & Archaeometry, Volume 14, Number 3, Pages 29-36).]

Bischoff, Erich. (1906?, 1920). Im Reiche der Gnosis. Die mystischen Lehren des jüdischen und christlichen Gnostizismus, des Mandäismus und Manichäismus und ihr babylonisch - astraler Ursprung.

Boyce, Mary. (1975-1991, 3 Volumes). A History of Zoroastrianism. [Note: See: "The Gods of Pagan Iran." in Volume I: The Early Period. (Pages 22-84); and "The Pre-Zoroastrianism Religion of the Medes and Persians." in Volume II: Under the Achaemenians. (Pages 14-39). Volume I was published 1975, Volume II was published 1982, Volume III (co-authored with Franz Grenet) was published 1991. At the time of her death she was working with Frantz Grenet on Volume IIII: The Parthian Period. It appears it was not completed and published. See the detailed (English-language) obituary by Almut Hintze in Bulletin of the SOAS [School of Oriental and African Studies], Volume 70, Number 1, 2007, Pages 143-149. Life dates: 1920-2006.]

MacKenzie, D[?]. (1992). "Constellations." In: Yarshater, Ehsan. (Editor). Encyclopaedia Iranica (Volume VI, Fascicle 2, Pages 147-150). [Note: The author holds a position at the Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen.]

Malandra, William. (1983). An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion: Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions. [Note: See the discussion: Tishtrya, Pages 140-149.]

Eilers, Wilhelm. (1967). "Stern-Planet-Regenbogen. Zur Nomenklatur der orientalischen Himmelskunde." In: Hoenerbach, Wilhelm. (Editor). Der Orient in der Forschung. Festschrift für Otto Spies. (Pages 92-146).

Gropp, Harald. (2008). "Mathematics and Astronomy of the Mandaeans." In: Macuch, Rudolf. and Voight, Ranier. (Editors). "Und das Leben ist siegreich!" (Pages 63-70). [Note: A balanced summary of our present state of knowledge.]

Henning, Walter (and other contributors). (1962). A Locust's Leg: Studies in Honour of S. H. Taqizadeh.

Hertel, Johannes. (1936). Der Planet Venus im Awesta.

Jakubiak, Krzysztof. and Soltysiak, Arkadiusz. (2006). "Mesopotamian Influence on Persian Sky-watching and Calendar: Part I. Mithra, Shamash, and Solar Festivals." In: Soltysiak, Arkadiusz. (Editor). Proceedings of the Conference Time and Astronomy in Past Cultures. (Pages 51-62). [Note: Conference on Time and Astronomy in Past Cultures, Toruń, March 30 - April 1, 2005. A very interesting paper. Part II was published in the journal Archaeologia Baltica. Both authors belong to the Institute of Archaeology, Warsaw University, Poland.]

Khareghat, M[?]. (1914). "The identity of some heavenly bodies mentioned in the Old Iranian writings." In: Modi, Jivanji. (Editor). Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy Madressa Jubilee Volume. (Pages 116-158).

Malandra, William. (1983). An Introduction to Ancient Iranian Religion: Readings from the Avesta and Achaemenid Inscriptions. [Note: See the discussion: Tishtrya, Pages 140-149.]

Molé, Marijan. (1963). Culte, mythe et cosmologie dans l’Iran ancient. [Note: Excellent and exhaustive study. The author (a French scholar) had a PhD from the Sorbonne. See the brief (English-language) book review by D. MacKenzie in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), Volume 97, Issue 2, April, 1965, Page 139. Interestingly, Marijan Mole proposed that, at least in ancient times, the crossing of Cinvat Bridge was an initiatory test. (See "Daēnā, le pont Činvat et l’initiation dans le Mazdéisme." Revue de I'Histoire des Religions, Volume 157, 1960, Pages 155-185.) Prior to his death he held a position in Teheran (Departement d'iranologie de lTnstitut franco-iranien).]

Panaino, Antonio. (1990). "Tistrya, Part 1: The Avestan hymn to Sirius." (Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Roma [= Serie orientale Roma, Volume 68, Number 1]). [Note: A new translation of the Avestan hymn referencing his differences with previous translations. Approximately 150 pages. The authors two books on Tistrya earned him, in 1998, the "R. et T, Ghirsham" prize from the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres of Paris. Antonio Panaino is Full Professor of Iranian Studies at the "Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Ravenna."]

Panaino, Antonio. (1995). "Tistrya, Part 2: The Iranian myth of the star Sirius." (Instituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Roma [= Serie orientale Roma, Volume 68, Number 2]). [Note: Supporting references for his translation of the Avestan hymn. Approximately 150 pages. Numerous astronomical references. See the (English-language) book review by Prods Skjærvø [Prods Oktor Skjaervo, an Iranian scholar] in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 117, Number 1, January-March, 1995, Pages 215-216.]

Panaino, Antonio. (1999). "The Cardinal Asterisms in the Sasanian Uranography." In Gyselen, R[?]. (Editor). La science des cieux: sages, mages, astrologues. [Note: An important discussion.]

Panaino, Antonio. (2004). "Astral Characters of Kingship in the Sasanian and Byzantine Worlds." In: Accademia nazionale dei Lincei ; Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. (Editors/Publishers). Convegno internazionale la Persia e Bisanzio (Roma, 14-18 ottobre 2002). (Pages 555-594 [Also erroneously given as Pages 455-494]). [Note: Papers presented at 2002 conference. Commonly referenced as: Persia e Bisanzio. Details also given as: La Persia e Bisanzio. Atti dei convegni Lincei (Roma), 201, 2004, Pages 555-594.]

Panaino, Antonio. (2014; 2 Volumes). Sidera Viva. Studi Iranici di Storia della Mitologia Astrale, dell'Astronomia e dell'Astrologia Antica. (Editors). Andrea Gariboldi, Paolo Ognibene & Velizar Sadovski. [Note: Antonio Panaino is professor of ancient Iranian philology and history of religion at the University of Bologna. Publishers blurb: This comprehensive two-volume set is a collection of the wide range of articles and short writings written by Antonio Panaino during last decades. The articles are already appeared in academic journals and collected volumes, often not easily accessible to a wider audience. These studies are all dedicated to the different areas of research developed by the author, in particular on the history of ancient Iranian as well as Zoroastrian astral mythology, astronomy and astrology, from the earliest period of Indo-Iranian and Iranian history through the late antiquity up to the High Middle Ages as well as early Islamic era.]

Panaino, Antonio. (2015). "The Classification of Astral Bodies in the framework of an Historical Survey of Iranian traditions." In: Bläsing, Uwe., Arakelova, Victoria., and Weinreich, Matthias. (Editors). Studies on Iran and The Caucasus In Honour of Garnik Asatrian (Pages 229-244). [Note: "Abstract: The current paper presents the status of our knowledge about the classification patterns adopted in the earliest phases of the Avestan tradition with regard to the astral bodies and their supposed identity, origin, function and role in the framework of the Mazdean religious tradition. Then, this study underlines the fundamental importance of the single stars in the Zoroastrian cosmology and the forms of distinction, individualization and categorization they were attributed, with particular regard for the determination of some constellations. Remarkably interesting appears the distinction between the stars and the two luminaries, the Sun and the Moon, all of them celestial symbols of the preservation of the correct cosmic order in the heavens as on the earth. Furthermore, the article emphasizes the problem of the subdivision of the heavens in three and more levels, and its origins as well as the following introduction of new categories of stars. Very important is, at least for the earliest periods of the Iranian civilization, the evident absence of the planets (and of the planetary demons), whose clear identification was only a later phenomenon, probably derived by contacts with the Mesopotamian traditions. On the contrary, the Old Iranian people focused on their closer attention on astral bodies whose movement was unpredictable and without regularity, as in the cases of falling stars, bolides, etc. This category of celestial bodies was later associated with the planets and their negative role, as symbols of cosmic disorder, but framed in the new patterns of the astrological tradition, which was completely unknown in the Old Iranian period."]

Scherer, Anton. (1953). Gestirnnamen bei den Indogermanischen Völkern.


[?]. (1976). "[?]." (Journal of the K. R. Cama Oriental Institute, Issue 45, [circa] Pages 24-69). [Note: Contains a lengthy article on ancient Iranian astral beliefs.]

Beck, Roger. (1999). "The astronomical design of Karakush, a royal burial site in ancient Commagene: an hypothesis." (Culture and Cosmos, Volume 3, Number 1, Pages 10-34). [Note: Proposes three astronomical alignments of columns with three constellations during June. The lion columns with Leo setting after sunset; the eagle columns with Aquila culminating around midnight; and the bull columns with Taurus rising before dawn.]

Brunner, C. J. (1987). "Astronomy and Astrology in Iran II. Astronomy and astrology in the Sasanian period." In: Yarshater, Ehsan. (Editor). Encyclopedia Iranica II, Fascicle 8, Pages 862-868.

Davis, Jr., George. (1945). "The So-Called Royal Stars of Persia." (Popular Astronomy, Volume LIII, Number 4, April, Whole Number 524, Pages 149-159). [Note: Excellent, informed article.]

Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques. (1986). "Origines iraniennes et babyloniennes de la nomenclature astrale." (Comptes-rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Volume 130, Issue 2, Pages 234-250). [Note: Excellent article.]

Filliozat, Jean. (1962). "Notes d'Astronomie Ancienne de l'Iran et de l'Inde (I, II et II)." (Journal Asiatique, Tome CCL, Pages 325-350). [Note: See pages 325-332: I. Sur les Constellations Mentionnés dans l'AVESTA.]

Filliozat, Jean. (1969). "Notes on Ancient Iranian and Indian Astronomy." (Journal of the K.R. Cama Oriental Research Institute, Volume 42, Pages 100-135).

Fleet, J[?]. (1911). "Brihaspati and Tishya." (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, October, Pages 1119-1122). [Note: A discussion of the identification of Tishya.]

Hartner, Willy. (1913-1936). "Wega (Vega)." In: Houtsma, Martijn. (Editor). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 (Volume 9, Page 1137). [Note: Excellent and informed article.]

Henning, Walter. (1942/43). "An Astronomical Chapter of the Bundahishn." (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Pages 229-248). [Note: The author was an expert on ancient Iran.]

Jakubiak, Krzysztof. and Soltysiak, Arkadiusz. (2007?). "Mesopotamian Influence on Persian Sky-watching and Calendar: Part II. Ishtar and Anahita." (Archaeologia Baltica, Volume 10, Pages ?-?). [Note: Abstract: There are a small number of similarities between Ishtar and Anahit, the Persian and Babylonian Venus-goddesses. These similarities may result from cultural diffusion between Persia and Mesopotamia, which was mainly eastwards. We present a comparison of the attributes belonging to both Ishtar and Anahita. This is mainly based on the Mesopotamian sources, since the Persian ones are very meagre. The relationships and influences between the two goddesses are visible in the symbolism of the planet Venus and the constellation Leo, and are associated with autumnal equinox festivals.]

MacKenzie, D[?]. (1964). "Zoroastrian Astrology in the Bundahĭsn." (Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies [BSOAS], Volume XXVII, Issue 3, October, Pages 511-529). [Note: Lots of astronomy.]

Maunder, Annie. (1912/1913). "The Zoroastrian Star-Champions." (The Observatory, Volume 35, November, Pages 393-396, & 438-443; Volume 36, April, Pages 136-141). [Note: Annie Russell (i.e., Annie Maunder) was the second wife of Edward Maunder. She graduated from Cambridge University (Girton College) in 1889 with a BA (Class II). (In 1889 she sat for the Mathematical Tripos and was placed forty-second, which was in the upper half of the Senior Optimes. She meet Edward Maunder whilst working as a "lady computer" at Greenwich Observatory. During the period of her employment there she was attached to the solar department which was under the direction of Edward Maunder. She also undertook night-time observing duties with the astrographic refractor. See the (English-language) obituary by P.J.M. in The Observatory, Volume 67, 1947, Pages 231-232.]

Maunder, Annie. (1916). "Iranian migrations before history." (Scientia, Volume 19, Pages 115-124). [Note: Needs to be used with caution.]

Maunder, Annie. (1931). "When the snow-white bull with the gilded horns ushers in the year." (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 41, Pages 127-133). [Note: Needs to be used with caution.]

Maunder, Annie. (1931). "The four star champions of Iran." (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 41, Pages 425-429). [Note: Needs to be used with caution.]

Panaino, Antonio. (1986). "Tistrya e la stagione delle plogge." (Acme, Volume XXXIX, Fascicolo I, Gennaio-Aprile, Pages 125-133).

Pingree, David. and Brunner, C[?]. (1987). "Astrology and Astronomy in Iran." In: Yarshater, Ehsan. (Editor). Encyclopaedia Iranica (Volume II, Pages 858-871).

Panaino, Antonio. (1987). "The Decans in Iranian Astrology." (East and West, Volume 37, Numbers 1-4, December, Pages 131-137).

Panaino, Antonio. (1988). "Tistrya e Mithra." (Acme, Volume XLI, Fascicolo III, Settembre-Dicembre, Pages 229-242).

Panaino, Antonio. (1995/1996). "Uranographica Iranica II: Avestan hapta.sru- and merezu-: Ursa Minor and the North Pole?." (Archiv für Orientforschung, Volume XLII/XLIII, Pages 190-207).

Panaino, Antonio. (2005). "Tištrya." In: Yarshater, Ehsan. (Editor). Encyclopaedia Iranica (Volume ?, Pages ?-?).

Panaino, Antonio. (2009). "Zodiac." Encyclopaedia Iranica, online edition. [Note: Excellent.]

Panaino, Antonio. (2011). "Sadwēs, Anāhīd and the Manichaean Maiden of Light." In: Özertural, Zekine. and Wolkens, Jens. (Editors). Der östliche Manichäismus Gattungs- und Werksgeschichte. Vorträge des Göttinger Symposiums vom 4./5. März 2010 (Pages 121-131).

Panaino, Antonio. (2016). "Between Astral Cosmology and Astrology: The Mazdean Cycle of 12,000 Years and the Final Renovation of the World." In: Stewart, Sarah., Williams, Alan., and Hintz, Almut. (Editors). The Zoroastrian Flame. Exploring Religion, History and Tradition. (Pages 113-134).

Patgambar, Perochak. (2006). "Some Natural Phenomena and Celestial Bodies in the Yezidi Folk Beliefs." (Iran & the Caucasus, Volume 10, Number 1, Pages 21-24). [Note: Yazidi or Yezidi.]

Pavri, Kursedji (1924-1925). "Astronomy of the Avesta." (Iranian Association Journal, Volume ?, Pages ?-?).

Poorbahram, Mitra. and Kargar, Mahdi. (2014). "The predicates of ancient Iran astronomy in the narratives of history." (International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences." Volume 3, Number 2, Pages 1367-1369).

Tuman, Vladimir. (1983). "The Cerberus Slab of Hatra may represent Important Astronomical Events." (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 24, Pages 14-23).

Weber, Albrecht. (1888). "Über alt-irānische Sternnamen." (In: Sitzungsberichte der Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften, Pages 3-14). [Note: The article names also appears as: "Über altiranische Sternnamen." Also referenced as: Sitzungsberichte - Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften. Still useful.]

Windfuhr, Gernot. (2002-2003). "Zoroastrian Myth and Constellations: Hauma and Zarathushtra." (Orientalia Suecana, Volumes LI-LII [51-52], Pages 471-477). [Note: Gernot Windfuhr has repeatedly argued that astrological patterns are a key to a number of fundamental issues of ancient Zoroastrianism (this article being an example). The author is also sympathetic to the book, Hamlet's Mill. The article reference is also given with mistaken page numbers: Windfuhr, Gernot. 2003. "Zoroastrian Myth and Constellations: Hauma and Zarathushtra." (Orientalia Suecana, Volumes 51–52, Pages 171–177).

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Beer, Arthur. (1932). "The Astronomical Significance of the Zodiac of Qusayr Amra'." In: Creswell, Keppel. (Editor). Early Muslim Architecture. Volume 1. (Pages 296-303). [Note: See the (English-language) book review by A[?]. P[?]. in Isis, Volume 19, Number 3, September, 1933, Pages 504-506.]

Brown, Laurel. (2009). The astronomies of al-Sufi's "Book of the Constellations of the Fixed Stars" [Note: Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, 387 pages. Life dates: 1976- .]

Caboni, Stefano. (1997). Following the Stars: Images of the Zodiac in Islamic Art. [Note: The Metropolitan Museum of Art 1997 exhibition pamphlet; 48 pages.]

Carey, Moya. (2001). Painting the Stars in a Century of Change. [Note: Excellent. Unpublished PhD thesis on a 13th-century copy of al-Sûfi's Treatise on the Fixed Stars in the British Museum (British Library Or.5323).]

Casanova, Paul. (1902). "De quelques légendes astronomiques arabes consiérées dans leurs rapports avec la mythologie égyptienne." (Bulletin de L'Institut français d'archéologie orientale - La Caire, numéro 2, Pages 1-19). [Note: Paul Casanova was Professeur de langue et littérature arabes au College de France.]

Davis, Junior., George. (1963). Pronunciations, Derivations, and Meanings of a Selected List of Star Names. [Note: A 1944 journal article reprinted as a pamphlet by Sky Publishing Corporation. Some 180 star names are covered in this essay. Though George Davis was an expert on Arabic star names the essay contains some errors.  The pamphlet originally appeared as a journal article in Popular Astronomy, Volume 52, Number 1, January, Pages 8-30. George Davis died on June 4th, 1961.]

Ferrand, Gabriel. (1928). Introduction a l'astronomie nautique arabe.

Gatto, Katherine. and Bahler, Ingrid. (1997). The Lapidary of King Alfonso X the Learned: A Critical Edition. [Note: This is the first English-language edition of the Lapidario. The manuscript frequently referred to the constellations/stars set out by Ptolemy in his Almagest. See the appendix by Jeffrey La Favre which discusses the astronomy of the Lapidario and identifies the stars mentioned in the Lapidario with modern star names.]

Gingerich, Owen. (1987). "Zoomorphic Astrolabes and the Introduction of Arabic Star Names into Europe." In: King, David. and Saliba, George. (Editors). From Deferent to Equant. (Pages 89-104). [Note: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Volume 500, Number 1. Festschrift for Edward Kennedy. An excellent article on the subject of the introduction of Arabic star names into Europe.]

Gingrich, Andre. (1994). Südwestararabische Sternenkalender. (Wiener Beiträge zur Ethnologie und Anthropologie, Band 7). [Note: The publication is a book and gives a comprehensive account of the ethnoastronomy of a specific northern Yemeni tribe. The author is an Austrian anthropologist ]

Gousset, Thérèse. (1984). "Le Liber de locis stellarum fixarum d'Al-Sufi, ms. 1036 de la Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal de Paris: une réattribution." (Arte medievale, Volume 2, Pages 93-108?).

Hafez, Ihsan. (2010). Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi and his book of the fixed stars: a journey of re-discovery. [Note: PhD thesis, the first English translation of al-Sufi's star atlas.]

Hafez, Ihsan., Stephenson, F[?]., and Orchiston, Wayne. (2011). "Ábdul-Rahmān al-Şūfï and his Book of the Fixed Stars: A Journey of Re-discovery." In: Orchiston, Wayne., Nakamura, Tsuko., and Strom, Richard. (Editors). Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region. (Pages 121-138). [Note: Proceedings of the ICOA-6 Conference.]

Harris, William. and Allen, Frederic. (Editors). (2nd edition, unabridged; 1934). Webster's new international dictionary of the English language. [Note: Recorded Arabic star-names that were believed to be the origin of English star-names.]

Higgins, William. (1882). The names of the stars and constellations compiled from the Latin, Greek, and Arabic: with their derivations and meanings. [Note: This is a very small book of 57 pages.]

Hobden, Heather. (1999). Ulughbek and his Observatory in Samarkand. [Note: Booklet.]

Juste, David. (2007). Les Alchandreana primitifs : Étude sur les plus anciens traités astrologiques latins d'origine arabe (Xe siècle).

Kennedy, Edward. (1956). A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. [Note: 55 pages.]

King, David. (2000)."The Star-Names on Three 14th-Century Astrolabes from Spain, France and Italy." In: Folkerets, Menso. and Lorch, Richard. (2000). SIC ITUR AD ASTRA: Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. (Pages 307-333). [Note: Festschrift für den Arabisten Paul Kunitzsch zum 70. Geburtstag. The paper by David King discusses, among other things, the pot purri of star-names found on medieval European astrolabes.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1959). Arabische Sternnamen in Europa. [Note: The best and most reliable study of Western use (i.e., adaptations) of Arabic star names. It critically traces the histories of approximately 210 constellations/star names. For Arabic star names in Western use it should be used in preference to "Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning," by Richard Allen. See the (English-language) book review by H[?]. Hermelink Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 81, Number 3, 1961, Pages 309-312; the (German-language) book reviews by Ernst Bannerth in Anthropos, Band 55, 1960, Page 603; by W[?]. Petri in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Band 112, 1962, Pages 407-410; by M[?]. Fleischhammer in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Band 57, Heft 9-10, 1962, Columns 511-513; and the (Spanish-language) book review by Juan Vernet in Oriens, Volume 13-14, 1961, Pages 387-388. Life dates: 1930-2020.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1961). Untersuchungen zur Sternnomenklatur der Araber. [Note: A study of indigenous Arabic constellations and star names. One of the few easily accessible studies. See the (German-language) book reviews by Ernst Bannerth in Anthropos, Band 57, 1962, Page 235; by W[?]. Petri in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Band 112, 1962, Pages 407-410; by M[?]. Fleischhammer in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Band 58, 1963, Columns 586-588; (also by ? in Anthropos, Band 73, 1978, Page 272). Also, see the (Spanish-language) book review by Juan Vernet in Oriens, Volume 16, 1963, Page 339.]                                                                      

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1977). "Arabische Sternnamen - Sternnamen der Araber. Zur Begriffsbestimmung." (Sudhoffs Archiv, Band 61, Pages 105-117). [Note: The article title also appears as "Arabische Sternnamen - Sternnamen der Araber. Zur Begriffsbildung."

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1983). Über eine anwa-Tradition mit bisher unbekannten Sternnamen. [Note: An update to his Untersuchungen zur Sternnomenklatur der Araber.(1961). See the (English-language) book reviews by Daniel Martin Varisco in Isis, Volume 76, Number 4, December, 1985, Page 632; and by F[?]. Jamil Ragep in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 108, Number 3, July-September, 1988, Page 496.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). "Remarks on Possible Relations Between Ancient Arabia and the Neighbouring Civilizations, as Found in Some Old Star Names." In: Pre-Islamic Arabia (Studies in the History of Arabia, Volume II, Pages 201-205). [Note: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Studies in the History of Arabia ... April, 1979.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). Peter Apian und Azophi: Arabische Sternbilder in Ingolstadt im frühen 16. Jahrhundert. [Note: Historically wide-ranging. Basically deals with Arabic constellations in Renaissance astronomy. See the (English-language) book reviews by David Pingree in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Volume 37, Number 119, Décembre, 1987, Page 371; Robert DeKosky in Annals of Science, Volume 45, Number 4, July, 1988, Page 440; and by C[?]. Burnett in Isis, Volume 80, Number 303, September, 1989, Pages 525-526.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. and Smart. Tim. (1986). Short Guide to Modern Star Names and Their Derivations. [Note: An excellent English-language summary of 254 Western star names. I understand it was reviewed in Sky and Telescope, February, 1987, Page 157. See the (English-language) book review by David Pingree in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 19, Page 59. See also: "Pronunciations, Derivations, and Meanings of a Selected List of Star Names," by George Davis Junior (Popular Astronomy, Volume 52, Number 1, January, 1944, Pages 8-30), which was also issued as a pamphlet (and reprinted recently). Paul Kunitzsch still had concerns with its treatment of Arabic star names. See: "Star Names and Other Updates," by George Lovi (Sky and Telescope, Volume 73, Number 4, April, 1987, Page 407.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1987). "An Unknown Arabic Source for Star Names." In: Swarup, Govind., Bag, A[?]. and Shukla, Kripa. (Editors). History of Oriental Astronomy - Proceedings of an International Astronomical Union Colloquium Number 91, New Delhi, India, 13-16 November 1985). (Pages 155-163). [Note: Paul Kunitzsch, University of Munich.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). The Arabs and the Stars. [Note: A collection of previously published articles. See the (English-language) book reviews by Julio Samsó in Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, Volume 41, 1991, Pages 149-150; and Ellt Dekker in Annals of Science, Volume 50, Number 5, 1993, Pages 497-498.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "Star Catalogues and Star Tables in Medieval Oriental and European Astronomy.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (I, Essay pages 113-122.) [Note: Originally appeared in Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 21, 1986, Pages 113-122.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "On the Medieval Arabic Knowledge of the Star Alpha Eridani.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (VI, Essay pages 108-117.) [Note: Originally appeared in Journal for the History of Arabic Science, Volume 1, 1977, Pages 263-267.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "The Astronomer Abu 'I-Husayn al-Sufi and his Book on the Constellations.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (XI, Essay pages 56-81.) [Note: Originally appeared in Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, Band 3, 1986, Pages 56-81.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "Zur Tradition der ,,Unwettersterne.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (XVI, Essay pages 108-117.) [Note: Originally appeared in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Band 122, 1972, Pages 108-117.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "Peter Apian and 'Azophi': Arabic Constellations in Renaissance Astronomy.'' In: The Arabs and the Stars. (XXIII, Essay pages 117-124.) [Note: Originally appeared in Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 18, 1987, Pages 117-124.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "A Note on Star Names, Especially Arabic, and their Literature." In: The Arabs and the Stars. (XXIV, Pages 478-480.) [Note: Originally appeared in Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 20, 1979, Pages 478-480. This article is a critique of the reliability of Arabic star names in Star-Names and Their Meanings by Richard Allen (1899, (reprinted 1936) & 1963 as Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986-1991). Der Sternkatalog des Almagest: die arabische-mittelalterliche Tradition. (3 Volumes). [Note: See the (German-language) book review by Gotthard Strohmaier in Orientalistische Literaturzeitung, Sechsundachtzigster Jahrgang, Number 2, 1991, Columns 183-185.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (2004). Stars and Numbers: Astronomy and Mathematics in the Medieval Arab and Western Worlds. [Note: This volume, part of the continuing Variorum Collected Studies Series, reprints twenty-nine essays by Paul Kunitzsch (many of which are now not easy to access). The studies brought together in this second collection of articles by Paul Kunitzsch continue the lines of research evident in his previous volume (The Arabs and the Stars). The Arabic materials discussed stem mostly from the early period of the development of Arabic-Islamic astronomy up to about 1000AD, while the Latin materials belong to the first stage of Western contact with Arabic science at the end of the 10th century, and to the peak of Arabic-Latin translation activity in 12th century Spain. The first set of articles focuses upon Ptolemy in the Arabic-Latin tradition, followed by further ones on Arabic astronomy and its reception in the West; the final group looks at details of the transmission of Euclid's Elements.]

Folkerets, Menso. and Lorch, Richard. (2000). SIC ITUR AD ASTRA: Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. [Note: Festschrift für den Arabisten Paul Kunitzsch zum 70. Geburtstag.]

Lach, Friedrich. (1796). Anleitung zur Kenntnis der Sternnamen. [Note: Pioneering work on Arab-Islamic star names. Dated - needs to be used with care.]

Laffitte, Roland. (2001; 2nd edition 2005). Héritages Arabes: Des noms arabes pour les étoiles. [Note: A study of the Arabic origins of numerous Western star names. The author is a "linguiste émérite" and specialist on Arab influences on Europe.]

Laffitte, Roland. (2012). Le Ciel des Arabes: Apport de l’uranographie arabe. [Note: Title loosely translated = The Arabic Sky: The Contribution of Arabic Uranography. The first part of the book presents the Arab sky predating the dissemination of the Almagest in the Arabic world. The second part of the book deals with star names pertaining to the "scientific Arab tradition" after the dissemination of the Almagest in the Arabic world. At the end of the book there are several tables, one of which is an extensive list of identified Arabic star names (approximately 1000 entries). In 2013 the author intends publishing a second book that will deal with the subject of the passing of Arabic names to the western tradition.]

Lammens, Henri. (1890). Remarques sur les mots français dérivés de l'arabe. [Note: His surname is sometimes misspelled Lammen.]

Pingree, David. (2000). "A Greek List of Astrolabe Stars." In: Folkerts, Menso. and Lorch, Richard. (Editors). Sic Itur Ad Astra: Studien Zur Geschichte Der Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften. (Pages 474-477).

Saliba, Georg. (2013). "Contemplating the stars." In: Rippin, Andrew. (Editor). The Islamic World. (Pages 294-297). [Note: Excellent section within his chapter, The Scientific World.]

Samaha, Abdel. (1936). Arabic Names of Stars [title is incorrectly given as: The Arabic Names of the Stars]. [Note: Pages 1-37, Bulletin Number 39, Helwan Observatory, Cairo. Contains references. (Also possibly republished in 1944.) The author was an astronomer. Correct reference is: Samaha, Abdel. (1936). Arabic Names of Stars. (Helwan Observatory, Bulletin, [Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Bulletin] Number 39, Pages 1-37.]

Samaha, Abdel. (1937). The Arabic Names of the Stars. [Note: Lund Observatory Paper, Series II, Number 89 (Historical Notes and Papers, Number 11). A 5-page lecture paper based on the earlier and more detailed 1936 paper of the same title. No references given.]

Savage-Smith, Emilie. and Belliolli, Andrea. (1985). Islamicate Celestial Globes: Their History, Construction, and Use. [Note: Excellent. See the (English-language) book review by David King in Isis, Volume 81, 1990, Number 4, Pages 762-764. The reviewer gives a number of corrective comments.]

Savage-Smith, Emilie. (1992). "Celestial Mapping." In: Harley, John. and Woodward, David. (Editors). The History of Cartography, Volume 2, Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies. ([Chapter] 2, Pages 12-70). [Note: Excellent chapter on Arab-Islamic celestial cartography, and its influence on Medieval Europe.]

Saxl, Fritz. (1932). "The Zodiac of Qusayr Amra'." In: Creswell, Keppel. (Editor). Early Muslim Architecture. Volume 1. (Pages 289-294). [Note: See the (English-language) book review by A[?]. P[?]. in Isis, Volume 19, Number 3, September, 1933, Pages 504-506.]

al-Sayed, Sahira. (1973). A lexicon and analysis of English words of Arabic origin. [Note: PhD dissertation. See especially pages 388-397 for the etymology of 183 Arabic star-names.]

Schiaparelli, Giovanni. (1871). Vocabulista in Arabico. [Note: The author was an eminent Italian astronomer.]

Schjellerup, Hans (1874, Reprinted 1986). Descriptions des Étoiles Fixes, composée au Milieu du Dixième Siècle de Notre Ère, par l'astronomie Persan Abd-al-Rachman al-Sûfi. [Note: A literal French-language translation, by Hans Schjellerup, of Book of the constellations of the Fixed Stars (Kitab suwar al-kawakib) by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi. Published in St. Petersburg. Hans Schjellerup (1827–1887) was a Danish astronomer. In 1851 he became an observer at the University Observatory in Copenhagen (and later in life he became the director, remaining in the position until his death). In 1854 he became a Professor of Mathematics at the Denmark Naval Academy. In 1866, he published a catalog of red stars. He also learned Arabic, Chinese and other oriental languages and studied old astronomical records, including Islamic and Chinese. He became an associate of the British Royal Astronomical Society in 1879. Life dates: 1827-1887.]

Sufi, 'abd Al-Rahman Ibn'umar. [al-Sufi, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Umar; Ibn al- Sufi, al Husayn ibn 'Abd al-Rahman] (1981). Kitab Suwar al-kawakib al-thamaniyah wa-al-arba'in ; wa-talih, Urjuzat Ibn al-Sufi. [Kitab Suwar al-kawakib al-thamaniyah wa-al-arba-in / ta lif Abi al-Husayn Abd al-Rahman ibn Umar al-Razi, al-ma ruf bi-al-Sufi. Wa-talih, Urjuzat Ibn al-Sufi / tahqiq Lajnat Ihya al-Thurath al-Arabi fi Dar al Afaq al-Jadidah ] [Note: Published in Bayrut = Beirut. I am unsure whether it is a 'reprint' of some earlier Arab-language edition or an edition in modern Arabic. I think the latter is the case.]

Strohmaier, Gotthard. (1984). Die Sterne des Abd ar-Ralman al-Sūfī. [Note: Discussion of Book of the constellations of the Fixed Stars (Kitab suwar al-kawakib) by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi.]

Varisco, Daniel. (1997). Medieval Folk Astronomy and Agriculture in Arabia and the Yemen. [Note: A collection of 15 previously published papers.]

Varisco, Daniel. (2000). "Islamic Folk Astronomy." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Astronomy Across Cultures. (Pages 615-650).

Varisco, Daniel. (2005). "Ethnoastronomy and the Arab Agricultural Almanac." In: Chamberlain, Von Del., Carlson, John. and Young, Mary. (2005). Songs from the Sky: Indigenous Astronomical and Cosmological Traditions of the World. (Pages 26-31). [Note: Comprises selected proceedings papers of the "First International Conference on Ethnoastronomy," Washington, D.C., 1983. Published as Volumes XII-XIII, 1996, of Archaeoastronomy: The Journal of the Center Archaeoastronomy. An excellent collection of papers.]

Wellesz, Emmy. (1965). An Islamic Book of Constellations. [Note: Discussion of Book of the constellations of the Fixed Stars (Kitab suwar al-kawakib) by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi.]


Al-Jallad, Ahmad. (2014). "An Ancient Arabian Zodiac. The constellations in the Safaitic inscriptions, Part 1." (Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Volume 25, Number 2, Pages 214-230). [Note: Excellent. The author is (2014) an Assistant Professor at the University of Leiden.]

Al-Jallad, Ahmad. (2014). "Addendum to A. Al-Jallad, An Ancient Arabian Zodiac, Part 1 (AAE 25 214-30)." [Note: Published online at 6 pages.]

Al-Jallad, Ahmad. (2016). "An Ancient Arabian Zodiac. The constellations in the Safaitic inscriptions, Part I1." (Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy, Volume 27, Issue I, Pages 84-106). [Note: Excellent.]

Bailey, Clinton. (1974). "Bedouin Star-Lore in Sinai and the Negev." (Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Volume 37, Number 3, Pages 580-596).

Baker, Patricia. (1980). "The Frescoes of Amra." (Saudi Aramco World, Volume 31, Number 4, July/August, Pages 22-25). [Note: Discusses the early Islamic frescoes at Qusayr Amra (Jordan). Includes a brief discussion of the astronomical chart painted on the ceiling of the dome. The author is an authority on Islamic art and architecture.]

Benhamouda, A[?]. (1951). "Les noms arabes des étoiles. Essai d'identification." (Annales de l'Institut d'Études Orientales, Tome 9, Pages 76-210).

Bohigian, George. (2008). "An Ancient Eye Test - Using the Stars." (Survey of Opthamology, Volume 53, Number 5, September, Pages 536-539). [Note: Abstract: "Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test."]

Brunet, J-P., Nadal, R., and Vibert-Guigue, Cl. (1998). (1998). "The Fresco of the Cupola of Qusayr Amra." (Centaurus, Volume 40, Pages 97-123). [Note: Excellent paper]

Correspondent, A. (1830). "On the Arabic Names of the Stars." (The Philosophical Magazine, Volume 8, Pages 368-374). [Note: An informed article.]

Davis, Junior., George. (1944). "Pronunciations, Derivations, and Meanings of a Selected List of Star Names." (Popular Astronomy, Volume 52, Number 1, January, Pages 8-30). [Note: Though George Davis was an expert on Arabic star names the essay contains some errors. Some 180 star names are covered in this essay. The journal article was reprinted as a pamphlet by Sky Publishing Corporation in 1963. George Davis died on June 4th, 1961.]

Diez, Ernst. (1949). "The Zodiac Reliefs at the Portal of the GöK Medrese in Siwas." (Aribus Asie, Volume 12, Pages 99-104).

Engeldew, J[?]. (1981). "Star Names in Western Astronomy." (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 92, Number ?, Page 63).

Gingerich, Owen. (1987). “Zoomorphic Astrolabes and the Introduction of Arabic Star Names into Europe.” (Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Page 89-104 / From Deferent to Equant edited by David King and Georg Saliba).

Gingerich, Owen. (1986). "Islamic Astronomy." (Scientific American, Volume 254, April, Pages 68?/74?-?). [Note: On the role of astrolabes in the introduction of Arabic star names into European star nomenclature.]

Gore, John. (1899). "The Names of Stars." (The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume CCLXXXVI, January to June, Pages 17-23). [Note: See the (English-language) obituary in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 71, February, 1911, Pages 256-257; and the (English-language) biographical entry in Who Was Who, 1897-1916, 1920, Page 285.]

Gore, John. (1904). "Notes on some of Al-Sufi's Stars." (The Observatory, Volume 27, Number 342, Pages 122-128).

Hartner, Willy. (1938). "The Pseudoplanetary Nodes of the Moon's Orbit in Hindu and Islamic Iconographies." (Ars Islamica, Volume 5, Number 2, Pages 112-154).

Hartner, Willy, (1959). "Zur astrologischen Symbolik des >> Wade Cup <<."  In: Ettinghausen, Richard. (Editor). Aus der Welt der Islamischen Kunst. (Pages 234-243). [Note: Festschrift für Ernst Kühnel, 1957.]

Hawkins, Gerald. (1978). "The Sky When Islam Began." (Archaeoastronomy Bulletin, Volume 1, Number 3, May, Pages 6-7).

Henninger, Joseph. (1954). "Über Sternkunde und Sternkult in Nord- und Zentralarabien." (Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, Volume 79, Pages 82-117). [Note: A study of pre-Islamic Arabian astronomy and astral beliefs. See also the article by Paul Kunitzsch on the pre-scientific popular Arabic astronomy in "Science in Western and Eastern Civilization in Carolingian Times" edited by Paul Butzer et. al. (1993).]

Heuter, Gwyneth. (1986). "Star Names - Origins and Misconceptions." (Vistas in Astronomy, Volume 29, Part 3, Pages 237-251). [Note: The author’s last name is spelled Heuter. It is indicated that it was also spelled Hueter, per PhD thesis. "Abstract: The sources of present day star names used in the western world are examined. Particular interest is shown in the meanings of the most popular names and those whose meanings have proved difficult to trace. A classification of star names is made and attention is drawn to the errors introduced in translation from one language to another. In particular an in-depth study of pre-Ptolemaic Arabic star names is given." Although this work is primarily concerned with exploring the Arabic origin of stellar names, it traces several back to the ancient Near East. Unfortunately, considerable mistakes are incorporated into the article. Her given address accompanying her article was "1 East View, Rogers Lane, Gwersylit, Clwyd LL11 4SG, U.K." Finding reliable biographical details for Gwyneth Heuter is extremely difficult. Perhaps a Welsh linguist/historian (and amateur astronomer). A Gwyneth Hueter (not Heuter) is indicated as a British cuneiform philologist/assyriologist. At least her training was in these subject areas. Her 1996 (unpublished) Ph.D. thesis awarded by the University of Oxford is, Grammatical studies in the Akkadian dialects of Babylon and Uruk 556-500 BC. The subject matter of her doctoral thesis is Neo-Babylonian and Semitic language linguistics. The doctorate studies were likely to be for a doctorate of philology. According to the Report of the Committee for Archaeology, 1995-6, University of Oxford, (and the 1996-7 report) Gwyneth Hueter was an archaeology student, studying at Wolfson College (which is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge). Finding reliable biographical details for Gwyneth Heuter is extremely difficult. Perhaps a Welsh linguist/historian (and amateur astronomer). A Gwyneth Hueter (not Heuter) is indicated as a British cuneiform philologist/assyriologist. At least her training was in these subject areas. Her 1996 (unpublished) Ph.D. thesis awarded by the University of Oxford is, Grammatical studies in the Akkadian dialects of Babylon and Uruk 556-500 BC. The subject matter of her doctoral thesis is Neo-Babylonian and Semitic language linguistics. The doctorate studies were likely to be for a doctorate of philology. According to the Report of the Committee for Archaeology, 1995-6, University of Oxford, (and the 1996-7 report) Gwyneth Hueter was an archaeology student, studying at Wolfson College (which is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge).]

Hiskett, M[?]. (1967). "The Arab Star-Calendar and Planetary System in Hausa Verse." (Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London, Volume 30, Number 1, Pages 158-176).

Honigmann, Ernest. (1950). "The Arabic Translation of Aratus' Phaenomena." (Isis, Volume 41, Part 1, March, Number 123, Pages 30-31). [Note: The Belgian scholar Ernest Honigmann died suddenly aged 62 years leaving behind 2 partly completed manuscripts and the detailed outline of another. Life dates: 1892-1954.]

Hommel, Fritz. (1891). "Ueber den Ursprung und das Alter der arabischen Sternnamen und insbesondere der Mondstationen." (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Volume 45, Number 4, Pages 592-619).

Hostetter, Homer. (circa 1980?). "On the Track of the Cat." (McDonald Observatory News, Pages 4-5). [Note: A discussion of the origins of the Bedouin constellation "Al-Asad" described by the astronomer Al Biruni circa 1000 CE. The author kindly sent me a copy of the article but did not include publication details.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1974). "Die arabischen Sternbilder des Südhimmels (I)." Der Islam, Volume 51, Pages 37-54).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1975). "Die arabischen Sternbilder des Südhimmels (II)." Der Islam, Volume 52, Pages 263-277).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1976). "Naturwissenschaft und Philologie: Die arabischen Elemente in der Nomenklatur und Terminologie der Himmelskunde (Die Sterne, Band 52, Pages 218-227).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1977). "Arabische Sternnamen - Sternnamen der Araber: Zur Begriffsbestimmung." (Sudhoffs Archiv, Band 61, Heft 2, Pages 105-117).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1978). "Der Sternhimmel in den "Dichterischen Vergleichen der Andalus-Araber."" (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Band 128, Pages 238-251).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1979). "Zur Sternkunde der arabischen Nautiker." (Der Islam, Band 56, Pages 305-311).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1979). "A Note on Star Names, Especially Arabic, and Their Literature." (Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical society, Volume 20, Pages 478-480). [Note: Correspondence.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1980). "Die Aussprache der arabischen Sternnamen und der arabischen-persischen Namen von Mondobjekten." (Die Sterne, Band 56, Pages 358-363). 

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1981). "Star Names in Western Astronomy." (Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 92, Number ?, Page 47).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1983). "How we Got Our "Arabic" Star Names." (Sky and Telescope, Volume 65, Number 1, January, Pages 20-22).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). "John of London and his Unknown Arabic Sources." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 17, Number 1, February, Pages 51-57).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). "Star catalogues and star tables in mediaeval Oriental and European astronomy." (Indian Journal of History of Science, Volume 21, Number 2, Pages 113-122).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). "The star catalogue commonly appended to the Alfonsine Tables." (Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 17, Pages 89-98).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1986). "The astronomer Abu 'l-Husayn al-Sufi and his Book on the Constellations." (Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, Band 3, Pages 56-81).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1987). "A Medieval Reference to the Andromeda Nebula." (The Messenger, Volume 49, Pages 42-43).  

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1989). "The Astrolabe Stars of al-Sufi." (Astrolabica, Tome 5, Pages 7-14).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1990). "Al-Sufi and the Astrolabe Stars." (Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, Band 6, Pages 151-166).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1991). "al-Manazil (Lunar Mansions)." In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. (2nd-edition, Volume VI, Pages 374-376).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1991). "Mintaket al-Burudj (The Zodiac)." In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. (2nd-edition, Volume VI, Pages 81-87).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1993). "The Chapter on the Fixed Stars in Zaradusht's Kitab al-Mawalid." (Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften, Band 8, Pages 241-249).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1993). "al-Nudjum (The Stars)." In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. (2nd-edition, Volume VIII, Pages 97-105).

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1995/1996). "European Celestial Globes with Arabic Inscriptions." (Der Globusfreund, Volume 43/44, Pages 135-142). [Note: The German-language version of the article "Europäische Himmelsgloben mit arabischen inschriften." follows on pages 143-150.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (1997). "Stars in Arabic-Islamic Science." In: Selin, Helaine. (Editor). Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures. (Pages 910-912).

Kunitzsch, Paul. and Langermann, Y[?]. (2003). "A Star Table from Medieval Yemen." (Centaurus Volume 45, Issues 1-4, December, Pages 159-174). [Note: Also cited as: Centaurus, Volume 45, Numbers 1‐4, January 2004, Pages 159-174; with Paul Kunitzsch as sole author.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (2000). "The Chapter on the Stars in an Early European Treatise on the Use of the Astrolabe." (Suhayl, Volume 1, Pages 243-250). [Note: Suhayl is published in Barcelona, Spain.]

Kunitzsch, Paul. (2008). "Celestial Maps and Illustrations in Arabic-Islamic Astronomy." In: Forêt, Philippe. and Kaplony, Andreas. (Editors). The Journey of Maps and Images on the Silk Road. (Pages 175-180).

Laffitte, Roland. (2000-2002). "Quelques noms de signes du zodiaque sudarabique." (Matériaux Arabes et Sudarabique, GELAS, Nouvelle Série X, Pages 159-173). [Note: GELAS = Groupe d'Études de Linguistique et de Littératures Arabes et Sudarabiques.]

Laffitte, Roland. (2002). "De l'akkadien Zibânîtu `a l'arabe Al-Zubânâ en passant par le mandéen zibânâtâ?" (Semitica, Cahiers de l'Institut d'Études Sémitiques du Collège de France, Number 50, Pages 193-197).

Laffitte, Roland. (2002 [Publication date also given as 2003]). "Les noms sémitiques des signes du zodiaque, et Babylone `a Baghdad." (Comptes rendus du GLECS, Tome XXXIV, Pages 97-118). [Note: Title also appears as: "Les noms sémitiques des signes du zodiaque, de Babylone `a Baghdad." GLECS = Groupe Linguistique d'Études Chamito-Sémitiques.]

Laffitte, Roland. (2004). "Sur le zodiaque sudarabique." (Arabia, IREMAM, Aix-en-Provence & ISIAO, Number 1, Pages 79-89).

Langermann, Y[?]. (1997). "Arabic cosmology." (Early Science and Medicine, Volume 2, Number 2, June, Pages ?-?).

Lebling, Robert. (2010). "Arabic in the Sky." (Saudi Aramco World, Volume 61, Number 5, September/October, Pages 24-33). [Note: Excellent article based on/summarising the work of Paul Kunitzsch on the introduction of Arabic star names into Europe.]

Lippincott, Kristen. (1987). "Ibn Al-Hātim on the Talismans of the Lunar Mansions." (Journal of the Warburg & Courtauld Institutes, Volume 50, Pages 57-81).

Lynn, William. (1910). "Classical and arabic origin of star names." (The Observatory, Volume 33, March, Pages 137-138). [Note: The author was an assistant at Greenwich Observatory.]

Mesnard, H[André-Hubert?]. (1945). "Transcription et signification des noms d’étoiles arabes, et notes d'onomastique stellaire." (Annales de l’Observatoire astronomique et meteorologique de Toulouse, Volume 17, Pages 63-90).

Mesnard, H[André-Hubert?]. (1949). "Les noms arabes d'etoiles." (Ciel et Terre, Band 65, Pages 1-19, 70-79 and 104-115).

Rehmus, E[?]. (1978). 'The Arabic star-names." (Verbatim, Volume 5, Winter, Pages 5-6). [Note: Verbatim is a USA quarterly journal on language with its articles written for a general audience.]

Pellat, Charles. (1955). "Dictons rimés, anwa' et mansions lunaires chez les arabes." (Arabica, Volume 2, Pages 17-41).

Pellat, Charles. (1960). "al-Anwa'." In: Encyclopaedia of Islam. (2nd-edition, Volume I, Pages 523-?).

Prideaux, W. F., (1897). “Arabic Star Names." (Notes and Queries, Volume XII, December 4, Pages 457-458). [Note: A short discussion on the corruption of Arabic illustrated with star names.]

Samso, Julio. (2008). "Lunar Mansions and Timekeeping in Western Islam." (Suhayl, Volume 8, Pages 121-161).

Schoy, C[?]. (1913-1936). "al-Kalb [the Dog-Star]." In: Houtsma, Martijn. et. al. (Editors). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. (9 Volumes). [Note: Republished in 1993 as: E. J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. The entry is on Page 688 of Volume ?]

Sela, Shlomo. (2014). "The Astrological-Astronomical Encyclopedia in MS Paris 1058." (Aleph, Volume 14, Number 1, Pages 189-241).

Serjeant, Robert. (1954). "Star calendars and an almanac from south-west Arabia." (Anthropos, Band 49, Pages 433-459). [Note: The author was considered an outstanding Arabist. See the (English-language) obituaries by Anon in The British-Yemeni Society Journal, Volume 1, [Number 1], 1993;  and by ? in Asian Affairs, Volume 24, Number 3, November, 1993, Pages 377-379. Life dates: 1913-1993.]

Steinschneider, M[?]. (1864). "Ueber die Mondstationen (Naxatra), und das Buch Arcandam." (Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Volume18, Numbers 1/2, Pages 118-201).

Tibbetts, Gerald. (1971). Arab Navigation in the Indian Ocean Before the Coming of the Portuguese.

Upton, Joseph. (1933). "A Manuscript of "The Book of the Fixed Stars." by 'Abd Ar-Rahmān As-Sūfī." (Metropolitan Museum Studies, Volume 4, Number 2, March, Pages 179-197).

Varisco, Daniel. (1987). "The Rain Periods in Pre-Islamic Arabic." (Arabica, Tome 34, Fascicle 2, July, Pages 251-266). [Note: Excellent.]

Varisco, Daniel. (1991). "The Origin of the anwā' in Arab Tradition." (Studia Islamica, Number 74, Pages 5-28). [Note: Excellent. The article is based on a paper prepared for the Fourth International Symposium on the History of Arab Science (Aleppo, April, 1987). The author is currently (2006) at Hofstra University in Hempstead, Long Island, New York (USA).]

Varisco, Daniel. (1993). "The Agricultural Marker Stars in Yemeni Folklore." (Asian Folklore Studies, Volume 52, Number 1, Pages 119-142). [Note: Abstract: "This study focuses on a traditional star calendar still used in Yemen to define the seasons and timing of agricultural activities. Yemeni farmers refer to this calendar as the maeālim al-zirāea, the "agricultural markers." Modern almanacs depict this as a system of twenty-eight distinct star periods, and relate these to the lunar zodiac, the well-known astronomical model of the twenty-eight lunar stations. This association appears to be relatively recent, since a variety of other systems for the Yemeni "agricultural markers" are recorded in historical texts and in ethnographic research. The purpose of this study is to describe how the "agricultural markers" system is supposed to work and compare the contemporary version with one recorded in a seventeenth-century Yemeni text. A glossary of these markers is appended to the article."]

Varisco, Daniel. (1995). "Stars and Texts in Arabia." (Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News, Number 16, June Solstice, Pages ?-?). [Note: Also in: Essays from Archaeoastronomy & Ethnoastronomy News, the Quarterly Bulletin of the Center for Archaeoastronomy, Number 16, June Solstice, 1995.]

Walker, G[?]. (1875). "Allusions to Heavenly Bodies in the Bedouin Romance of Antar." (Astronomical Registry, Volume 13, Pages 240-243).

Wellesz, Emmy. (1959). "An Early Al-Sufi Manuscript in the Bodleian Library in Oxford: A Study in Islamic Constellation Images." (Ars Orientalis, Volume 3, Pages 1-26). [Note: A study of the manuscript Marsh 144 in the Bodleian Library in Oxford, dating to 1009-1010 CE.]

Yampolsky, Philip. (1950). "The Origin of the Twenty-eight Lunar Mansions." (Osiris, Volumen Nonum [Volume 9], Pages 62-83). [Note: Excellent article. Presentation of various expert opinions (6) for the origin of the system of lunar mansions found in China, India, and Arabia.]

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