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Key to Genera of Shrubby and Leafy Lichens

1 Lichen shrubby, not appressed to the substrate, branches usually radially symmetrical, often attached by a holdfast (fruticose) 2
  Lichen leaf-like, usually appressed to the substrate, with distinct upper and lower surfaces, usually attached by rhizines or a tomentum, occasionally with a holdfast (foliose) 12

 

Shrubby or Fruticose Lichens

2(1) Thallus hollow 3
  Thallus solid 5
3(2) Thallus regularly perforate to the central cavity, often in a lattice-like pattern Cladia
  Thallus not perforate or perforate only in axils of branches or irregularly fissured   6
4(3) Apothecium black, disc of loosely packed hyphae and spores Bunadophoron
  Apothecium buff or red 5

5(4) Apothecial disc buff-coloured with a well defined thalline margin   Ramalina
  Apothecial disc red to brown or black, without an apparent margin Cladonia
6(2) Thallus coloured gold to orange Teloschistes
  Thallus coloured grey, yellow-green or red 7
7(6) Thallus cylindrical with a central cartilaginous cord Usnea
  Thallus cylindrical or flattened, without a central cord 8
8(7) Apothecia pink Dibaes
  Apothecia buff to brown or black 9
9(8) Thallus white or pale grey 10
  Thallus brown to yellow-green 12
10(9) Thallus with long rhizoidal extensions into the soil Siphula
  Thallus attached by a holdfast, without rhizoids 11
11(10) Branches with numerous minute leafy appendages on the branches Stereocaulon
  Branches without leafy appendages Bunadophoron
11(9) Apothecial disc black, on soil Ramalea
  Apothecial disc buff, on bark, wood or rock Ramalina

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Leafy or Foliose Lichens

12(1) The lower surface with discrete rhizines that may be simple or branched but not felted, without vein-like markings, woolly tomentum or pores.
13
 
  Lower surface naked or with a felted or carpet-like tomentum (with or without rhizines), or with vein-like markings (from which rhizines may develop) or with pores that may be either cup-like or filled with hyphal masses.
43
 

 

Foliose lichens always and only with discrete rhizines on the lower surface

13(12) Cilia growing from the margin of the lobes at least sparsely
14
  Cilia not present on the margins of the lobes
27

14(13) Cilia broadening into a bulb at the base
15
  Cilia without a basal bulb, but may be thickened
16

15(14) Lobes grey
Bulbothrix
  Lobes green
Relicina
16(14) Upper cortex brown
Phaeophyscia
  Upper cortex grey or green
17
 
17(16) Rhizines dichotomously branched
18
  Rhizines simple or bushy at the tips
19
 
18(17) Upper cortex of longitudinal hyphae, often without a lower cortex, upper surface sometimes ciliate, ascospores brown, two-celled
Heterodermia
Upper cortex of vertical hyphae, lower cortex always present, upper surface never ciliate, ascospores hyaline, one celled
Hypotrachyna
 
19(17) Ascospores 2-celled, brown, lobes usually <2mm broad
20
  Ascospores 1 celled, lobes usually >2mm broad
21
 
20(19) Thallus grey, K+ yellow
Physcia
  Thallus brown, K-
Phaeophysica
 
21(19) Lobes broadly rotund, with a broad zone bare of rhizines near the tips
22
  Lobes truncate at the tips, with rhizines to the margins
25
 
22(21) Upper surface with neither distinctive white spotting not a pattern of reticulate cracks on young lobes
23
Upper surface with either a pattern of distinctive white spots or reticulate cracks on young lobes
24
 
23(22) Cilia less than 5mm long and restricted to lobe axils
Parmelinella
  Cilia more than 5mm long, or less than 5mm long but not restricted to axils
Parmotrema
 
24(22) Upper surface reticulately cracked
Rimelia
  Upper surface with a pattern of coarse white markings and cracks
Canomaculina
 
25(21) Cilia evenly spread on lobe margins
Parmelinopsis
  Cilia mostly in axils
26
 
26(25) Medulla K+ yellow turning red
Parmelinella
  Medulla K-
Parmelina
 
27(13) Upper surface of thallus uniformly bright yellow
Candelaria
  Upper surface of thallus white, grey, brown or green
28
 
28(27) Apothecia on lower surface of lobes
Nephroma
  Apothecia on upper surface of lobes
29
 
29(28) Upper surface brown
30
  Upper surface white, grey or green
32
 
30(29) Ascospores simple, hyaline
Xanthoparmelia
  Ascospores two-celled, brown
31
 
31(30) Lobes 1-2mm wide
Phaeophyscia
  Lobes < 0.5mm wide
Hyperphyscia
 
32(29) Thallus yellow-green and on rocks or soil
Xanthoparmelia
  Thallus white or grey, or, if yellow green, not on rocks or soil
33
 
33(32) Upper cortex pseudocyphellate
34
  Upper surface without pseudocyphellae
35
 
34(33) Lower surface black
Parmelia
  Lower surface white or tan
Punctelia
 
35(33) Rhizines dichotomously branched, prominent
36
  Rhizines simple or bushy at the tip
37
 
36(35) Spores simple, lobes always corticate below
Hypotrachyna
  Spores two-celled, often ecorticate below
Heterodermia
 
37(35) Rhizines absent from a marginal zone
38
  Rhizines to lobe tips
39
 
38(37) Rhizines absent from a broad band on lobe tips
Parmotrema
  Rhizines absent from a narrow (1mm wide) marginal zone
Canoparmelia
 
39(37) Spores 2-celled, brown
40
  Spores simple, hyaline
41
 
40(39) Apothecia with a thalline margin when mature
Physcia
  Apothecia with a proper margin when mature
Pyxine
 
41(39) Upper surface green
Flavoparmelia
  Upper surface grey
42
 
42(41)  Lobes truncate, only on rock or soil
Xanthoparmelia
  Lobes rotund, on wood, bark or rock
Canoparmelia
 

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Foliose lichens with lower surfaces having features other than discrete rhizines.

43(12) Lower surface with cup-like pores or with pores showing white or yellow hyphae, or veins that give rise to rhizines
44
  Lower surface without pores or veins
47
 
44(43) Veins on lower surface, apothecia on terminal finger-like projections
Peltigera
  Lower surface not veined, apothecia disc-like
45
 
45(44) Pores filled with white or yellow hyphae
Pseudocyphellaria
  Pores cup-like in the lower surface
46
 
46(45) Pores in the indumentum, not the lower cortex
Heterodea
  Pores in the lower cortex
Sticta
 
47(44) Apothecia on the lower side of the lobe tips
Nephroma
  Apothecia on the upper side of the lobes
48
 
48(47) Thallus with a few well-developed rhizines restricted to margins or constrictions of the thallus
49
  Thallus devoid of rhizines, but may have a tomentum
50
 
49(48) Rhizines in constrictions between tomentose pads
Pannoparmelia
  Rhizines on margins of lobes with a decorticate lower surface
Heterodermia
 
50(49) Thallus with an indumentum on the lower surface
51
  Thallus naked below
57
 
51(50) Thallus > 10 cm long, very loosely adnate to the substratum
Lobaria
  Thallus < 10 cm diameter, adnate to substratum
52
 
52(51) Upper cortex one cell thick, thallus gelatinous when wet, paper-like when dry
Leptogium
  Upper cortex many cells thick, thallus not gelatinous when wet, cartilaginous when dry
53
 
53(52) Ascospores thick-walled
Physma
  Ascospores thin walled
54
 
54(53) Apothecia with a thalline exciple
Pannaria
  Apothecia without a thalline exciple
55

55(54) Lobes with very fine longitudinal scratch-like lines
Coccocarpia
  Lobes without fine longitudinal scratch-like lines
56
 
56(55) Upper surface cobwebby
Leioderma
  Upper surface smooth
Fuscoderma
 
57(50) Photobiont green
58
  Photobiont cyanobacterial
63
 
58(57) Lobes fat and hollow or sparsely filled by hyphae
59
  Lobes flattened, solid
60
 
59(58) Holes in outer wall opening to a central cavity
Mennegazzia
  No holes in outer wall
Hypogymnia
 
60(58) Thallus free from substratum
Xanthoparmelia
  Thallus attached to substratum
61
 
61(60) Thallus olive or brown
Hyperphyscia
  Thallus green to grey
62
 
62(61) Thallus green
Xanthoparmelia
  Thallus grey
Dirinaria
 
63(57) Upper surface of thallus with a long indumentum
Dictyonema
  Upper surface smooth or rough, but not hairy
64
 
64(63) Thallus gelatinous when wet
65
  Thallus not gelatinous when wet
Pannaria
 
65(64) Spores with a thick wall
Physma
  Spores thin walled
66
 
66(65) Cortex of closely packed angular cells
Leptogium
  True cortex absent, outer layer of swollen hyphae
Collema
 

 

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