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Keys to Species in Genera


 

Bulbothrix

Bulbothrix is a genus primarily of coastal lowlands. Thalli foliose, grey, lobes < 2mm broad, grey, margins with bulbate cilia.

1 Medulla K+ yellow turning red
2
  Medulla K-
4
 
2(1) Lower surface brown (K+y-r, C-, P+or)
B. isidiza  (Nyl.) Hale
  Lower surface black
3
 
3(2) Lobes < 0. mm wide (K+y-r, C-, P+or)
B. microscopica Elix
  Lobes >0.5mm wide (K+ y to r C-,P+or)
B. tabacina (Zenker)Hale
 
4(1) Medulla C+ rose or red  (K-, C+p, KC+r, P-)
B. goebelii (Mont. amp; Bosch) Hale
  Medulla C-
5
 
5(4) Medulla KC+ rose (K-, C-,KC+ p P-)
B. apophysata (Hale & Kurok.) Hale
  Medulla KC-(K-, C-,K- P-)
B. queenslandica  (Elix & G.N.Stevens) Eix
 

 

Bunadophoron (Sphaerophorus)

Bunadophoron is restricted to rainforests and montane habitats.

Grey, erect grey fruticose thalli with black powdery apothecia on one surface of the flattened lobes.

1 Medulla hollow
B. diplotypum  (Ohlsson) Wedin 
  Medulla solid
2
 
2(1) Medulla faintly K+ yellow, spores grey
B. formosanum (Zahlbr.) Wedin
  Medulla K-, spores red-brown
3
 
3(2) Spores >10um diameter
B. murrayi (Ohlsson) Wedin
  Spores < 10 u diameter 
B. coomerense (Ohlsson) Wedin
 

 

Candelaria

A genus of small yellow minutely foliose thalli on bark or dry rocks.

  Lobes to 0.4 mm wide, soralia marginal, spreading onto the upper surface
C. concolor(Dickson) B.Stein in Cohn
  Lobes to 2mm broad, soralia marginal and spreading onto the lower surface
C. crawfordi (Müll. Arg) P.M.Jörg. & D.J.Galloway
 

 

Canomaculina

A parmelioid genus of dry woodlands. Thallus foliose, lobes irregularly cracked, lower surface with dimorphic simple and squarrose rhizines.

  Lobes with marginal soralia, without isidia (K+ y-r, C-,P+ or)
C. subsumpta(Nyl.) Elix
  Lobes with isidia, without soredia (K + y-r, C-,P+ or)
C. subtinctoria (Zahlbr.) Elix
 

 

Canoparmelia

A parmelioid genus living on bark and wood mostly in open woodlands, including mangroves. Thallus foliose, grey, without cilia, lower surface with a narrow marginal zone without rhizines.  The four species treated here are sorediate with a mostly black lower surface.

1. Medulla K+
2
  Medulla K-
3

 
2 Medulla K+ yellow, lobes 3-6mm wide (C-,KC- P-)
C. crozalsiana  (de Lesd.) Elix & Hale<
  Medulla K+ yellow turning red, lobes 2-3mm wide (KC-,C-, P+or)
C. norsticta  (G.N.Stevens) Elix & Hale
 
3 Medulla KC+ rose (K-,C-, P-)
C. aptata (Kremp.) Elix & Hale
  Medulla KC- (K-,C-, P-)
C. texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale
 

 

Cladia

A genus usually living on soil of coastal woodlands and ranges, especially at altitude.

Thallus of erect fruticose pseudopodetia that are often much branched, always with openings through the cortex to the medulla or internal cavity, up to 5cm tall.

1 Thallus quite hollow
2
  Thallus with cortical strands or mass in the centre
3
 
2(1) Thallus much branched and forming a cushion, not sorediose, usually >20mm tall
Cladia aggregata (Sw.) Nyl.
  Thallus little branched sorediose, not forming a cushion  <10mm tall
Cladia schizopora  (Nyl.) Nyl.
 
3(1) Medulla solid, pseudopodetia 2-3 mm wide
C. corallaizon F. Wilson ex Filson
  Medulla stranded, pseudopodetia to 8mm wide
C. retipora (Labill.) Nyl.
 

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Cladonia

A genus living on soil, rocks and wood in coastal woodlands and ranges. Thallus consists of basal squamules (which may disappear) and erect fruticose podetia. Some have well-developed cups, apothecia red or brown.

1 Thallus with cups
2
  Thallus blunt or pointed
6
 
2(1) Thallus sorediate
3
  Thallus esorediate
5
 
3(2) Soredia floury (K-, KC-, P+ r )
C. ochrochlora Flörke
  Soredia granular
4
 
4(5) Thallus <1mm diameter (K-, KC-, P+ r /y)
C. fruticulosa Kremp.
  Thallus up to 3mm diameter (K-, KC-, P+ r )
C. ramulosa (With.) J.R.Laundon
 
5(2) Cups often split or torn, stictic acid present (K-, KC-, P+ r)
C. kuringaiensis A.W.Archer
  Cups mostly with continuous edges, fumarprotocetraric acid present  (K-, KC-, P+ r)
C. cervicornis ssp. verticillata (Hoffm.) Ahti
 
6(1) Thallus repeatedly branched
7
  Thallus not or little branched
10
 
7(6) Thallus K+
8
  Thallus K-
9
 
8(7) Thallus with longitudinal striations and splits (K+ weak y, KC-, P+ rweak y)
C. sulcata var striata A.W.Archer
  Thallus neither striate nor split (KC-, P- / P+ y)
C. pertricosa Kremp.
 
9(7) Entirely corticate  (K-, KC-, P+ r)
C. furcata (Huds.)Schrader
  Ecorticate in upper part of podetia (K-, KC-, P+ r )
C. scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
 
10(6) Apothecia red
11
  Apothecia brown
12
 
11(10) Soredia floury, podetia mostly ecorticate  (K- / K+y, KC-, P- / P+y)
C. macilenta Hoffm.
  Soredia granular, podetia corticate at least in the lower half  (K- / K+y, KC-, P- /  P+y)
C. floerkiana Flörke
 
12(11) Thallus sorediate
13
  Thallus esorediate
14
 
13(12) Thallus weakly K+ yellow, <1mm diameter (K- / K+ faint y, KC-, P+ r)
C. praeterissima A.W.Archer
  Thallus K-, >1mm diameter  (K-, KC-, P+ r )
C. ramulosa (With.) J.R.Laundon
 
14(12) Thallus totally ecorticate (K+y, KC-, P+y)
C. rigida (Hook. f & Tayl.) Hampe
  Thallus corticate at least in the lower half
15
 
15(14)  Thallus fully corticate
16
  Thallus corticate only in the lower half
17
 
16(15) Thallus K+ weak yellow or K- (KC-, P+ r)
C. corymbescens Nyl. Ex Leight.
  Thallus K+ red  (KC-, P+ y)
C. polycarpoides Nyl. In W. von Zwack-Holzhausen
 
17(15) Apothecia red, thallus P+ yellow (K- / K+y, KC-, P- / P+y)
C. floerkiana Flörke
  Apothecia brown, thallus P+ red  (K-, KC-, P+ r)
C. scabriuscula (Delise) Nyl.
 

 

Coccocarpia

A genus of rocks bark and wood in moist and usually shady habitats. Thallus foliose, grey with a finely striated surface, photobiont cyanobacterial.

1 Thallus without isidia
C. erythroxyli (Sprengel) Swinscow & Krog
  Thallus isidiate
2
 
2 Isidia strongly flattened
C. pellita (Ach.) Müll. Arg.
  Isidia cylindrical
C. palmicola (Sprengel) Arv. & D.Galloway
 

 

Collema

A genus usually found on rocks and trees in moist habitats, but one species is on arid soils. Thallus foliose, photobiont Nostoc, producing a thallus that is black and gelatinous when wet.

1 Thallus <15mm diameter
2
  Thallus >15 mm diameter
3
 
2(1) Lobes thick, isidiate, spores 2 celled
C. coccophorus Tuck.
  Lobes membranous. Spores 3-4 celled
C. pustulatum Ach.
 
3(1) Lobes isidiate
4
  Lobes without isidia
7
 
4(3) Apothecial margin isidiate
C. rugosum  Kremp.
  Apothecial margin not isidiate
5
 
5(4) Isidia irregularly lumpy, margins lobulate 
C. leptaleum Tuck.
  Isidia globose to cylindrical
6
 
6(5) Isidia dense
C. subflaccidum Degel
  Isidia sparse
C. japonicum (Müll. Arg.) Hue
 
7(3) Spores with 10 or more cells
C. fasciculare (L.) Wigg.
  Spores with 6 cells or less
8
 
8(7) Spores 4 celled
C. leptaleum  Tuck
  Spores 6 celled
9
 
11(10) Thallus pustulate, spores muriform
C. implicatum Nyl.
  Thallus ridged, spores not muriform
C. japonicum (Müll. Arg.) Hue
 

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Dibeis

Rsetricted to soil, especially in and near rainforests. Thallus crustose with pink apothecia that may be sessile or stalked.

1 Thallus without soredia
D. absoluta (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl
  Thallus sorediate
2
 
2 Apothecia stalked, convex
D. arcuata  (Stirt.) Kalb & Gierl
  Apothecia sessile, flat
D. sorediata Kalb & Gierl
 

 

Dictyonema

A Basidiolichen genus of rainforest fringes, having the appearance of a rather untidy, somewhat iridescent carpet.A Basidiolichen genus of rainforest fringes, having the appearance of a rather untidy, somewhat iridescent carpet.

     Dictyonema irpicinum Mont.

 


 

Dirinaria

A weedy genus especially in eucalypt woodlands, mangroves and urban habitats. Thallus foliose, up to 5cm diameter, lobes grey, up to 2mm diameter, devoid of rhizines.

1 Thallus sorediate
2
  Thallus without soredia
7
 
2(1) Apothecial disc red-purple pruinose
D. melanoclina (C.Knight) D.D.Awasthi
  Apothecial disc white pruinose or black if present
3
 
3(2) Sorediate dactyls 
4
  Soralia sessile
5
 
4(3) Medulla K+ slowly pink
D. consimilis (Stirt.) D.D.Awasthi
  Medulla K-
D. aegialita (Ach.) B.Moore
 
5(3) Lobes convex, medulla K+ slowly pink
D. consimilis (Stirt.) D.D.Awsthi
  Lobes plane, medulla K-
6
 
6(5) Medulla C+ orange
D. flava (Müll. Arg.) C.W.Dodge
  Medulla C-
D. applanata (Fée) D.D.Awasthi
 
7(1) Lobes markedly confluent almost to their tip
D. confluens (Fr.)D.D.Awasthi
  Lobes discrete for almost all their length
8
 
8(7) Apothecial disc purple-red pruinose
D. purpurascens (Vain.) B.Moore
  Apothecial disc white pruinose or black
D. picta  (Sw.)Schaer ex Clem.
 

 

Flavoparmelia

A parmelioid genus occurring on bark, mostly in open woodlands. Thallus foliose, green, lobes up to 8mm diameter, without cilia.

1 With neither dactyls nor soredia (K-, C-, KC-, P+or)
F. rutidota (Hook.f. & Tayl.)Hale
  With dactyls or soredia
2
 
2(1) With dactyls that may produce soredia (K-, C-, KC-, P+ or) 
F. haysomi  (C.W.Dodge) Hale
  Without dactyls, with laminal soralia
3
 
3(2) Medulla white throughout
4
  Medulla yellow in part
5
 
4(3) Soralia pustulate (K-, C-, KC-, P+ r) 
F. kantvilasii  Elix
  Soralia capitate (K- /K+ dingy y, C-, KC-, P+ or)
F. springtonensis  (Elix) Hale
 
5(3) Thallus thin, with succinprotocetraric acid(K-, C-, KC-, P+r) 
F. succinprotocetrarica Elix & J.Johnst
  Thallus leathery, with protocetraric acid (K-, C-, KC-, P+r)
F. euplecta (Stirt.) Hale
 

 

Heterodermia

A genus of rock and bark in open woodlands and wetter habitats. Thallus foliose, grey, lobes often have a waxy appearance, many have long rhizines and cilia.

1 Lobes corticate below
2
Lobes ecorticate below
4
 
2(1) Thallus sorediate
H. speciosa (Wulfen) Trevis
Thallus not sorediate
3
 
3(2) Thallus isidiate
H. antillarum (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog
Thallus without isidia
H. diademata (Taylor) D.D.Awasthi
 
4(1) Thallus without soredia
5
Thallus sorediate
6
 
5(4) Thallus isidiate/lobulate
H. appendiculata (Kurok.) Swinscow & Krog
Neither isidia nor lobules present
H. angustiloba (Műll. Arg.) D.D.Awasthi
 
6(4) Medulla with yellow-orange pigments
7
Medulla without yellow-orange pigments
9
 
7(6) Lobes broad, short, with cilia on upper surface    
H. comosa (Eschw.) Follman & Rédon
Lobes long and narrow, without cilia on the upper surface
8
 
8(7) Pigment K+ purple, medulla K-
H. obscurata (Nyl.) Trevis
Pigment K-, medulla K+ yellow turning red
H. casarettiana
 
9(6 Lobes elongate, closely adnate or ascending, with long cilia
H. japonica (Sato) Swinscow & Krog
Lobes short, closely adnate, cilia absent
H. japonica (Sato) Swinscow & Krog
 

 

Hyperphyscia

A genus of urban habitats and semi-arid woodlands. Thallus foliose, small (<2cm diam) grey to brown.

1 Thallus with neither isidia nor soredia
H. syncolla (Tuck. ex Nyl.) Kalb
  Thallus with isidia or soredia
2
 
2 Thallus isidiate
H. isidiata Moberg
  Thallus sorediate
3
 
3 Soralia marginal
H. pruinosa Moberg
  Soralia laminal
H. adglutinata (Flörke) H. Mayrhofer
 

 

Hypogymnia

Restricted to highlands in the extreme south. Thalli foliose, usually swollen, grey with a black margin, without rhizines.

  Thallus sorediate, hollow
H. subphysodes (Kremp.) Filson
  Thallus sorediate, solid or almost so
H. tubularis (Taylor) Elix
 

 

Hypotrachyna

A parmelioid genus of woodlands and mangroves. Thallus foliose, grey, margin ciliate, rhizines dichotomous, long.

  Thallus isidiate (UV-, K-,C-,KC+ y or, P-)
H. imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale
  Thallus sorediate (UV+, K-,C-,KC+ r, P-)
H. osseoalba(Vain.) Y.S.Park & Hale
 

 

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