Queensland Lichens  

 
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Leptogium

A genus of moister habitats in woodlands and mangroves. Foliose, photobiont Nostoc resulting in a thallus that is black and gelatinous when wet.

1 Thallus isidiate
2
  Thallus without isidia but may have secondary lobules
9
 
2(1) Isidia cylindrical or granular
3
  Isidia scale-like
7
 
3(2) Lobes smooth
L. cyanescens (Rabenh.) Körber
  Lobes wrinkled
4
 
4(3) Isidia granular
L. asiaticum  P.M.Jørg.
  Isidia cylindrical
5
 
5(4) Thallus cushion-like
L. faciifictum Verdon
  Thallus foliose
6
 
6(5) Isidia coralloid
L. coralloideum (Meyen & Flotow) Vain.
  Isidia simple
L. austroamericanum (Malme) C.W.Dodge
 
7(2) Margin of apothecium isidiate
L. marginellum (Sw.) Gray
  Lobes isidiate
8
 
8(7) Lobes smooth
L.poliophaeum Verdon
  Lobes wrinkled
L. granulans Vain.
 
10(9) Lobes crumpled on the edge
L. wilsoni Zahlbr.
  Lobes gently wavy or straight
11
 
11(10) Lobes shiny
L. corticola (Taylor) Tuck.
  Lobes matt
12
 
12(11) Lower surface with holdfasts on wrinkles
L. phyllocarpum (Pers.) Nyl.
  Lower surface naked or with minute rhizines
L. biloculare F.Wilson
 

 

Lobaria

A genus mostly restricted to rainforests and their fringes. Thalli foliose, large to very large, usually tomentose (at least in part) below.

1 Thallus reticulately ridged with deep depressions between ridges
Lobaria isidiophora Yoshimura
  Thallus more or less smooth
2
 
2 Lobe margins with small rounded lobules
L. hartmannii (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr.
  Lobes margins without lobules
3
3 Spores 3-7 septate
L. rhaphispora  (C.Knight) Zahlbr.
  Spores 12-15 septate
L. plurimseptata (C.Knight) Zahlbr.

 

Menegazzia

Restricted to the extreme southern highlands. Foliose, lobes grey, perforate to a hollow central cavity, lower surface black, without rhizines.
     Menegazzia fissicarpa P.James


 

Metus

Restricted to the extreme southern highlands. Thallus fruticose.
     M. conglomeratus (F.Wilson) D.J.Galloway


 

Myelochroa

A parmelioid genus of southern woodlands. Thallus foliose, lobes ciliate, medulla yellow. (K-, C-, KC-,P-)
     M. aurulenta (Hale) Elix & Hale


 

Nephroma

Mostly restricted to rainforests and their fringes. Thallus foliose, apothecia on lower surface of lobes that may be recurved so that apothecia appear to be on the upper surface.

1 Medulla yellow
N. laevigatum Ach.
  Medulla white
2
 
2 Lower surface glabrous
N. rufum (C.Bab.) P.James
  Lower surface pubescent to tomentose
N. helveticum Ach.
 

 

Pannaria

Widespread in moist habitats, including mangroves. Foliose, lobes narrow, tomentose below, apothecia with a thalline margin.

1 Lobes isidiate or lobulate
2
  Lobes without isidia or lobules
9

2(1) Isidia sorediate
3
  Isidia not sorediate
5
 
3(2) Soralia on the lower margin of the lobes
P. fulvescens (Mont.) Nyl
  No soredia beneath the margins
4

4(3) Lobes with longitudinal ridges
P. elatior  Stirt. in Bailey
  Lobes smooth
P. elixii P.M.Jørg. & D.J.Galloway
 
5(2) Lobes with fringed lobules
P. fimbriata P.M.Jørg.
  Margins without lobules or lobules not fimbriate
6
 
6(5) Lobes white marbled
P. dissecta P.M.Jørg.
  Lobes more or less uniformly coloured
7
 
7(6) Lobes with coralloid isidia
P. mangroviana P.M.Jørg
  Lobes with marginal lobules
8
 
8(7) Lobules globular
P. globigera Hue
  Lobules minute, flat
P. ramosii Vain.
 
9(1) Lobes sorediate
P. leproloma (Nyl.) P.M.Jørg.
  Lobes without soredia
10
 
10(9) Thallus lobed
11
  Thallus squamulose to subcrustose
14
 
11(10) Thallus a rosette up to 2cm diameter
P. aenea Müll. Arg
  Thallus up to 10cm diameter
12
 
12(11) Lobe margin upturned (not a sorediate species!)
P. sorediata C.Knight in Bailey 
  Lobe margin flat
13
 
13(12) Lobes wrinkled when dry
P. lurida (Mont.) Nyl.
  Lobes smooth when dry
P. tjbodensis 
 
14(11) Thallus more or less crustose
P. subcrustacea (Räsänen) P.M.Jørg
  Thallus squamulose
15
 
15(14) Disc of apothecium with circular or spiral markings
P. immixta Nyl.
  Disc of apothecium smooth
P. subimmixta 
 

 

Pannoparmelia

A parmelioid genus restricted to cool moist forests. Thallus foliose, bead-like, tomentose below
     P. wilsoni (Räsänen) D.J.Galloway


 

Parmelia

A parmelioid genus restricted to cool moist woodlands. Thallus foliose, upper surface peudocyphellate.

1 Lobes sorediate-isidiate (K+ y-r, C-, P+ r-o)
P. erumpens Kurok.
  Lobes without soredia or isidia
2
 
2 Growing on bark (K+ y-r, C-, P+ r-o)
P. queenslandensis  Hale
  Growing on rock (K+ y-r, C-, P+ r-o)
P. signifera Nyl.
 

 

Parmeliella

A genus of cool moist habitats. Lobes narrow, tomentose below, apothecia proper.

1 Lobes isidiate or lobulate
2
  Lobes neither isidiate nor lobulate P. mariana (Fr.) P.M.Jørg
2 Isidia finger-like P. brisbanensis (C.Knight) P.M.Jørg
  Isidia papillate or warty P. aggregata P.M.Jørg  & D.J.Galloway

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Parmelina

A parmelioid genus of woodlands. Thallus foliose, grey, with marginal cilia.

Thallus isidiate (K-,C+ r, KC+ r - o, P-)
P. conlabrosa (Hale) Elix & J.Johnst.
  Thallus with neither isidia nor soredia (K-,C+ r, KC+ r, P-) P. pseudorelicina (Jatta) Kantvilas & Elix

 

Parmelinella

A parmelioid genus with a foliose thallus, cilia in lobe axils, rhizines simple to the edge of the lobe margins. (K+ y-r, C-, P+ r-o)
     P. wallichiana (Taylor) Elix & Hale


 

Parmelinopsis

A parmelioid genus of moist open forests & woodlands. Thallus foliose, lobes ciliate, rhizines furcate to dichotomous..

1 Lobes with neither isidia, pustules nor soredia (K-, C+ pale pink, KC+ red, P-)
P. neodamazaniana (Elix & J. Johnst.) Elix & Hale
  Lobes with isidia, soredia or pustules
2
 
2(1) Lobes pustulate
3
  Lobes with soredia or isidia, but not pustules
4
 
3(2) Medulla C+, lobes with pustulate isidia that may produce soredia  (K-,C +p, P-)
P. spumosa (Asahina) Elix & Hale
  Medulla C-, with pustulate soralia (K-,C+ p, P-)
P. subfatiscens (Kurok.) Elix & Hale 
 
4(3) Sorediate, without isidia (K-,C+ p, KC+ r,  P-)
P. afrorevoluta  (Krog & Swinscow) Elix & Hale
  Isidiate, without soredia
5
 
5(4) Medulla C- (K-, KC+ p, P-)
P. horrescens  (Taylor) Elix & Hale
  Medulla C+ (K-, KC+ r, P-)
P. minarum  (Vain.) Elix & Hale
 

 

Parmotrema

A parmelioid genus of usually large species common in rainforest canopies and open eucalypt forests on trees and rocks. Foliose, lobes up to 20mm broad, cilia present or absent, with a broad naked zone on the lower surface around the rotund lobe tips, rhizines simple.

1 Thallus with soredia, or isidia
2
  Thallus with neither soredia or isidia
14
 
2(1) Thallus sorediate or with sorediate isidia
3
  Thallus isidiate, but without soredia
12
 
3(2) Medulla K+ yellow or yellow turning red
17
  Medulla K-
6
 
6(4) Medulla C-
7
  Medulla C+
15
 
7(6)  Medulla KC+ (K-,C-,KC+ r, P-)
P. rimulosum (C.W.Dodge) Hale
  Medulla KC-
8
 
8(7) Medulla P- (K-,C-,KC-, P-)
P. grayanum (Hue) Hale
  Medulla P+
10
 
10(8) Lobes ciliate (K+ dingy y, C+ p, P+ o-r)
P. robustum (Degel.) Hale
  Lobes not ciliate
11
 
11(10) Lobes 4-10mm broad (K-, C-,KC+ pale y -brown, P+ or-r)
P. judithae Elix & J.Johnst.
  Lobes >10mm broad (K+ y-br, C-, KC-, P+ or-r)
P. gardneri  (C.W.Dodge) Serus.
 
12(2) Medulla K+ yellow (C-,KC +r, P-)
P. crinitum (Ach.) M.Choisy
  Medulla K- or K+ pale brown
13

 
13(12) Medulla C+ red (K-,C+ r, KC+ r, P-)
P. tinctorum (Despr. Ex Nyl.) Hale
  Medulla C- (K-/K+ purple,C-, KC-, P-)
P. sulphuratum  (Nees & Flot.) Hale

 
14(1) Medulla K+ yellow or yellow turning red (C-r, P+ o)
P. eciliatum (Nyl.) Hale
  Medulla K- or K+ dingy brown (C- KC+ r, P-)
P. subrugatum  (Kremp.) Hale
 
15(6) Medulla pigmented (K-, C+ p, KC+ r, P-)
P. permutatum (Stirt.) Hale
  Medulla white
16
 
16(15) Margin ciliate (K-,C+ r, KC+ r,  P-)
P. cooperi (J.Steiner & Zahlbr.) Serus.
  Margin without cilia (K-, C+ r, KC+ r, P-)
P. austrosinense (Zahlbr.) Hale
 
17(3) Medulla K+ yellow turning red ( C-,  P+ y to or)
P. parahypotropum  (W.L.Culb.) Hale
  Medulla K+ yellow (C-, P+ or-r)
P. chinense (Osbeck) Hale & Ahti
 

 

Peltigera

Restricted to soil in rainforests and their margins. Thallus foliose, apothecia on finger-like marginal lobes.

Veins on lower surface pink, apothecial discs pink
P. dolichorrhiza (Nyl.) Nyl.
  Veins on lower surface brown, apothecial discs brown
P. polydactyla (Neck.) Hoffm.
 

 

Phaeophyscia

Dry woodlands and forests. Thallus foliose, brown, lobes <2mm broad.

Medulla coloured orange-red
P. endoccinodes (Poelt) Essl.
  Medulla white
P. hispidula (Ach.) Essl.
 

 

Physcia

A widely distributed genus, especially on bark in open forests. Thallus foliose, grey, lobes <2mm broad.

1 Thallus with neither pustules nor soredia
2
Thallus with pustules or soredia
4
 
2(1) Lower surface black or dark-brown
P. phaeocarpa (Nyl.) Hue
  Lower surface white or pale brown
3
 
3(2) Lobes usually <1mm wide
P. jackii Moberg
  Lobes usually > 2mm wide
P. stellaris (L.) Nyl.
 
4(1) Lobes with pustules that may become sorediate
P. decorticata Moberg
  Lobes sorediate but not pustulate
5
 
5(4) Lower cortex dark
6
  Lower cortex pale
7
 
6(5) Lower cortex paler and striate near the lobe tips
P. atrostriata Moberg
  Lower cortex paler but not striate near the lobe tips
P. sorediosa (Vain.) Lynge
 
7(5) Soralia laminal
P. poncisii Hue
  Soralia marginal
8
 
8(7) Soralia capitate
P. tribacoides Nyl.
  Soralia linear
9
 
9(8) Lobes up to 2mm broad
P. undulata Moberg
  Lobes  <1mm wide
10
 
10(9) Rhizines darker than the lower cortex
P. nubila Moberg
  Rhizines pale, concolorous with the lower cortex
P. crispa Nyl.
 

 

Physma

A genus of rainforest margins. Thallus foliose, photobiont cyanobacterial, spores thick-walled, spherical.
     P. byrsaeum (Ach.) Tuck.

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Punctelia

A weedy parmelioid genus on bark in urban areas and open woodlands or forests. Thallus foliose, grey, with small pseudocyphellae on the upper surface or margins.

1 Thallus isidiate/lobulate (K-, C+ r, KC+ r, P-)
P. subflava (Tayl.) Elix & J. Johnst.
  Thallus without isidia or lobules
2

2 Thallus sorediate (K-, C+ r, KC+ r, P-)
P. pseudocoralloidea (Gyeln.) Elix & Kantvilas
 
  Thallus with neither isidia nor soredia (K-, C+ r, KC+ r, P-)
P. subalbicans  (Stirt.) D.J.Galloway & Elix
 

 

Pseudocyphellaria

Usually large thalli from rainforest or other wet environments. Thallus foliose, lower surface variably tomentose always pseudocyphellate.

* = Known from the wet tropics and northern New South Wales, but not subtropical Queensland.

1 Medulla white
2
Medulla yellow
17
 
2(1) Pseudocyphellae on lower surface white
3
  Pseudocyphellae on lower surface yellow
13
 
3(2) Lobes isidiate
4
  Lobes without isidia
6
 
4(3) Lobes and isidia without soredia
P. dissimilis (Nyl.) D.J.Galloway & P.James
  Lobes or isidia sorediate
5
 
5(4) Upper surface pseudocyphellate
P. argyracea (Delise)Vain.
  Upper surface without pseudocyphellae
P. bartlettii D.J.Galloway
 
6(3) Lobes sorediate
7
  Lobes without soredia
10
 
7(6) Lower surface totally tomentose
P. granulata (C.Bab.) Malme
  Lower surface with a bare marginal zone or without tomentum
8
 
8(7) Upper surface smooth
P. intricata (Delise) Vain.
  Upper surface foveolate or punctately depressed
9
 
9(8) Upper surface foveolate
P. dozyana (Mont. & Bosch) D.J.Galloway
  Upper surface punctately depressed
P. haywardiorum* D.J.Galloway
 
10(6) Lobes phyllidiate
11
  Lobes without phyllidia
12
 
11(10) Photobiont green
P. multifida (Nyl.) D.J.Galloway & P.James
  Photobiont cyanobacterial
12
 
12(11)  Photobiont green
P. sulphurea (Schaer.) D.J.Galloway
  Photobiont cyanobacterial
20
 
13(2) Lobes isidiate
P. desfontainii* (Delise) Vain.
  Lobes without isidia
14
 
14(12) Lobes sorediate
P. crocata (L.)Vain.
  Lobes without soredia
15
 
15(14) Lobes without phyllidia
P. gilva (Ach.) Malme
  Lobes phyllidiate
16
 
16(15) Lower surface totally tomentose
P. crocatioides D.J. Galloway
  Lower surface with a bare marginal zone or without tomentum
P. neglecta (Műll.Arg.) H.Magn.
 
17(1) Lobes with sorediate isidia
P. pickeringi (Tuck.) D.J.Galloway
  Lobes without isidia
18
 
18(17) Lobes without soredia
P. rubrina (Stirt.) D.J.Galloway
  Lobes sorediate
19
 
19(18) Upper surface pseudocyphellate
P. aurata (Ach.) Vain.
  Upper surface without pseudocyphellae
P. crocata (L.) Vain.
 
20(12)  Lower pseudocyphellae punctiform
P. rigida (Müll.Arg.) D.J.Galloway
  Lower pseudocyphellae conical
P. beccarii (Kremp.) D.J.Galloway
 

 

Pyxine

A genus mostly of the coastal strip and ranges, but one species semi-arid. Thallus foliose, lobes <2mm diameter, grey or rarely brown, usually with discrete patches of pruina on the upper surface, medulla often coloured.

1 Upper cortex K+ yellow, never UV+
2
Upper cortex K-, usually UV+
4
 
2(1) Thallus with lateral lobules, dactyls or soredia
3
Thallus without vegetative propagules
P. rugulosa  Stirt.
 
3 (2)  Soredia originating from marginal pseudocyphellae; medulla yellow    
P. sorediata (Ach.) Mont.   
Soredia laminal, more or less orbicular; medulla white
P. schmidtii Vain.
 
4(1) Thallus with dactyls and/or soredia
5
Thallus without vegetative propagules
6
 
5(4)  Medulla yellow, K-
P. subcinerea Stirt.
Medulla ochraceous, K+ violet
P. albovirens  (Meyer) Aptroot
 
6(4)  Medulla white or cream
7
Medulla yellow or orange
8
 
7 (6)  Lobes very narrow (<0.3 mm); UV-
P. microspora Vain.
Lobes up to 1.2 mm broad; cortex K- UV+
P. petricola Nyl.
 
8(6) Medulla yellow to ochre
P. australiensis  Kalb.
Medulla orange 
P. cognata  Stirt.
 

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